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Respiratory physiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777602/-suspension-of-respiratory-support-in-patients-with-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#1
Agustín A Silberberg, Josefina Robetto, Mora Achával
Decision making in advanced Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) patients keeps on being a controversial issue. The aim of this work is to discuss ethical implications of withdrawing respiratory support treatment in patients with ALS. Through a bibliographic search on Pubmed database (2010-2016) we investigated whether or not the use of Non-Invasive Ventilation (NIV) and Mechanical Ventilation (MV) would increase survival and quality of life. We included 38 review articles. From these papers, results and ethical implications of initiating and mainly withdrawing respiratory support were analyzed...
May 2018: Cuadernos de Bioética: Revista Oficial de la Asociación Española de Bioética y Ética Médica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775962/preterm-birth-and-oxidative-stress-effects-of-acute-physical-exercise-and-hypoxia-physiological-responses
#2
Agnès Martin, Camille Faes, Tadej Debevec, Chantal Rytz, Grégoire Millet, Vincent Pialoux
Preterm birth is a global health issue that can induce lifelong medical sequela. Presently, at least one in ten newborns are born prematurely. At birth, preterm newborns exhibit higher levels of oxidative stress (OS) due to the inability to face the oxygen rich environment in which they are born into. Moreover, their immature respiratory, digestive, immune and antioxidant defense systems, as well as the potential numerous medical interventions following a preterm birth, such as oxygen resuscitation, nutrition, phototherapy and blood transfusion further contribute to high levels of OS...
May 1, 2018: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775080/mindfulness-meditation-and-interprofessional-cardiopulmonary-resuscitation-a-mixed-methods-pilot-study
#3
Diana J Kelm, Jennifer L Ridgeway, Becca L Gas, Monali Mohan, David A Cook, Darlene R Nelson, Roberto P Benzo
PROBLEM: Mindfulness training includes mindfulness meditation, which has been shown to improve both attention and self-awareness. Medical providers in the intensive care unit often deal with difficult situations with strong emotions, life-and-death decisions, and both interpersonal and interprofessional conflicts. The effect of mindfulness meditation training on healthcare providers during acute care tasks such as cardiopulmonary resuscitation remains unknown. Mindfulness meditation has the potential to improve provider well-being and reduce stress in individuals involved in resuscitation teams, which could then translate into better team communication and delivery of care under stress...
May 18, 2018: Teaching and Learning in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772011/induction-of-influenza-specific-local-cd8-t-cells-in-the-respiratory-tract-after-aerosol-delivery-of-vaccine-antigen-or-virus-in-the-babraham-inbred-pig
#4
Katie Tungatt, Garry Dolton, Sophie B Morgan, Meriem Attaf, Anna Fuller, Thomas Whalley, Johanneke D Hemmink, Emily Porter, Barbara Szomolay, Maria Montoya, John A Hammond, John J Miles, David K Cole, Alain Townsend, Mick Bailey, Pierre J Rizkallah, Bryan Charleston, Elma Tchilian, Andrew K Sewell
There is increasing evidence that induction of local immune responses is a key component of effective vaccines. For respiratory pathogens, for example tuberculosis and influenza, aerosol delivery is being actively explored as a method to administer vaccine antigens. Current animal models used to study respiratory pathogens suffer from anatomical disparity with humans. The pig is a natural and important host of influenza viruses and is physiologically more comparable to humans than other animal models in terms of size, respiratory tract biology and volume...
May 2018: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771885/-selection-of-optimal-method-of-general-anesthesia-for-intubation-of-nasolacrimal-duct-in-young-children
#5
E A Bachinin, S I Utkin, E L Sorokin, D Iu Ignatenko, M V Stoliarov, R N Khalfin
PURPOSE: comparative assessment of safety and clinical efficacy of Sevoflurane and Halothane in general anesthesia for nasolacrimal duct intubation in children. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Clinical results of nasolacrimal duct intubation in 288 children with persistent obstruction of tear duct were analyzed. A newly developed method of general anesthesia in the supine position was used for all cases. General anesthetic Phthorothanum was used in 146 children; general anesthesia with Sevoflurane - in 142 children...
