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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822338/in-vitro-bioaccessibility-and-health-risk-assessment-of-heavy-metals-in-atmospheric-particulate-matters-from-three-different-functional-areas-of-shanghai-china
#1
Huang Huang, Ying Jiang, Xiaoyun Xu, Xinde Cao
The bioaccessibility and human health risks of heavy metals in PM2.5 and PM10 samples from three functional areas of Shanghai, China including a commercial area (CA), a residential area (RA), and an industrial area (IA), were investigated. Gamble's solution and physiologically based extraction test were employed to simulate human respiratory and digestive system, respectively. Both PM2.5 and PM10 concentration in the three areas exceeded the guideline of WHO, and followed the order of IA>CA≈RA. Zinc and Pb were the most abundant metals with a concentration range of 0...
August 16, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822218/locally-produced-xenin-and-the-neurotensinergic-system-in-pancreatic-islet-function-and-%C3%AE-cell-survival
#2
Dawood Khan, Srividya Vasu, R Charlotte Moffett, Victor A Gault, Peter R Flatt, Nigel Irwin
Modulation of neuropeptide receptors is important for pancreatic β-cell function. Here, islet distribution and effects of the neurotensin (NT) receptor modulators, xenin and NT, was examined. Xenin, but not NT, significantly improved glucose disposal and insulin secretion, in mice. However, both peptides stimulated insulin secretion from rodent β-cells at 5.6 mM glucose, with xenin having similar insulinotropic actions at 16.7 mM glucose. In contrast, NT inhibited glucose-induced insulin secretion. Similar observations were made in human 1...
August 28, 2017: Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822177/-berberine-regulates-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-related-with-insulin-resistance
#3
REVIEW
Cheng Li, Jin-Zhi He, Xue-Dong Zhou, Xin Xu
Insulin resistance (IR) is defined as a series of clinical manifestations for diminished effectiveness of insulin in lowering blood sugar levels caused by decreased sensitivity to insulin of liver, muscle and adipose tissue. IR is the major contributor to the etiology and pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Berberine, a traditional Chinese herb extract, has been shown to be safe and effective in lowering blood sugar, alleviating insulin resistance and moderating type 2 diabetes mellitus and its complications...
June 2017: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822161/-synergistic-mechanism-of-traditional-chinese-medicine-based-on-target-combination-of-pept1-and-ppar%C3%AE
#4
Lian-Sheng Qiao, Yan-Kun Chen, Gang-Gang Luo, Fang Lu, Si-Jia Liu, Gong-Yu Li, Yan-Ling Zhang
Synergistic effect is main pharmacological mechanism of traditional Chinese medicine(TCM). The research method based on the key targets combination is an important method to explore the synergistic effect of TCM. Peptide transporter 1 (PepT1) is an essential target for drug uptake into the bloodstream, accounting for about 50% of the total transporter protein content from the small intestine. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α(PPARα) is the lipid-lowering target of fibrates, which have a good hypolipidemic effect by activating PPARα...
June 2017: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822029/gene-structure-and-comparative-and-phylogenetic-analyses-of-catla-catla-cyp1a-full-length-cdna-and-its-responsiveness-to-benzo-a-pyrene-and-copper-sulphate-at-early-developmental-stages
#5
Kavita Kumari, Gireesh-Babu Pathakota, Shivendra Kumar, Gopal Krishna
In the present study, full-length CYP1A cDNA from Catla catla (Catla) has been identified, and its real-time quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) expression has been evaluated in different tissues, developmental stages (0, 3, 6, 12 and 24 h and 5, 7 and 9 days post-fertilization) and copper sulphate and benzo(a)pyrene (BaP)-treated 5-day post-fertilization (dpf) larvae (6 to 6.5 mm). Various structural, comparative and phylogenetic analyses of the deduced amino acid sequence revealed that the identified gene of Catla belongs to the CYP1A1 subfamily...
August 19, 2017: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821741/predicting-the-murine-enterocyte-metabolic-response-to-diets-that-differ-in-lipid-and-carbohydrate-composition
#6
Neeraj Sinha, Maria Suarez-Diez, Evert M van Schothorst, Jaap Keijer, Vitor A P Martins Dos Santos, Guido J E J Hooiveld
The small intestine serves as gatekeeper at the interface between body and diet and is thought to play an important role in the etiology of obesity and associated metabolic disorders. A computational modelling approach was used to improve our understanding of the metabolic responses of epithelial cells to different diets. A constraint based, mouse-specific enterocyte metabolic model (named mmu_ENT717) was constructed to describe the impact of four fully characterized semi-purified diets, that differed in lipid and carbohydrate composition, on uptake, metabolism, as well as secretion of carbohydrates and lipids...
