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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031106/new-insights-into-resistance-to-colistin-and-third-generation-cephalosporins-of-escherichia-coli-in-poultry-portugal-novel-blactx-m-166-and-blaesac-genes
#1
Vera Manageiro, Lurdes Clemente, Rafael Graça, Ivone Correia, Teresa Albuquerque, Eugénia Ferreira, Manuela Caniça
The increasing incidence of intestinal colonization with extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae and Gram negative organisms that has been observed in food animals such as poultry, cattle and pigs, are suggestive that animals, food and environment are potential sources of ESBL-producing bacteria. Hence, the aim of this study was to characterized commensal E. coli obtained from healthy broiler and turkey flocks at slaughter for the presence of penicillinases-, ESBL-, extended-spectrum AmpC (ESAC)-, plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance- and MCR-encoding genes...
October 4, 2017: International Journal of Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029244/elmo1-regulates-the-induction-of-autophagy-and-bacterial-clearance-during-enteric-infection
#2
Arup Sarkar, Courtney Tindle, Rama F Pranadinata, Sharon Reed, Lars Eckmann, Thaddeus S Stappenbeck, Peter B Ernst, Soumita Das
Macrophages are specialized phagocytic cells involved in clearing invading pathogens. Earlier we reported the Engulfment and Cell Motility protein 1 (ELMO1) in macrophages mediates bacterial internalization and intestinal inflammation. Here we studied the role of ELMO1 in the fate of internalized target. ELMO1 is present in the intracellular vesicles and enhanced LC3B accumulation following engulfment of Salmonella or treatment with autophagy-inducing rapamycin. ATG5 and ULK1 are involved in classical autophagy while LC3-associated phagocytosis (LAP) is ULK1-independent...
October 5, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029152/surgical-treatment-in-childhood-onset-inflammatory-bowel-disease-a-nationwide-register-based-study-of-4-695-incident-patients-in-sweden-2002-2014
#3
Caroline Nordenvall, Oda Rosvall, Matteo Bottai, Åsa H Everhov, Petter Malmborg, Karin E Smedby, Anders Ekbom, Johan Askling, Jonas F Ludvigsson, Pär Myrelid, Ola Olén
Background and Aims: The incidence of childhood-onset (<18 years) inflammatory bowel disease is increasing worldwide, and some studies suggest that it represents a more severe disease phenotype. Few nationwide, population-based studies have evaluated the surgical burden in patients with childhood-onset IBD, and whether the improved medical treatment has influenced the need for gastrointestinal surgery. The aim was to examine whether the surgical treatment at any age of patients with childhood-onset IBD has changed over time...
September 27, 2017: Journal of Crohn's & Colitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029005/biopsy-derived-intestinal-epithelial-cell-cultures-for-pathway-based-stratification-of-patients-with-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#4
Wiebe Vanhove, Kris Nys, Ingrid Arijs, Isabelle Cleynen, Manuel Noben, Sebastiaan De Schepper, Gert Van Assche, Marc Ferrante, Séverine Vermeire
Background: Endoplasmic reticulum stress was shown to be pivotal in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease. Despite progress in IBD drug development, not more than one third of patients achieve steroid-free remission and mucosal healing with current therapies. Furthermore, patient stratification tools for therapy selection are lacking. We aimed to identify and quantify epithelial ER stress in a patient-specific manner in an attempt towards personalized therapy. Methods: A biopsy-derived intestinal epithelial cell culture system was developed and characterized...
