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Bone health

Sharon M Moe
Calcium is an important ion in cell signaling, hormone regulation, and bone health. Its regulation is complex and intimately connected to that of phosphate homeostasis. Both ions are maintained at appropriate levels to maintain the extracellular to intracellular gradients, allow for mineralization of bone, and to prevent extra skeletal and urinary calcification. The homeostasis involves the target organs intestine, parathyroid glands, kidney, and bone. Multiple hormones converge to regulate the extracellular calcium level: parathyroid hormone, vitamin D (principally 25(OH)D or 1,25(OH)2D), fibroblast growth factor 23, and α-klotho...
September 15, 2016: Comprehensive Physiology
A A Suriawati, Hazreen Abdul Majid, Nabilla Al-Sadat, Mohd Nahar Azmi Mohamed, Muhammad Yazid Jalaludin
BACKGROUND: Dietary calcium and vitamin D are essential for bone development. Apart from diet, physical activity may potentially improve and sustain bone health. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between the dietary intake of calcium and vitamin D, physical activity, and bone mineral content (BMC) in 13-year-old Malaysian adolescents. DESIGN: Cross-sectional. SETTING: Selected public secondary schools from the central and northern regions of Peninsular Malaysia...
October 24, 2016: Nutrients
Jing Chen, Craig A Mullen
BACKGROUND: Pediatric cancer is rare and its symptoms are often ambiguous. The aims of this study were to investigate the time needed to make a diagnosis, assess the frequency of misdiagnosis, and to determine whether these factors affected survival. METHODS: A review of records of 364 pediatric patients diagnosed with cancer at the University of Rochester Golisano Children's Hospital between 2004 and 2012 was conducted. Data were extracted on patient and health care system-related factors and clinical outcomes...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Hematology/oncology
Alan Bleakley
Inequalities in society are reflected in patterns of disease and access to health care, where the disadvantaged suffer most. Traditionally, doctors have kept politics out of their work, even though politics often shape medicine. What political responsibilities, then, should doctors have as they facilitate the learning of medical students? The article in this issue by Kumagai, Jackson, and Razack goes straight to the heart of this question. These authors ask whether educators should be wary of "cutting close to the bone" in discussing issues that may restimulate trauma in some medical students...
October 25, 2016: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
Younes Ellahioui, Sanjiv Prashar, Santiago Gómez-Ruiz
This article reviews the use of silica, alumina and calcium phosphate-based nanostructured materials with biomedical applications. A short introduction on the use of the materials in Science, Nanotechnology and Health is included followed by a revision of each of the selected materials. A description of the principal synthetic methods used in the preparation of the materials in nanostructured form is included. An explanation of the most widely used applications in biomedicine are reviewed including, for example drug-delivery, bone regeneration, imaging, sensoring amongst others...
October 24, 2016: Current Medicinal Chemistry
Alvaro García-Tornel, Vanessa Carvalho, Sandra Boned, Alan Flores, David Rodríguez-Luna, Jorge Pagola, Marian Muchada, Estela Sanjuan, Pilar Coscojuela, Jesus Juega, Noelia Rodriguez-Villatoro, Bijoy Menon, Mayank Goyal, Marc Ribó, Alejandro Tomasello, Carlos A Molina, Marta Rubiera
: Good collateral circulation (CC) is associated with favorable outcomes in acute stroke, but the best technique to evaluate collaterals is controversial. Single-phase computed tomography angiography (sCTA) is widely used but lacks temporal resolution. We aim to compare CC evaluation by sCTA and multiphase CTA (mCTA) as predictors of outcome in endovascular treated patients. METHODS: Consecutive endovascular treated patients with M1 middle cerebral artery (MCA) or terminal intracranial carotid artery (TICA) occlusion confirmed by sCTA were included...
September 2016: Interventional Neurology
Marina Padroni, Sandra Boned, Marc Ribó, Marian Muchada, David Rodriguez-Luna, Pilar Coscojuela, Alejandro Tomasello, Jordi Cabero, Jorge Pagola, Noelia Rodriguez-Villatoro, Jesus M Juega, Estela Sanjuan, Carlos A Molina, Marta Rubiera
: The Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score (ASPECTS) is a useful scoring system for assessing early ischemic signs on noncontrast computed tomography (CT). Cerebral blood volume (CBV) on CT perfusion defines the core lesion assumed to be irreversibly damaged. We aim to explore the advantages of CBV_ASPECTS over CT_ASPECTS in the prediction of final infarct volume according to time. METHODS: Consecutive patients with anterior circulation stroke who underwent endovascular reperfusion according to initial CT_ASPECTS ≥7 were studied...
