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Bone health

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723934/the-relationship-between-adiposity-and-bone-density-in-u-s-children-and-adolescents
#1
Cecilia Gállego Suárez, Benjamin H Singer, Achamyeleh Gebremariam, Joyce M Lee, Kanakadurga Singer
OBJECTIVE: In adults, obesity has been associated with several health outcomes including increased bone density. Our objective was to evaluate the association between percent body fat and fat mass with bone mineral density (BMD) in a nationally representative population of children and adolescents. STUDY DESIGN: A total of 8,348 participants 8-18 years of age from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999-2006 had whole body DXA scans performed...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721726/3d-printed-earable-smart-devices-for-real-time-detection-of-core-body-temperature
#2
Hiroki Ota, Minghan Chao, Yuji Gao, Eric Wu, Li-Chia Tai, Kevin Chen, Yasutomo Matsuoka, Kosuke Iwai, Hossain M Fahad, Wei Gao, Hnin Yin Yin Nyein, Liwei Lin, Ali Javey
Real-time detection of basic physiological parameters such as blood pressure and heart rate is an important target in wearable smart devices for healthcare. Among these, the core body temperature is one of the most important basic medical indicators of fever, insomnia, fatigue, metabolic functionality, and depression. However, traditional wearable temperature sensors are based upon the measurement of skin temperature, which can vary dramatically from the true core body temperature. Here, we demonstrate a three-dimensional (3D) printed wearable "earable" smart device that is designed to be worn on the ear to track core body temperature from the tympanic membrane (i...
July 19, 2017: ACS Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721562/reduced-energy-availability-implications-for-bone-health-in-physically-active-populations
#3
REVIEW
Maria Papageorgiou, Eimear Dolan, Kirsty J Elliott-Sale, Craig Sale
PURPOSE: The present review critically evaluates existing literature on the effects of short- and long-term low energy availability (EA) on bone metabolism and health in physically active individuals. METHODS: We reviewed the literature on the short-term effects of low EA on markers of bone metabolism and the long-term effects of low EA on outcomes relating to bone health (bone mass, microarchitecture and strength, bone metabolic markers and stress fracture injury risk) in physically active individuals...
July 18, 2017: European Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720797/commensal-gut-microbiota-immunomodulatory-actions-in-bone-marrow-and-liver-have-catabolic-effects-on-skeletal-homeostasis-in-health
#4
Chad M Novince, Carolyn R Whittow, Johannes D Aartun, Jessica D Hathaway, Nicole Poulides, Michael B Chavez, Heidi M Steinkamp, Kaeleigh A Kirkwood, Emily Huang, Caroline Westwater, Keith L Kirkwood
Despite knowledge the gut microbiota regulates bone mass, mechanisms governing the normal gut microbiota's osteoimmunomodulatory effects on skeletal remodeling and homeostasis are unclear in the healthy adult skeleton. Young adult specific-pathogen-free and germ-free mice were used to delineate the commensal microbiota's immunoregulatory effects on osteoblastogenesis, osteoclastogenesis, marrow T-cell hematopoiesis, and extra-skeletal endocrine organ function. We report the commensal microbiota has anti-anabolic effects suppressing osteoblastogenesis and pro-catabolic effects enhancing osteoclastogenesis, which drive bone loss in health...
July 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719904/gonadectomy-in-complete-androgen-insensitivity-syndrome-why-and-when
#5
Ulla Döhnert, Lutz Wünsch, Olaf Hiort
Prophylactic gonadectomy has been recommended in complete androgen insensitivity syndrome (CAIS) because of an increased risk for the development of malignant germ cell tumors in the intra-abdominal gonads. No reliable screening parameters are available to detect early (pre-)malignant changes. Because the tumor risk before puberty is very low, the timing of gonadectomy has been postponed to allow spontaneous puberty and involvement of the patients in important decisions affecting their body and health. Gonadectomy after puberty is still discussed controversially...
