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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471603/-monitoring-disease-activity-how-and-when
#1
REVIEW
Kang Moon Lee
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic, idiopathic inflammatory disease of gastrointestinal tract with waxing and waning clinical course, which may lead to irreversible bowel damage and a loss of bowel function. Cumulative intestinal damage results in complications such as stricture or fistulae, and eventually a large number of IBD patients undergo surgery. Notably, even during remission period (no clinical symptoms), subclinical inflammation often persists and the disease continues to progress. Therefore, the therapeutic target of IBD has been evolving from symptomatic control to mucosal healing to prevent structural intestinal damage...
February 25, 2018: Korean Journal of Gastroenterology, Taehan Sohwagi Hakhoe Chi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471602/-evolving-therapeutic-strategies-in-the-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#2
REVIEW
Soo Young Na, Won Moon
It is important to have effective therapeutic strategies and goals in clinical practice and research of inflammatory bowel disease. Conventional end points for clinical trials in Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis have been based on composite indices, such as the Crohn's Disease Activity Index and the Mayo Clinic Score. Although these indices have been shown to reduce the intestinal injury to some extent, satisfactory results have not been obtained in improving the quality of life of patients. Recently, alternative measures of outcome and definitions of response are being developed beyond symptoms...
February 25, 2018: Korean Journal of Gastroenterology, Taehan Sohwagi Hakhoe Chi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471349/intestinal-colonization-traits-of-pandemic-multidrug-resistant-escherichia-coli-st131
#3
Sohinee Sarkar, Melanie L Hutton, Dimitrios Vagenas, Rinaldo Ruter, Stephanie Schüller, Dena Lyras, Mark A Schembri, Makrina Totsika
Background: Epidemiological studies point to the gut as a key reservoir of multidrug resistant Escherichia coli multilocus sequence type 131 (ST131), a globally dominant pathogenic clone causing urinary tract and bloodstream infections. Here we report a detailed investigation of its intestinal lifestyle. Methods: Clinical ST131 isolates and type 1 fimbriae null mutants were assessed for colonization of human intestinal epithelia and in mouse intestinal colonization models...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471278/intestinal-bacteria-in-bioaerosols-and-factors-affecting-their-survival-in-two-oxidation-ditch-process-municipal-wastewater-treatment-plants-located-in-different-regions
#4
Yanjie Wang, Lin Li, Yunping Han, Junxin Liu, Kaixiong Yang
Samples from two oxidation ditch process municipal wastewater treatment plants (MWTPs) (HJK and GXQ) in two regions of China were analysed for bacteria, particles, total organic carbon, and water-soluble ions in bioaerosols. Diversity and potential pathogen populations were evaluated by high-throughput sequencing. Bioaerosol sources, factors affecting intestinal bacterial survival, and the relationship between bioaerosols and water were analysed by Source tracker and partial least squares-discriminant, principal component, and canonical correspondence analyses...
February 19, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471162/hydrogen-peroxide-production-by-lactobacilli-promotes-epithelial-restitution-during-colitis
#5
Ashish K Singh, Rosanne Y Hertzberger, Ulla G Knaus
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a multifactorial chronic inflammatory disease of the gastrointestinal tract, characterized by cycles of acute flares, recovery and remission phases. Treatments for accelerating tissue restitution and prolonging remission are scarce, but altering the microbiota composition to promote intestinal homeostasis is considered a safe, economic and promising approach. Although probiotic bacteria have not yet fulfilled fully their promise in clinical trials, understanding the mechanism of how they exert beneficial effects will permit devising improved therapeutic strategies...
February 12, 2018: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471144/intestinal-absorption-and-activation-of-decitabine-amino-acid-ester-prodrugs-mediated-by-peptide-transporter-pept1-and-enterocyte-enzymes
#6
Wenhui Tao, Dongyang Zhao, Mengchi Sun, Ziyu Wang, Bin Lin, Yu Bao, Yingying Li, Zhonggui He, Yinghua Sun, Jin Sun
Decitabine (DAC), a potent DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) inhibitor, has a limited oral bioavailability. Its 5'-amino acid ester prodrugs could improve its oral delivery but the specific absorption mechanism is not yet fully understood. The aim of this present study was to investigate the in vivo absorption and activation mechanism of these prodrugs using in situ intestinal perfusion and pharmacokinetics studies in rats. Although PEPT1 transporter is pH dependent, there appeared to be no proton cotransport in the perfusion experiment with a preferable transport at pH 7...