September 2016: Interventional Neurology
Yong Li, Wen-Bo Zhao, De-Li Wang, Qing He, Qin Li, Fu-Xing Pei, Lei Liu
OBJECTIVE: To observe the clinical results of proximal femoral nail anti-rotation (PFNA) combined with zoledronic acid injection in the treatment of osteoporotic intertrochanteric fractures in the elderly. METHODS: 60 elderly patients with osteoporotic intertrochanteric fractures were diagnosed using a dual energy X-ray bone density instrument. Patients were randomly divided into treatment or control groups (30 cases in each group). Patients in both groups were treated by closed/open reduction and internal fixation using PFNA...
October 1, 2016: Chinese Journal of Traumatology, Zhonghua Chuang Shang za Zhi
Michelle R Hoffmann, Peter A Senior, Stephanie T Jackson, Guylaine Ferland, Nancy Presse, Kailash Jindal, Ping Li, Abeer S Alzaben, Diana R Mager
PURPOSE: Patients with diabetes (DM) and chronic kidney disease (CKD) are at increased risk for suboptimal bone health. The study objective was to investigate the relationships between vitamin D (vitD), vitamin K1 (vitK1), and calcium intake with bone mineral density (BMD) and vitamin D status in an ambulatory population with DM and CKD. METHODS: Adults (age 18-80 years; n = 62) with DM and CKD (stages 1-4) were recruited from the Northern Alberta Renal Program...
October 25, 2016: Canadian Journal of Dietetic Practice and Research
Fatemeh Momen-Heravi, Ana Babic, Shelley S Tworoger, Libin Zhang, Kana Wu, Stephanie A Smith-Warner, Shuji Ogino, Andrew T Chan, Jeffrey Meyerhardt, Edward Giovannucci, Charles Fuchs, Eunyoung Cho, Dominique S Michaud, Meir J Stampfer, Yau-Hua Yu, David Kim, Xuehong Zhang
Periodontal diseases including tooth loss might increase systemic inflammation, lead to immune dysregulation, and alter gut microbiota, thereby possibly influencing colorectal carcinogenesis. Few epidemiological studies have examined the association between periodontal diseases and colorectal cancer (CRC) risk. We collected information on the periodontal disease (defined as history of periodontal bone loss) and number of natural teeth in the Nurses' Health Study. A total of 77,443 women were followed since 1992...
October 25, 2016: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
Farahnaz Golriz, Lane F Donnelly, Sridevi Devaraj, Raj Krishnamurthy
BACKGROUND: Until recently scurvy has been viewed in developed countries as a disease of the past. More recently there have been reports of case series of children with scurvy who have had a delayed diagnosis after an extensive diagnostic workup that included imaging. Most of these children have had underlying neurologic conditions such as autism. OBJECTIVE: To review the medical records of children diagnosed with vitamin C (ascorbic acid) deficiency based on serum ascorbic acid levels at a large pediatric health care system, to determine imaging findings and utility of imaging in management, and to identify at-risk pediatric populations...
October 24, 2016: Pediatric Radiology
Jing Xue, Sarah A Schoenrock, William Valdar, Lisa M Tarantino, Folami Y Ideraabdullah
BACKGROUND: Environmental perturbation of epigenetic mechanisms is linked to a growing number of diseases. Characterizing the role environmental factors play in modifying the epigenome is important for disease etiology. Vitamin D is an essential nutrient affecting brain, bone, heart, immune and reproductive health. Vitamin D insufficiency is a global issue, and the role in maternal and child health remains under investigation. METHODS: We used Collaborative Cross (CC) inbred mice to characterize the effect of maternal vitamin D depletion on offspring phenotypic and epigenetic outcomes at imprinted domains (H19/Igf2, Snrpn, Dlk1/Gtl2, and Grb10) in the soma (liver) and germline (sperm)...
2016: Clinical Epigenetics
Tsukasa Tominari, Chiho Matsumoto, Kenta Watanabe, Michiko Hirata, Florian M W Grundler, Masaki Inada, Chisato Miyaura
Lutein, a member of the xanthophyll family of carotenoids, suppressed IL-1-induced osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption. The survival of mature osteoclasts was also suppressed by lutein in cultures. When lutein was added to the cultures of osteoblasts, lutein enhanced the formation of mineralized bone nodules by elevating BMP2 expression and inhibiting sclerostin expression. Lutein may be beneficial for bone health.