July 19, 2017: Sexual Development: Genetics, Molecular Biology, Evolution, Endocrinology, Embryology, and Pathology of Sex Determination and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719612/renal-osteodystrophy-in-the-obesity-era-is-metabolic-syndrome-relevant
#6
Janaina Da Silva Martins, João Henrique Castro, Nestor A Sainz Rueda, Luciene Machado Dos Reis, Vanda Jorgetti, Rosa Maria Affonso Moysés, Jacqueline Teixeira Caramori
BACKGROUND: Observational studies have shown a beneficial effect of obesity on bone health; however, most of those studies were not based on bone biopsies. Metabolic syndrome (MetS) could have an effect on bone remodeling. However, there are no data on the effects of MetS in the presence of renal osteodystrophy. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate associations between MetS and renal osteodystrophy using the bone histomorphometric turnover-mineralization-volume (TMV) classification...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718005/sunscreens-block-cutaneous-vitamin-d-production-with-only-a-minimal-effect-on-circulating-25-hydroxyvitamin-d
#7
Florence Libon, Justine Courtois, Caroline Le Goff, Pierre Lukas, Neus Fabregat-Cabello, Laurence Seidel, Etienne Cavalier, Arjen F Nikkels
A 50+ SPF sunscreen decreased significantly cutaneous vitamin D production following a single narrow-band (nb)UVB exposure, independently from the body surface area exposed. In contrast, the circulating 25(OH)D3 levels were only minimally affected. It is probable that another endogenous source of precursors is selected when skin-originated precursors are lacking. PURPOSE: Sunscreen use, highly advocated for preventing cutaneous carcinogenesis, is potentially leading to an aggravation of vitamin D deficiency with its consequences on bone health...
December 2017: Archives of Osteoporosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717760/pilot-survey-of-breast-cancer-management-in-sub-saharan-africa
#8
Verna D N K Vanderpuye, Olufunmilayo I Olopade, Dezheng Huo
PURPOSE: To understand the current state of breast cancer management in sub-Saharan Africa. METHODS: We conducted an anonymous online survey of breast cancer management among African Organization for Research and Treatment in Cancer (AORTIC) members by using a 42-question structured questionnaire in both English and French in 2013. RESULTS: Twenty members from 19 facilities in 14 countries responded to the survey. Twelve members (60%) belonged to a multidisciplinary breast cancer team...
June 2017: Journal of Global Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717348/the-synergistic-effect-of-microwave-radiation-and-hypergravity-on-rats-and-the-intervention-effect-of-rana-sylvatica-le-conte-oil
#9
Wei Sun, Yudan Yang, Hongmei Yu, Luowei Wang, Su Pan
AIM: The phenomena of hypergravity and microwave radiation are widespread, which cause more and more concern for the hazards to human health. The aim of this study was to investigate the synergistic effect of microwave radiation and hypergravity on rats and observe the protective effect of Rana sylvatica Le conte oil. METHODS: Rats were exposed to microwave radiation and hypergravity, and the rat weight, the climbing pole height, serum enzyme activities, blood urea nitrogen concentration, and total antioxidant capacity were detected...
April 2017: Dose-response: a Publication of International Hormesis Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716497/dual-energy-x-ray-absorptiometry
#10
Rajesh K Jain, Tamara Vokes
Bone mineral density (BMD) measurement by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is the most commonly used method to assess fracture risk. DXA utilizes two different energy X-rays to calculate BMD and, by comparison to a young normative database, the T-score. In 1994, the World Health Organization defined osteoporosis based on T-score, changing the paradigm of the field and forever placing DXA measurements in the center of osteoporosis diagnosis. Since then, many large studies have demonstrated the predictive value of BMD by DXA-for every standard deviation decline in BMD, there is a relative risk of 1...