September 23, 2017: Journal of Crohn's & Colitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028844/a-polyphenol-enriched-diet-and-ascaris-suum-infection-modulate-mucosal-immune-responses-and-gut-microbiota-composition-in-pigs
#5
Andrew R Williams, Lukasz Krych, Hajar Fauzan Ahmad, Peter Nejsum, Kerstin Skovgaard, Dennis S Nielsen, Stig M Thamsborg
Polyphenols are a class of bioactive plant secondary metabolites that are thought to have beneficial effects on gut health, such as modulation of mucosal immune and inflammatory responses and regulation of parasite burdens. Here, we examined the interactions between a polyphenol-rich diet supplement and infection with the enteric nematode Ascaris suum in pigs. Pigs were fed either a basal diet or the same diet supplemented with grape pomace (GP), an industrial by-product rich in polyphenols such as oligomeric proanthocyanidins...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028769/activation-of-the-nuclear-receptor-fxr-improves-intestinal-cell-tolerance-to-ischemia-reperfusion-injury
#6
Xuan Wang, Shuo Li, Man Chen, Jing Liu, Ruirui Dong, Humin Wang, Shigong Zhu
The farnesoid X receptor (FXR) plays an important role in bile acid metabolism, intestinal homeostasis, and intestinal ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury. We aimed to clarify the potential effects of FXR on intestinal epithelial cell tolerance to intestinal I/R injury and reveal the underlying mechanisms. An intestinal I/R injury model was established by the occlusion of the superior mesenteric artery for ischemia for 1 h, followed by reperfusion for 4 h in C57BL/6 (wild-type; WT)and FXR mice. The small intestine injury was assessed by histological analysis...
October 12, 2017: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028605/the-construction-and-characterization-of-hybrid-paclitaxel-in-micelle-in-liposome-systems-for-enhanced-oral-drug-delivery
#7
Yimu Li, Zheng Chen, Yanan Cui, Guangxi Zhai, Lingbing Li
In this study, novel paclitaxel (PTX) loaded hybrid liposomes for oral PTX delivery were prepared through incorporating PTX loaded polyion complex micelles comprised of positively charged Pluronic F127-Polyethylenimine (PF127-PEI) copolymer and negatively charged sodium cholate (CA) into liposomes consisted of phospholipid molecules. According to the results, this kind of PTX-loaded hybrid liposomes showed improved PTX encapsulation efficiency, sustained PTX release, and enhanced PTX absorption in intestine...
October 5, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028547/-borneol-improves-the-efficacy-of-edaravone-against-dss-induced-colitis-by-promoting-m2-macrophages-polarization-via-jak2-stat3-signaling-pathway
#8
Xiong Zhang, Fang Xu, Li Liu, Lili Feng, Xuefeng Wu, Yan Shen, Yang Sun, Xudong Wu, Qiang Xu
Compound edaravone injection (C.EDA), a compound preparation composed of edaravone (EDA) and (+)-Borneol with the mass ratio of 4: 1, displays a better anti-inflammatory activity than EDA. However, its precise mechanism remains to be further studied. In this work, we investigated whether (+)-Borneol could improve the efficacy of EDA against DSS-induced colitis. We found that C.EDA at 7.5 and 15mg/kg could significantly relieve the disease activity index (DAI) and reduce the loss of body weight and colon length in a dose-dependent manner, while EDA or (+)-Borneol alone only had moderate effects even at the highest dose...
October 10, 2017: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028454/the-longtan-modification-an-effective-and-economical-surgical-innovation-for-parastomal-hernia-post-intraperitoneal-sigmoidostomy
#9
Peng Wang, Hao Su, Jianwei Liang, Zheng Wang, Zhixiang Zhou, Haitao Zhou
PURPOSE: This study was designed to introduce a new surgical innovation, referred to as the "Longtan modification," for cases with parastomal hernia (PSH) following intraperitoneal sigmoidostomy, and to assess the safety and feasibility of this procedure. METHODS: Between January 2013 and June 2016, a total of 26 consecutive cases with PSH successfully underwent this procedure. The patient demographics, surgical outcomes, stoma-related complications, and the stoma function were collected and analyzed...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Laparoendoscopic & Advanced Surgical Techniques. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028286/doppler-guided-goal-directed-fluid-therapy-does-not-affect-intestinal-cell-damage-but-increases-global-gastrointestinal-perfusion-in-colorectal-surgery-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#10
Kostan W Reisinger, Henriette M Willigers, Jochen Jansen, Wim A Buurman, Maarten F Von Meyenfeldt, Geerard L Beets, Martijn Poeze
Individualized, goal-directed fluid therapy (GDFT) based on Doppler measurements of stroke volume has been proposed as a treatment strategy in terms of reducing complications, mortality and length of hospital stay in major bowel surgery. We studied the effect of Doppler guided GDFT on intestinal damage as compared with standard post-operative fluid replacement. STUDY DESIGN: Patients undergoing elective colorectal resection for malignancy were randomized to standard intra- and postoperative fluid therapy or standard fluid therapy with additional Doppler guided GDFT...