October 25, 2016: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Stephen L Kopecky, Douglas C Bauer, Martha Gulati, Jeri W Nieves, Andrea J Singer, Peter P Toth, James A Underberg, Taylor C Wallace, Connie M Weaver
Description: Calcium is the dominant mineral present in bone and a shortfall nutrient in the American diet. Supplements have been recommended for persons who do not consume adequate calcium from their diet as a standard strategy for the prevention of osteoporosis and related fractures. Whether calcium with or without vitamin D supplementation is beneficial or detrimental to vascular health is not known. Methods: The National Osteoporosis Foundation and American Society for Preventive Cardiology convened an expert panel to evaluate the effects of dietary and supplemental calcium on cardiovascular disease based on the existing peer-reviewed scientific literature...
October 25, 2016: Annals of Internal Medicine
M C Gouveia, J P Vella, F R Cafeo, F L Affonso Fonseca, M R Bacci
OBJECTIVE: Irisin is a muscle-secreted protein released into the circulation by cleavage of fibronectin type III domain containing protein 5(FNDC5). Since its discovery in 2012, it has been the subject of many researches due to its physiological role. It is believed that understanding irisin's function may be the key to comprehend many diseases and their development. The aim of this study is to perform a systematic review in order to establish whether there is an association of irisin's levels with obesity, diabetes mellitus, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, chronic kidney disease and cancer in terms of prognosis...
October 2016: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
Henrieta Škovierová, Eva Vidomanová, Silvia Mahmood, Janka Sopková, Anna Drgová, Tatiana Červeňová, Erika Halašová, Ján Lehotský
Homocysteine (Hcy) is a sulfur-containing non-proteinogenic amino acid derived in methionine metabolism. The increased level of Hcy in plasma, hyperhomocysteinemia, is considered to be an independent risk factor for cardio and cerebrovascular diseases. However, it is still not clear if Hcy is a marker or a causative agent of diseases. More and more research data suggest that Hcy is an important indicator for overall health status. This review represents the current understanding of molecular mechanism of Hcy metabolism and its link to hyperhomocysteinemia-related pathologies in humans...
October 20, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Christian Trummer, Marlene Pandis, Nicolas Verheyen, Martin R Grübler, Martin Gaksch, Barbara Obermayer-Pietsch, Andreas Tomaschitz, Thomas R Pieber, Stefan Pilz, Verena Schwetz
Aside from its well-known effects on bone and mineral metabolism, vitamin D may also play an important role in extra-skeletal processes like immunologic diseases, cancer, or cardiovascular diseases. Even though meta-analyses showed that vitamin D supplementation reduces fractures, falls, and overall mortality, its potential benefits did not find universal acclaim. Several health care authorities published Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) for vitamin D, most of them ranging from 600 to 800 international units (IU) per day, corresponding to a serum level of 25-hydroxyvitamin D of at least 20 ng/mL (50 nmol/L)...
October 19, 2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
J Ma, H J McMillan, G Karagüzel, C Goodin, J Wasson, M A Matzinger, P DesClouds, D Cram, M Page, V N Konji, B Lentle, L M Ward
: Boys with vertebral fractures (VF) identified through routine spine radiographs had milder, less symptomatic, and fewer VF compared to those diagnosed with VF following consultation for back pain. Spontaneous (i.e., medication-unassisted) reshaping of fractured vertebral bodies was absent. Long bone fractures were present even before Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) diagnosis in some boys. INTRODUCTION: The objective of the study was to determine the time to and characteristics of first fractures in Duchenne muscular dystrophy...
October 24, 2016: Osteoporosis International
Lukas Andereggen, Janine Frey, Robert H Andres, Marwan El-Koussy, Jürgen Beck, Rolf W Seiler, Emanuel Christ
OBJECTIVE: In men with prolactinomas, an impaired bone density is the principle consequence of hyperprolactinemia-induced hypogonadism. While dopamine (DA-) agonists are the first-line approach in prolactinomas, surgery can be considered in selected cases. In the present study, we aimed to investigate on the long-term control of hyperprolactinemia, hypogonadism and bone health comparing primary medical and surgical therapy in men who had not had prior DA-agonist treatment. METHODS: Retrospective case-note study of 44 consecutive men with prolactinomas and no prior DA-agonists managed in a single tertiary referral center...
October 20, 2016: World Neurosurgery
Benjamin Kearns, Abdullah Pandor, Matt Stevenson, Jean Hamilton, Duncan Chambers, Mark Clowes, John Graham, M Satish Kumar
As part of its single technology appraisal (STA) process, the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) invited the company that manufactures cabazitaxel (Jevtana(®), Sanofi, UK) to submit evidence for the clinical and cost effectiveness of cabazitaxel for treatment of patients with metastatic hormone-relapsed prostate cancer (mHRPC) previously treated with a docetaxel-containing regimen. The School of Health and Related Research Technology Appraisal Group at the University of Sheffield was commissioned to act as the independent Evidence Review Group (ERG)...
October 22, 2016: PharmacoEconomics
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