February 19, 2018: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471085/houttuynia-cordata-polysaccharides-ameliorate-pneumonia-severity-and-intestinal-injury-in-mice-with-influenza-virus-infection
#7
Haiyan Zhu, Xiaoxiao Lu, Lijun Ling, Hong Li, Yingye Ou, Xunlong Shi, Yan Lu, Yunyi Zhang, Daofeng Chen
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Hottuynia cordata is an important traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of respiratory diseases including bacterial and viral infections. Polysaccharides isolated from Houttuynia cordata (HCP), as its main ingredients, have been demonstrated to ameliorate the LPS-induced acute lung injury in mice. The study aimed to determine the protective effects of HCP on multiple organ injury in influenza A virus (IAV) H1N1 infected mice and its primary mechanisms in anti-inflammation and immune regulation...
February 19, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471018/rotenone-induces-gastrointestinal-pathology-and-microbiota-alterations-in-a-rat-model-of-parkinson-s-disease
#8
Michaela E Johnson, Andrea Stringer, Larisa Bobrovskaya
While people are often aware of the motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease (PD), few know of the many non-motor symptoms, which patients report have a greater impact on their quality of life. Gastrointestinal (GI) dysfunction is one of the most common non-motor symptoms, which can occur at any stage of PD, even years prior to diagnosis, and can affect all sections along the GI tract causing a range of symptoms including drooling, gastroparesis and constipation. We have investigated whether a neurotoxin model of PD- rotenone, a mitochondrial complex I inhibitor, is capable of reproducing the GI dysfunction seen clinically...
February 19, 2018: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470947/small-and-large-intestine-express-a-truncated-dab1-isoform-that-assembles-in-cell-cell-junctions-and-co-localizes-with-proteins-involved-in-endocytosis
#9
María D Vázquez-Carretero, Pablo García-Miranda, María S Balda, Karl Matter, María J Peral, Anunciación A Ilundain
Disabled-1 (Dab1) is an essential intracellular adaptor protein in the reelin pathway. Our previous studies in mice intestine showed that Dab1 transmits the reelin signal to cytosolic signalling pathways. Here, we determine the Dab1 isoform expressed in rodent small and large intestine, its subcellular location and co-localization with clathrin, caveolin-1 and N-Wasp. PCR and sequencing analysis reveal that rodent small and large intestine express a Dab1 isoform that misses three (Y198 , Y200 and Y220 ) of the five tyrosine phosphorylation sites present in brain Dab1 isoform (canonical) and contains nuclear localization and export signals...
February 19, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470860/investigation-of-the-in-vivo-metabolism-of-harpagoside-and-distribution-of-its-metabolites-in-rats-by-hplc-it-tof-ms-n
#10
Jing-Zhe Wang, Yi-Fan Zhang, Feng Xu, Ming-Ying Shang, Guang-Xue Liu, Shao-Qing Cai
Harpagoside, an iridoid glycoside, is the major bioactive constituent of the traditional Chinese medicine Scrophulariae Radix. High-performance liquid chromatography with a diode array detector combined with electrospray ionization ion trap time-of-flight multistage mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-IT-TOF-MSn ) was used to profile and identify the metabolites of harpagoside in rats in vivo and to study the distribution of these metabolites in rats for the first time. A total of 45 metabolites were identified, 37 of which were postulated to be new compounds...
February 22, 2018: Biomedical Chromatography: BMC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470689/the-nutritional-and-health-attributes-of-kiwifruit-a-review
#11
REVIEW
David P Richardson, Juliet Ansell, Lynley N Drummond
PURPOSE: To describe the nutritional and health attributes of kiwifruit and the benefits relating to improved nutritional status, digestive, immune and metabolic health. The review includes a brief history of green and gold varieties of kiwifruit from an ornamental curiosity from China in the 19th century to a crop of international economic importance in the 21st century; comparative data on their nutritional composition, particularly the high and distinctive amount of vitamin C; and an update on the latest available scientific evidence from well-designed and executed human studies on the multiple beneficial physiological effects...