August 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821731/stability-in-metabolic-phenotypes-and-inferred-metagenome-profiles-before-the-onset-of-colitis-induced-inflammation
#7
M Glymenaki, A Barnes, S O' Hagan, G Warhurst, A J McBain, I D Wilson, D B Kell, K J Else, S M Cruickshank
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is associated with altered microbiota composition and metabolism, but it is unclear whether these changes precede inflammation or are the result of it since current studies have mainly focused on changes after the onset of disease. We previously showed differences in mucus gut microbiota composition preceded colitis-induced inflammation and stool microbial differences only became apparent at colitis onset. In the present study, we aimed to investigate whether microbial dysbiosis was associated with differences in both predicted microbial gene content and endogenous metabolite profiles...
August 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821723/structural-and-developmental-expression-of-ss-riok-2-an-rio-protein-kinase-encoding-gene-of-strongyloides-stercoralis
#8
Wei-Qiang Lei, James B Lok, Wang Yuan, Yue-Zhou Zhang, Jonathan D Stoltzfus, Robin B Gasser, Si-Yuan He, Huan Zhou, Rui Zhou, Jun-Long Zhao, Min Hu
RIO kinases are essential atypical protein kinases in diverse prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms, playing significant roles in yeast and humans. However, little is known about their functions in parasitic nematodes. In the present study, we have isolated and characterized the full-length cDNA, gDNA and a putative promoter of a RIOK-2 protein kinase (Ss-RIOK-2) encoding gene (Ss-riok-2) from Strongyloides stercoralis, a medically important parasitic nematode (Order Rhabditida). A three-dimensional structure (3D) model of Ss-RIOK-2 was generated using the Chaetomium thermophilum RIOK-2 protein kinase (Ct-RIOK-2) crystal structure 4GYG as a template...
August 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821663/agrp-neurons-can-increase-food-intake-during-conditions-of-appetite-suppression-and-inhibit-anorexigenic-parabrachial-neurons
#9
Rachel A Essner, Alison G Smith, Adam A Jamnik, Anna R Ryba, Zoe D Trutner, Matthew E Carter
To maintain energy homeostasis, orexigenic (appetite-inducing) and anorexigenic (appetite suppressing) brain systems functionally interact to regulate food intake. Within the hypothalamus, neurons that express agouti-related protein (AgRP) sense orexigenic factors and orchestrate an increase in food-seeking behavior. In contrast, calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP)-expressing neurons in the parabrachial nucleus (PBN) suppress feeding. PBN CGRP neurons become active in response to anorexigenic hormones released following a meal, including amylin, secreted by the pancreas, and cholecystokinin (CCK), secreted by the small intestine...
August 7, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821556/dasatinib-reversibly-disrupts-endothelial-vascular-integrity-by-increasing-non-muscle-myosin-ii-contractility-in-a-rock-dependent-manner
#10
Anna Kreutzman, Beatriz Colom-Fernández, Ana Marcos Jiménez, Mette Ilander, Carlos Cuesta-Mateos, Yaiza Perez-García, Cristina Delgado Arévalo, Oscar Brück, Henna Hakanen, Jani Saarela, Alvaro Ortega-Carrión, Ana de Rosendo, Alba Juanes-García, Juan Luis Steegmann, Satu Mustjoki, Miguel Vicente-Manzanares, Cecilia Muñoz-Calleja
Purpose: Dasatinib is a short-acting dual ABL/SRC family tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI), which is frequently used to treat chronic myeloid leukemia. Although very effective, dasatinib often displays severe adverse effects, including pleural effusions and increased risk of bleeding primarily in the gastrointestinal tract. The actual causes of these side effects are currently undetermined. We hypothesize that endothelial cells (ECs) that line the inner walls of blood vessels and control the traffic to the underlying tissues, might be involved...