2018: Vestnik Oftalmologii
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769827/effects-of-a-4-week-very-low-carbohydrate-diet-on-high-intensity-interval-training-responses
#6
Lukas Cipryan, Daniel J Plews, Alessandro Ferretti, Phil B Maffetone, Paul B Laursen
The purpose of the study was to examine the effects of altering from habitual mixed Western-based (HD) to a very low-carbohydrate high-fat (VLCHF) diet over a 4-week timecourse on performance and physiological responses during high-intensity interval training (HIIT). Eighteen moderately trained males (age 23.8 ± 2.1 years) consuming their HD (48 ± 13% carbohydrate, 17 ± 3% protein, 35 ± 9% fat) were assigned to 2 groups. One group was asked to remain on their HD, while the other was asked to switch to a non-standardized VLCHF diet (8 ± 3% carbohydrate, 29 ± 15% protein, 63 ± 13% fat) for 4 weeks...
June 2018: Journal of Sports Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769380/pneumococcal-metabolic-adaptation-and-colonization-are-regulated-by-the-two-component-regulatory-system-08
#7
Alejandro Gómez-Mejia, Gustavo Gámez, Stephanie Hirschmann, Viktor Kluger, Hermann Rath, Sebastian Böhm, Franziska Voss, Niamatullah Kakar, Lothar Petruschka, Uwe Völker, Reinhold Brückner, Ulrike Mäder, Sven Hammerschmidt
Streptococcus pneumoniae two-component regulatory systems (TCS) enable adaptation and ensure its maintenance in host environments. This study deciphers the impact of TCS08 on pneumococcal gene expression and its role in metabolic and pathophysiological processes. Transcriptome analysis and real-time PCR demonstrated a regulatory effect of TCS08 on genes involved mainly in environmental information processing, intermediary metabolism, and colonization by S. pneumoniae D39 and TIGR4. Striking examples are genes for fatty acid biosynthesis, genes of the arginine deiminase system, and the psa operon encoding the manganese ABC transport system...
June 27, 2018: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769190/pneumoperitoneum-in-a-neonate-weighing-less-than-500-g-what-do-we-really-know-about-it
#8
Audrienne Sammut, Miguel Soares Oliveira, Claire Jackson, Cristine Sortica da Costa
Pneumoperitoneum in preterm infants is a surgical emergency as it is usually indicative of intestinal perforation. Rare cases of idiopathic pneumoperitoneum have been described in the literature, the underlying causes and pathophysiology of which remain uncertain. We present a case of pneumoperitoneum in an extremely preterm infant with severe growth restriction. This occurred while she was receiving high frequency oscillatory ventilation. She had respiratory distress syndrome with pulmonary interstitial emphysema...
May 16, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767630/characterization-of-cardiorespiratory-phase-synchronization-and-directionality-in-late-premature-and-full-term-infants
#9
Maristella Lucchini, Nicolo Pini, William P Fifer, Nina Burtchen, Maria G Signorini
OBJECTIVE: Though the mutual influence of cardiovascular and respiratory rhythms in healthy newborns has been documented, its full characterization is still pending. In general, activity of many physiological subsystems has a well expressed rhythmic character, and often an interdependency between physiological rhythms emerges early in development. Traditional methods of data analysis only address the quantification of the strength of subsystem interactions. In this work, we will investigate system interrelationships in terms of possible presence of causal or directional interplays...
May 16, 2018: Physiological Measurement
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767563/integrative-physiology-of-pneumonia
#10
Lee J Quinton, Allan J Walkey, Joseph P Mizgerd
Pneumonia is a type of acute lower respiratory infection that is common and severe. The outcome of lower respiratory infection is determined by the degrees to which immunity is protective and inflammation is damaging. Intercellular and interorgan signaling networks coordinate these actions to fight infection and protect the tissue. Cells residing in the lung initiate and steer these responses, with additional immunity effectors recruited from the bloodstream. Responses of extrapulmonary tissues, including the liver, bone marrow, and others, are essential to resistance and resilience...