October 13, 2017: Colorectal Disease: the Official Journal of the Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028148/follow-up-of-1887-patients-receiving-tumor-necrosis-alpha-antagonists-tuberculin-skin-test-conversion-and-tuberculosis-risk
#11
Tulin Cagatay, Zuleyha Bingol, Esen Kıyan, Zeynep Yegin, Gulfer Okumus, Orhan Arseven, Feyza Erkan, Ziya Gulbaran, Mustafa Erelel, Turhan Ece, Penbe Cagatay', Zeki Kılıçaslan
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the characteristics of patients who developed tuberculosis while receiving tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) antagonists and the related factors with tuberculosis. METHODS: Patient's demographics, tuberculin skin test (TST), isoniazid prophylaxis, type of TNF-α antagonist were recorded. TST conversion (>5mm increase) was evaluated for patients who had baseline and 1-year TST. RESULTS: Files of 1887 patients who were receiving TNF-α antagonists between August2005 and June 2015 were evaluated...
October 13, 2017: Clinical Respiratory Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028076/intestinal-probiotics-in-relieving-clinical-symptoms-of-severe-hand-foot-and-mouth-disease-and-potential-mechanism-analysis
#12
F Zhu, Z Jiang, H-W Li
OBJECTIVE: In this prospective cohort study, the efficacy and action mechanism of an intestinal probiotic formulation, Golden Bifid, in severe hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) were determined in 63 consecutively admitted patients successfully treated in the Pediatrics Emergency Department of our hospital. PATIENTS AND METHODS: All patients had a persistent fever; 43 patients had rashes on hands, feet, crissum, and hips; and 45 patients had neurological signs and symptoms...
September 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028006/polymorphism-of-antibiotic-inactivating-enzyme-driven-by-ecology-expands-the-environmental-resistome
#13
Dae-Wi Kim, Cung Nawl Thawng, Jung-Hye Choi, Kihyun Lee, Chang-Jun Cha
The environmental resistome has been recognized as the origin and reservoir of antibiotic resistance genes and considered to be dynamic and ever expanding. In this study, a targeted gene sequencing approach revealed that the polymorphic diversity of the aminoglycoside-inactivating enzyme AAC(6')-Ib was ecological niche-specific. AAC(6')-Ib-cr, previously known as a clinical variant, was prevalent in various soils and the intestines of chickens and humans, suggesting that this variant might not have arisen from adaptive mutations in the clinic but instead originated from the environment...
October 13, 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027951/effects-of-maternal-low-energy-diet-during-gestation-on-intestinal-morphology-disaccharidase-activity-and-immune-response-to-lipopolysaccharide-challenge-in-pig-offspring
#14
Yuling Chen, Daolin Mou, Liang Hu, Jie Zhen, Lianqiang Che, Zhengfeng Fang, Shengyu Xu, Yan Lin, Bin Feng, Jian Li, De Wu
Maternal nutrition during gestation is involved in the offspring's intestinal development and immunity. The aim of this study was to (1) determine the effects of maternal energy on intestinal digestion and absorption function in offspring, using pigs as a model; and (2) to evaluate the potential effect and mechanisms of maternal energy in modulating immune responses of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-challenged piglets. After mating, thirty-six nine-parity sows (Landrace × Yorkshire), body weight (BW) (initial body weight 233...
October 13, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027657/practical-issues-of-nutrition-during-continuous-renal-replacement-therapy
#15
Dariusz Onichimowski, Radosław Goraj, Rakesh Jalali, Jolanta Grabala, Ewa Mayzner-Zawadzka, Mirosław Czuczwar
Continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) in critically ill patients has significant impact on one's ability to provide efficient nutritional therapy. CRRT may help in the prevention of intestinal oedema and the maintenance of the proper function of the gastrointestinal tract by enabling strict control of the fluid balance. It facilitates early introduction of nutrition via the enteral route, as well as allowing for the composition of high-volume feeding mixtures. It is necessary to take into consideration that during CRRT, together with blood purification of toxic substances, nutritive elements are also eliminated to some extent (micro- and macronutrients)...