February 22, 2018: European Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470558/hic1-links-retinoic-acid-signalling-to-group-3-innate-lymphoid-cell-dependent-regulation-of-intestinal-immunity-and-homeostasis
#12
Kyle Burrows, Frann Antignano, Alistair Chenery, Michael Bramhall, Vladimir Korinek, T Michael Underhill, Colby Zaph
The intestinal immune system must be able to respond to a wide variety of infectious organisms while maintaining tolerance to non-pathogenic microbes and food antigens. The Vitamin A metabolite all-trans-retinoic acid (atRA) has been implicated in the regulation of this balance, partially by regulating innate lymphoid cell (ILC) responses in the intestine. However, the molecular mechanisms of atRA-dependent intestinal immunity and homeostasis remain elusive. Here we define a role for the transcriptional repressor Hypermethylated in cancer 1 (HIC1, ZBTB29) in the regulation of ILC responses in the intestine...
February 2018: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470516/evaluation-of-diagnostic-methods-for-the-detection-of-intestinal-schistosomiasis-in-endemic-areas-with-low-parasite-loads-saline-gradient-helmintex-kato-katz-and-rapid-urine-test
#13
Warllem Junio Oliveira, Fernanda do Carmo Magalhães, Andressa Mariana Saldanha Elias, Vanessa Normandio de Castro, Vivian Favero, Catieli Gobetti Lindholz, Áureo Almeida Oliveira, Fernando Sergio Barbosa, Frederico Gil, Maria Aparecida Gomes, Carlos Graeff-Teixeira, Martin Johannes Enk, Paulo Marcos Zech Coelho, Mariângela Carneiro, Deborah Aparecida Negrão-Corrêa, Stefan Michael Geiger
BACKGROUND: In some tropical countries, such as Brazil, schistosomiasis control programs have led to a significant reduction in the prevalence and parasite burden of endemic populations. In this setting, the Kato-Katz technique, as the standard diagnostic method for the diagnosis of Schistosoma mansoni infections, which involves the analysis of two slides from one fecal sample, loses its sensitivity. As a result, a significant number of infected individuals are not detected. The objective of this study was to perform extensive parasitological testing of up to three fecal samples and include a rapid urine test (POC-CCA) in a moderate prevalence area in Northern Minas Gerais, Brazil, and evaluate the performance of each test separately and in combination...
February 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470490/neutralization-of-cholera-toxin-with-nanoparticle-decoys-for-treatment-of-cholera
#14
Soumita Das, Pavimol Angsantikul, Christine Le, Denny Bao, Yukiko Miyamoto, Weiwei Gao, Liangfang Zhang, Lars Eckmann
Diarrheal diseases are a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. In many cases, antibiotic therapy is either ineffective or not recommended due to concerns about emergence of resistance. The pathogenesis of several of the most prevalent infections, including cholera and enteroxigenic Escherichia coli, is dominated by enterotoxins produced by lumen-dwelling pathogens before clearance by intestinal defenses. Toxins gain access to the host through critical host receptors, making these receptors attractive targets for alternative antimicrobial strategies that do not rely on conventional antibiotics...
February 22, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470454/mineralization-induction-of-gingival-fibroblasts-and-construction-of-a-sandwich-tissue-engineered-complex-for-repairing-periodontal-defects
#15
Mingxuan Wu, Jie Wang, Yanning Zhang, Huijuan Liu, Fusheng Dong
BACKGROUND The ideal healing technique for periodontal tissue defects would involve the functional regeneration of the alveolar bone, cementum, and periodontal ligament, with new periodontal attachment formation. In this study, gingival fibroblasts were induced and a "sandwich" tissue-engineered complex (a tissue-engineered periodontal membrane between 2 tissue-engineered mineralized membranes) was constructed to repair periodontal defects. We evaluated the effects of gingival fibroblasts used as seed cells on the repair of periodontal defects and periodontal regeneration...