July 1, 2018: Physiological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765271/approach-to-reconstruction-of-nasal-defects
#11
REVIEW
Berkay Başağaoğlu, Kausar Ali, Pierce Hollier, Renata S Maricevich
The nose is the most central and anterior projecting facial feature. Therefore, the presence of a defect is easily noticeable to the untrained eye. Return of the defect to the original form is an achievable end goal of reconstruction, necessitating appropriate reformation of three-dimensional geometry, proper establishment of symmetry, and excellent color and texture match to the adjacent structures. Regarding its physiological importance, disruption of the normal function may cause respiratory obstruction and contribute to patient distress...
May 2018: Seminars in Plastic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763765/towards-understanding-the-complexity-of-cardiovascular-oscillations-insights-from-information-theory
#12
Michal Javorka, Jana Krohova, Barbora Czippelova, Zuzana Turianikova, Zuzana Lazarova, Radovan Wiszt, Luca Faes
Cardiovascular complexity is a feature of healthy physiological regulation, which stems from the simultaneous activity of several cardiovascular reflexes and other non-reflex physiological mechanisms. It is manifested in the rich dynamics characterizing the spontaneous heart rate and blood pressure variability (HRV and BPV). The present study faces the challenge of disclosing the origin of short-term HRV and BPV from the statistical perspective offered by information theory. To dissect the physiological mechanisms giving rise to cardiovascular complexity in different conditions, measures of predictive information, information storage, information transfer and information modification were applied to the beat-to-beat variability of heart period (HP), systolic arterial pressure (SAP) and respiratory volume signal recorded non-invasively in 61 healthy young subjects at supine rest and during head-up tilt (HUT) and mental arithmetics (MA)...
May 5, 2018: Computers in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760695/group-2-innate-lymphoid-cells-in-pulmonary-immunity-and-tissue-homeostasis
#13
REVIEW
Barbara C Mindt, Jörg H Fritz, Claudia U Duerr
Group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2) represent an evolutionary rather old but only recently identified member of the family of innate lymphoid cells and have received much attention since their detailed description in 2010. They can orchestrate innate as well as adaptive immune responses as they interact with and influence several immune and non-immune cell populations. Moreover, ILC2 are able to rapidly secrete large amounts of type 2 cytokines that can contribute to protective but also detrimental host immune responses depending on timing, location, and physiological context...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760464/co-2-sensitive-trna-modification-associated-with-human-mitochondrial-disease
#14
Huan Lin, Kenjyo Miyauchi, Tai Harada, Ryo Okita, Eri Takeshita, Hirofumi Komaki, Kaoru Fujioka, Hideki Yagasaki, Yu-Ichi Goto, Kaori Yanaka, Shinichi Nakagawa, Yuriko Sakaguchi, Tsutomu Suzuki
It has been generally thought that tRNA modifications are stable and static, and their frequencies are rarely regulated. N6 -threonylcarbamoyladenosine (t6 A) occurs at position 37 of five mitochondrial (mt-)tRNA species. We show that YRDC and OSGEPL1 are responsible for t6 A37 formation, utilizing L-threonine, ATP, and CO2 /bicarbonate as substrates. OSGEPL1-knockout cells exhibit respiratory defects and reduced mitochondrial translation. We find low level of t6 A37 in mutant mt-tRNA isolated from the MERRF-like patient's cells, indicating that lack of t6 A37 results in pathological consequences...