August 18, 2017: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821192/could-the-pd-1-pathway-be-a-potential-target-for-treating-small-intestinal-adenocarcinoma
#11
Ramya Thota, Raul S Gonzalez, Jordan Berlin, Dana B Cardin, Chanjuan Shi
Objectives: The programmed death 1 (PD-1) pathway is upregulated in the immune microenvironment of many cancers. In this study, we examined the PD-1 pathway and the immune microenvironment of small intestinal adenocarcinomas by immunohistochemistry. Methods: From our department pathology archives we identified 42 small intestinal adenocarcinomas from between 2000 and 2015, with blocks available for IHC studies. Tumors were immunohistochemically stained for CD3, CD4, CD8, CD20, PD-1, and programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression...
September 1, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821163/metformin-maintains-mucosal-integrity-in-experimental-model-of-colitis-by-inhibiting-oxidative-stress-and-pro-inflammatory-signaling
#12
Abhimanu Pandey, Sneh Verma, Vijay L Kumar
Metformin, an antidiabetic drug, is well known for its multifarious properties and its ability to modulate inflammatory cascade. Ulcerative colitis (UC) is an inflammatory condition of the colon where drugs exhibiting anti-inflammatory property have been shown to induce and maintain remission. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of metformin against acetic-acid induced colitis in rat. The study included five groups of rats namely normal control, experimental control, drug treated groups (50 and 500mg/kg of metformin, MET50, MET500 and 300mg/kg of mesalazine, MSZ300)...
August 14, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821162/oral-administration-of-thymoquinone-mitigates-the-effect-of-cisplatin-on-brush-border-membrane-enzymes-energy-metabolism-and-antioxidant-system-in-rat-intestine
#13
Faaiza Shahid, Zeba Farooqui, Subuhi Abidi, Iqbal Parwez, Farah Khan
Cisplatin (CP) is a widely used chemotherapeutic agent that elicits severe gastrointestinal toxicity. Nigella sativa, a member of family Ranunculaceae, is one of the most revered medicinal plant known for its numerous health benefits. Thymoquinone (TQ), a major bioactive component derived from the volatile oil of Nigella sativa seeds, has been shown to improve gastrointestinal functions in animal models of acute gastric/intestinal injury. In view of this, the aim of the present study was to investigate the protective effect of TQ on CP induced toxicity in rat intestine and to elucidate the mechanism underlying these effects...
August 14, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821152/the-common-lavender-lavandula-angustifolia-mill-pectic-polysaccharides-modulate-phagocytic-leukocytes-and-intestinal-peyer-s-patch-cells
#14
Yordan N Georgiev, Berit S Paulsen, Hiroaki Kiyohara, Milan Ciz, Manol H Ognyanov, Ondrej Vasicek, Frode Rise, Petko N Denev, Haruki Yamada, Antonin Lojek, Vesselin Kussovski, Hilde Barsett, Albert I Krastanov, Irina Z Yanakieva, Maria G Kratchanova
Two pectic (chPS-L1, chPS-L2) and one polyphenolic (chPP-L) fractions were obtained from lavender flowers after boiling water extraction, exhaustive removing of alcohol-soluble molecules and SEC. chPS-L1 (52.4kDa) contains mainly low-acetylated and high-methoxylated homogalacturonans (HG), and smaller rhamnogalacturonan (RG) I backbone fragments rich in 1,3,5-branched arabinan and arabinogalactan (AG) II side chains. chPS-L2 (21.8kDa) contains predominantly similarly esterified HG, followed by RGI with AGII structures and RGII...
October 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821148/a-pectic-polysaccharide-from-ligusticum-chuanxiong-promotes-intestine-antioxidant-defense-in-aged-mice
#15
Chao Huang, Xiyue Cao, Xingfu Chen, Yuping Fu, Yingguo Zhu, Zhengli Chen, Qihui Luo, Lixia Li, Xu Song, Renyong Jia, Zhongqiong Yin, Bin Feng, Yuanfeng Zou
The extensive prospects of polysaccharides in medicine and pharmaceuticals have elicited much interest. Ligusticum chuanxiong polysaccharides, previously extracted as neutral polysaccharides, exhibit antioxidant, anticancer, andantibacterial capacities in vitro. Here we show one pectic polysaccharide extracted from rhizome of L. chuanxiong(LCP-II-I). Structural analysis indicated its long homogalacturonan region is interrupted by rhamnogalacturonan type I, with arabinan and arabinogalactan type I as side chains...