July 14, 2017: Journal of Clinical Densitometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715944/comparison-of-two-different-techniques-used-for-the-maintenance-ofperi-implant-soft-tissue-health-a-pilot-randomized-clinical-trial
#11
Logien Al Ghazal, Jeffery O'Sullivan, Noel Claffey, Ioannis Polyzois
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this pilot study was to compare the effectiveness of two different methods of debridement on maintaining and improving peri-implant soft tissue health over a period of 12 months. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty adult patients (25 implants) were enrolled in a randomized, single-blinded, parallel group clinical trial. All implants included showed no signs of pathologic bone loss. Patients were scheduled to be reviewed every 3 months over a 12 months period...
July 17, 2017: Acta Odontologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715914/leprosy-in-a-lombard-avar-cemetery-in-central-italy-campochiaro-molise-6th-8th-century-ad-ancient-dna-evidence-and-demography
#12
Mauro Rubini, Paola Zaio, Mark Spigelman, Helen D Donoghue
BACKGROUND: The study of past infectious diseases increases knowledge of the presence, impact and spread of pathogens within ancient populations. AIM: Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to examine bones for the presence of Mycobacterium leprae ancient DNA (aDNA) as, even when leprosy is present, bony changes are not always pathognomonic of the disease. This study also examined the demographic profile of this population and compared it with two other populations to investigate any changes in mortality trends between different infectious diseases and between the pre-antibiotic and antibiotic eras...
July 17, 2017: Annals of Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715886/effects-of-swimming-exercise-on-high-fat-diet-induced-low-bone-mineral-density-and-trabecular-bone-microstructure-in-rats
#13
Yun-Seok Kang, Sang-Hyun Kim, Jae-Cheol Kim
PURPOSE: This study aimed to investigate the effect of swimming exercise on high-fat diet-induced low bone mineral density (BMD) and trabecular bone microstructure in rats. METHODS: Eight-week-old male Sprague- Dawley (SD) rats were divided into a normal diet group (n = 9) and a high-fat diet group (n = 15). Three rats in each group were sacrificed after 8 weeks of high-fat diet to evaluate the association between high-fat diet and bone health. The other 18 rats were reassigned to 3 groups (normal diet control, NC; high-fat diet control, HC; high-fat diet + Exercise, HEx) for up to another 8 weeks...
June 30, 2017: Journal of Exercise Nutrition & Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715798/bone-mineral-density-in-women-living-with-complete-androgen-insensitivity-syndrome-and-intact-testes-or-removed-gonads
#14
Silvano Bertelloni, Maria C Meriggiola, Elenora Dati, Antonio Balsamo, Giampiero I Baroncelli
Complete androgen insensitivity syndrome (CAIS) is due to complete androgen resistance in androgen-dependent tissues. Since androgens are involved in growth, development, and mass maintenance of the skeleton, bone health may be a relevant clinical issue for improving quality of life of women living with CAIS. Bone mineral density (BMD) in women with CAIS and intact gonads has been reported in a normal range, although exceptions are known showing a low BMD mainly at the lumbar level. In women with CAIS and removed gonads, BMD is usually reduced at both the lumbar spine and femoral neck...
July 18, 2017: Sexual Development: Genetics, Molecular Biology, Evolution, Endocrinology, Embryology, and Pathology of Sex Determination and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715311/animal-models-new-biosensors-and-technologies-including-those-for-bone-regrowth-and-wound-healing-advance-animal-health-care-while-also-providing-a-fertile-testing-ground-for-human-health
#15
Summer Allen
Dogs have bad breath. But when Montana sheep rancher Katy Harjes noticed her collie, Hoshi, had particularly bad breath and facial swelling, she was concerned that the symptoms might be a sign of something serious. She was right; ten-year-old Hoshi had squamous cell carcinoma, a common type of oral tumor found in dogs. The cancer had not metastasized, but the damage was extensive enough that part of Hoshi's lower jaw needed to be removed. Luckily, Hoshi was a suitable candidate for a stateof-the-art bone regrowth procedure developed by Frank Verstraete, B...