February 22, 2018: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470426/surface-plasmon-resonance-and-bending-loss-based-u-shaped-plastic-optical-fiber-biosensors
#16
Ariadny da S Arcas, Fábio da S Dutra, Regina C S B Allil, Marcelo M Werneck
Escherichia coli ( E. coli ) is a large and diverse bacteria group that inhabits the intestinal tract of many mammals. Most E. coli strains are harmless, however some of them are pathogenic, meaning they can make one sick if ingested. By being in the feces of animals and humans, its presence in water and food is used as indicator of fecal contamination. The main method for this microorganism detection is the bacterial culture medium that is time-consuming and requires a laboratory with specialized personnel...
February 22, 2018: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470421/phytochemicals-in-human-milk-and-their-potential-antioxidative-protection
#17
REVIEW
Apollinaire Tsopmo
Diets contain secondary plant metabolites commonly referred to as phytochemicals. Many of them are believed to impact human health through various mechanisms, including protection against oxidative stress and inflammation, and decreased risks of developing chronic diseases. For mothers and other people, phytochemical intake occurs through the consumption of foods such as fruits, vegetables, and grains. Research has shown that some these phytochemicals are present in the mother's milk and can contribute to its oxidative stability...
February 22, 2018: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470288/digested-early-preterm-human-milk-suppresses-tumor-necrosis-factor-induced-inflammation-and-cytotoxicity-in-intestinal-epithelial-cells
#18
Yimin Chen, Aloka Patel, Paula P Meier, Giamila Fantuzzi
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to determine the effect of digested whole human milk (HM; first sample available after birth from mothers of premature infants) on inflammation, oxidative stress, and cytotoxicity in Caco-2 human intestinal epithelial cells stimulated with lipopolysaccharides or tumor necrosis factor (TNF) to mimic the potential in vivo insults facing the premature infant's gastrointestinal tract. METHODS: Fully differentiated Caco-2 cells were exposed to digested HM (n = 10; samples from 10 different individuals) before stimulation with lipopolysaccharides, TNF, or no stimulation overnight...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470246/design-and-evaluation-of-a-structural-reinforced-small-intestinal-submucosa-vascular-graft-for-hemodialysis-access-in-a-porcine-model
#19
Juliana Jaramillo, Karen T Valencia-Rivero, Francisco J Cedano-Serrano, Rocío López, Néstor Sandoval, Juan C Briceño
Synthetic vascular access for hemodialysis exhibits biological and mechanical material properties mismatch with the native vessels. These limitations prevent infiltration of endothelial cells and decrease grafts long-term patency, particularly in small diameter vessels. We aimed to design a curved structural reinforced small intestinal submucosa (SIS) vascular graft for hemodialysis access and to evaluate in a porcine animal model graft patency by Doppler ultrasonography, tissue remodeling by histology, and vascular wall Young's modulus after implantation by biaxial tensile test...
March 2018: ASAIO Journal: a Peer-reviewed Journal of the American Society for Artificial Internal Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470144/the-effect-of-mono-and-diglycerides-on-the-digestion-and-aborption-of-lutein-in-lymph-fistula-rats
#20
Patrick Tso, Mustafa Vurma, Chih-Wei Ko, Dana M Lee, Stephen DeMichele
Breastmilk lutein is better absorbed by infants than lutein delivered in infant formula. Therefore, we wish to better understand the possible absorption differences of lutein in breast milk versus infant formula by determining its bioavailability after gastric administration and whether the intestinal absorption of lutein can be improved by using new delivery vehicles. STUDY ONE compared the intestinal uptake, and the lymphatic and portal transport of lutein in conscious lymph fistula rats. Four groups of lymph and portal vein cannulated rats (n = 8-10/group) were randomized to receive via the gastric tube increasing doses (10,20,40,or 80mg/kg) of 20% lutein in safflower oil (SO) suspension to assess whether there was a saturable level of lutein that can be absorbed and transported in lymph...
February 22, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
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