October 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821057/a-cell-penetrating-peptide-mediated-chitosan-nanocarriers-for-improving-intestinal-insulin-delivery
#16
Lei Li, Liaoqing Yang, Manman Li, Liefeng Zhang
To overcome barriers for oral delivery of insulin, the chitosan(CS)-based nanocarriers with a novel cell penetrating peptide (SAR6EW) have been prepared and evaluated in this study. Characterization measurements showed that SAR6EW/CS/insulin-NPs displayed global particles with smooth surfaces and an average diameter about 150nm. The entrapment efficiency and loading rates of insulin were 75.36% and 7.58%, respectively. Insulin could be released constantly from SAR6EW/CS/insulin-NPs in vitro. Furthermore, SAR6EW/CS/insulin-NPs could facilitate the uptake of insulin and induce a significantly higher internalization of insulin via adding clathrin and caveolae mediated endocytosis...
October 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821012/multidomain-analyses-of-a-longitudinal-human-microbiome-intestinal-cleanout-perturbation-experiment
#17
Julia Fukuyama, Laurie Rumker, Kris Sankaran, Pratheepa Jeganathan, Les Dethlefsen, David A Relman, Susan P Holmes
Our work focuses on the stability, resilience, and response to perturbation of the bacterial communities in the human gut. Informative flash flood-like disturbances that eliminate most gastrointestinal biomass can be induced using a clinically-relevant iso-osmotic agent. We designed and executed such a disturbance in human volunteers using a dense longitudinal sampling scheme extending before and after induced diarrhea. This experiment has enabled a careful multidomain analysis of a controlled perturbation of the human gut microbiota with a new level of resolution...
August 18, 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820999/absorption-tissue-distribution-metabolism-and-elimination-of-decabrominated-diphenyl-ether-bde-209-in-rats-after-multi-dose-oral-exposure
#18
Xiu-Bo Mi, Lian-Jun Bao, Chen-Chou Wu, Charles S Wong, Eddy Y Zeng
Human and ecological risks of BDE-209 have drawn much attention, particularly with growing e-waste recycling activities in developing countries. To further address the issue of BDE-209 biotransformation, a laboratory-controlled study was conducted. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were dosed orally by gavage at a daily dose of 1 mg kg(-1) body weight for 7 d and a depuration period of 22 d, to characterize absorption, distribution, metabolism, and elimination dynamics of BDE-209 during multi-dose exposures simulating short-term oral exposure of e-waste workers...
August 13, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820869/necrotizing-enterocolitis-and-high-intestinal-iron-uptake-due-to-genetic-variants
#19
Wolfgang Göpel, Josephine Drese, Tanja K Rausch, Nele Twisselmann, Bettina Bohnhorst, Andreas Müller, Axel Franz, Andreas Ziegler, Christoph Härtel, Egbert Herting
BACKGROUND: Intestinal iron is a nutritional compound, which is essential for enteric microbiota. We evaluated the hypothesis that polymorphisms which are known modifiers of intestinal iron uptake in adults are associated with necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in preterm infants. METHODS: Preterm infants (birth weight below 1,500 grams) were studied. Single nucleotide polymorphisms with known effects on serum iron levels (rs1800562, rs1799945, rs855791) were determined by polymerase chain reaction...
August 18, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820707/prevalence-of-strongyloides-stercoralis-and-other-intestinal-parasite-infections-in-school-children-in-a-rural-area-of-angola-a-cross-sectional-study
#20
María Luisa Ruíz de Alegría Aznar, Karen Colmenares, Mateu Espasa, Arancha Amor, Isabel Lopez, Arlette Ninda, Joaquina Kanjala, Domingas Guilherme, Elena Sulleiro, Begoña Barriga, Eva Gil, Fernando Salvador, Cristina Bocanegra, Teresa López, Milagros Moreno, Israel Molina
Strongyloides stercoralis is widely distributed in the tropics and subtropics. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of S. stercoralis and other intestinal parasites and identify the risk factors for infection with S. stercoralis in a rural area of Angola. A cross-sectional study was conducted in school-age children (SAC) in Cubal, Angola. A questionnaire collecting clinical and epidemiological variables was used, and two stool samples were collected. A concentration technique (Ritchie) and a technique for detection of larvae migration (Baermann) were performed...
July 31, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
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