October 13, 2017: Anaesthesiology Intensive Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027651/syndesmis-aethopharynx-westervelt-kozloff-1990-rhabdocoela-umagillidae-a-revisitation-supported-by-scanning-electron-microscopy-and-molecular-analyses
#16
Francisca I Cavaleiro, Luís F Rangel, Duarte G Frade, Maria J Santos
Species of Syndesmis Francois, 1886 are rhabdocoel platyhelminths typically found in echinoids. Our knowledge of this group is based on old and insufficient studies, generally representing light microscopy-based species descriptions. Syndesmis aethopharynx Westervelt & Kozloff, 1990 is an understudied endosymbiont of Paracentrotus lividus (Lamarck), which is likely to have been confused with the type-species, i.e. Syndesmis echinorum François, 1886, in the literature. In this work, S. aethopharynx is revisited based on new data on surface morphology and phylogeny and basic ecological data are provided...
October 13, 2017: Systematic Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027650/correction-to-role-of-intestinal-microbiome-in-american-ginseng-mediated-colon-cancer-prevention-in-high-fat-diet-fed-aom-dss-mice
#17
C-Z Wang, W-H Huang, C-F Zhang, J-Y Wan, Y Wang, C Yu, S Williams, T-C He, W Du, M W Musch, E B Chang, C-S Yuan
This article was originally published with the wrong title.
October 13, 2017: Clinical & Translational Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027424/-research-progress-on-therapeutic-targets-of-active-components-in-chinese-herbs-for-treatment-of-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#18
REVIEW
Yu-Ting Pan, Fang-Yuan Xu, Xi-Zhong Yu, Wen-Bin Shang
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease(NAFLD) is a kind of metabolic liver injury, which is closely associated with insulin resistance and genetic susceptibility. Traditional Chinese herbs used in the treatment of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease are widely investigated in recent years. A series of recent studies show that the effects of the active components in traditional Chinese herbs on NAFLD are associated with activating AMPK signaling pathway, improving insulin resistance, modulating the activity and expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities and regulating intestinal flora...
March 2017: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027368/expression-of-fluorescent-proteins-in-lactobacillus-rhamnosus-to-study-host-microbe-and-microbe-microbe-interactions
#19
Irina Spacova, Elke Lievens, Tine Verhoeven, Hans Steenackers, Jos Vanderleyden, Sarah Lebeer, Mariya I Petrova
Probiotic Lactobacillus strains are widely used to benefit human and animal health, although the exact mechanisms behind their interactions with the host and the microbiota are largely unknown. Fluorescent tagging of live probiotic cells is an important tool to unravel their modes of action. In this study, the implementation of different heterologously expressed fluorescent proteins for the labelling of the model probiotic strains Lactobacillus rhamnosusGG (gastrointestinal) and Lactobacillus rhamnosusGR-1 (vaginal) was explored...
October 13, 2017: Microbial Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027285/subtle-deregulation-of-the-wnt-signaling-pathway-through-loss-of-apc2-reduces-the-fitness-of-intestinal-stem-cells
#20
Madeleine A Young, Carl S Daly, Elaine Taylor, Rhiannon James, Alan Richard Clarke, Karen Ruth Reed
The importance of the Wnt-signaling pathway on the regulation and maintenance of the intestinal stem cell (ISC) population is well recognized. However, our current knowledge base is founded on models using systems of gross deregulation of the Wnt-signaling pathway. Given the importance of this signaling pathway on intestinal homeostasis, there is a need to explore the role of more subtle alterations in Wnt-signaling levels within this tissue. Herein, we have used a model of Apc2 loss to meet this aim. Apc2 is a homolog of Apc which can also form a destruction complex capable of binding β-catenin, albeit less efficiently than Apc...
October 12, 2017: Stem Cells
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