July 2017: IEEE Pulse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715276/cancer-incidence-after-in-utero-exposure-to-ionizing-radiation-in-techa-river-residents
#16
L Yu Krestinina, Yu E Kharyuzov, S B Epiphanova, E I Tolstykh, I Deltour, J Schüz, A V Akleyev
Health effects of in utero exposure to ionizing radiation, especially among adults, are still unclear. The aim of this study was to analyze cancer risk in a cohort of subjects exposed in utero due to releases of nuclear waste into the Techa River in the Southern Urals, taking into account additional postnatal exposure. Analysis for solid cancer was based on 242 cases among 10,482 cohort members, accumulating 381,948 person-years at risk, with follow-up from 1956-2009, while analysis for hematological malignancies was based on 26 cases among 11,070 persons, with 423,502 person-years at risk, with follow-up from 1953-2009...
July 17, 2017: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713653/frail-phenotype-might-herald-bone-health-worsening-among-end-stage-renal-disease-patients
#17
Chia-Ter Chao, Jenq-Wen Huang, Ding-Cheng Chan
BACKGROUND: Frailty exhibits a high prevalence in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients and is associated with adverse health-related outcomes, including falls and fractures. Available studies do not address whether frailty is associated with temporal changes in BMD. We evaluated this issue by analyzing the follow-up dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) results in an ESRD cohort. METHODS: In 2015, we enrolled forty-three ESRD patients, divided into frail, pre-frail, and robust ones based on a validated simple FRAIL scale, all receiving DXA at baseline...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713437/astragalus-extract-mixture-ht042-increases-longitudinal-bone-growth-rate-by-upregulating-circulatory-igf-1-in-rats
#18
Donghun Lee, Sung Hyun Lee, Yoon Hee Lee, Jungbin Song, Hocheol Kim
Astragalus extract mixture HT042 is a standardized ingredient of health functional food approved by Korean FDA with a claim of "height growth of children." HT042 stimulates bone growth rate and increases local IGF-1 expression in growth plate of rats which can be considered as direct stimulation of GH and its paracrine/autocrine actions. However, it remains unclear whether HT042 stimulates circulatory IGF-1 which also plays a major role to stimulate bone growth. To determine the effects on circulatory IGF-1, IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 expressions and phosphorylation of JAK2/STAT5 were evaluated in the liver after 10 days of HT042 administration...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712980/association-of-selective-serotonin-reuptake-inhibitors-and-bone-mineral-density-in-elderly-women
#19
Smita Saraykar, Vineeth John, Bo Cao, Matthew Hnatow, Catherine G Ambrose, Nahid Rianon
Depression and osteoporosis are 2 common comorbidities in geriatric patients. There are concerns about the deleterious effects of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) antidepressant use on bone mineral density (BMD). We examined the association between SSRI use and BMD in elderly women (≥65 yr) referred to a geriatric osteoporosis clinic for bone health evaluation. Cross-sectional analyses using the general linear model were performed on data collected retrospectively from August 2010 to April 2015...
July 13, 2017: Journal of Clinical Densitometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712173/surgical-site-infection-in-orthopaedic-implants-and-its-common-bacteria-with-their-sensitivities-to-antibiotics-in-open-reduction-internal-fixation
#20
Muhammad Qaisar Shah, Muhammad Shoib Zardad, Alamzeb Khan, Sajjad Ahmed, Abdus Saboor Awan, Taj Mohammad
BACKGROUND: Surgical site infection in orthopaedic implants is a major problem, causing long hospital stay, cost to the patient and is a burden on health care facilities. It increases rate of nonunion, osteomyelitis, implant failure, sepsis, multiorgan dysfunction and even death. Surgical site infection is defined as pain, erythema, swelling and discharge from wound site. Surgical site infection in orthopaedic implants is more challenging to the treating orthopaedic surgeon as the causative organism is protected by a biofilm over the implant's surface...
January 2017: Journal of Ayub Medical College, Abbottabad: JAMC
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