May 14, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760206/alternative-oxidase-activity-reduces-stress-in-vibrio-fischeri-cells-exposed-to-nitric-oxide
#15
Anne K Dunn
Alternative oxidase (Aox) is a non-energy conserving respiratory oxidase found in certain eukaryotes and bacteria, whose role in physiology is not entirely clear. Using the genetically tractable bacterium Vibrio fischeri as a model organism, we have identified a role for Aox to reduce levels of stress in cells exposed to oxygen and nitric oxide (NO). In V. fischeri lacking the NO-detoxifying enzyme flavohemoglobin (Hmp), deletion of aox in cells grown in the presence of oxygen and NO results in alterations to the transcriptome that include increases in transcripts mapping to stress-related genes...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29759075/metabolic-profiles-in-community-acquired-pneumonia-developing-assessment-tools-for-disease-severity
#16
Pu Ning, Yali Zheng, Qiongzhen Luo, Xiaohui Liu, Yu Kang, Yan Zhang, Rongbao Zhang, Yu Xu, Donghong Yang, Wen Xi, Keqiang Wang, Yusheng Chen, Shuchang An, Zhancheng Gao
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to determine whether community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) had a metabolic profile and whether this profile can be used for disease severity assessment. METHODS: A total of 175 individuals including 119 CAP patients and 56 controls were enrolled and divided into two cohorts. Serum samples from a discovery cohort (n = 102, including 38 non-severe CAP, 30 severe CAP, and 34 age and sex-matched controls) were determined by untargeted ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS)-based metabolomics...
May 14, 2018: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758998/high-levels-of-soluble-triggering-receptor-expressed-on-myeloid-cells-like-transcript-tlt-1-are-associated-with-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome
#17
Jessica Morales-Ortíz, Matthew T Rondina, Samuel M Brown, Colin Grissom, A Valance Washington
We have previously demonstrated that elevated levels of soluble triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-like transcript 1 (sTLT-1) modulate sepsis-induced inflammation and positively correlate with disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). Here, we evaluate the clinical implications of plasma sTLT-1 in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), which is common in sepsis patients. Soluble TLT-1 levels in the plasma of ARDS patients (n = 20) were determined by slot blot analysis and were compared with clinical parameters to identify significant associations...
January 1, 2018: Clinical and Applied Thrombosis/hemostasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757127/sulfurovum-denitrificans-sp-nov-an-obligately-chemolithoautotrophic-sulfur-oxidizing-epsilonproteobacterium-isolated-from-a-hydrothermal-field
#18
Koji Mori, Kaoru Yamaguchi, Satoshi Hanada
A novel marine sulfur-oxidizing bacterium, designated strain eps51T , was isolated from a surface rock sample collected from the hydrothermal field of Suiyo Seamount on the Izu-Bonin Arc in the Western Pacific Ocean. This bacterium was Gram-staining-negative, non-motile and rod-shaped. Strain eps51T grew chemolithoautotrophically, by sulfur-oxidizing respiration with elemental sulfur and thiosulfate as electron donors and used only carbon dioxide as a carbon source. Oxygen and nitrate were used as its electron acceptors...
May 14, 2018: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756989/under-diagnosis-and-over-diagnosis-of-asthma
#19
Shawn D Aaron, Louis Philippe Boulet, Helen K Reddel, Andrea Gershon
Asthma is diagnosed based on patients' respiratory symptoms of wheeze, cough, chest tightness and/or dyspnea together with physiologic evidence of variable and reversible expiratory airflow limitation. In the United States 7.6% of adults and 8.4% of children self-report a physician diagnosis of current asthma. Population-based studies in children, adults and the elderly suggest that from 20% to 70% of asthmatics in the community remain undiagnosed and hence untreated. Under-diagnosis of asthma has been found to be associated with under-reporting of respiratory symptoms by patients to their physicians as well as poor socio-economic status...
May 14, 2018: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756414/arterial-to-end-tidal-carbon-dioxide-tension-difference-co-2-gap-as-a-prognostic-marker-for-adverse-outcomes-in-emergency-department-patients-presenting-with-suspected-sepsis
#20
Amith Shetty, Sebastian Sparenberg, Kristian Adams, Selwyn Selvedran, Benjamin Tang, Kim Hanna, Jonathan Iredell
OBJECTIVE: The arterial to end-tidal carbon dioxide tension difference (CO2 gap) correlates with physiologic dead space. The prognostic value of increased CO2 gap in trauma and respiratory distress patients is documented. Transpulmonary arteriovenous shunting is identified as a predictor of mortality in non-pulmonary sepsis. We set out to investigate the prognostic value of the CO2 gap in a pilot study of patients with suspected sepsis from non-respiratory causes. METHODS: Patients presenting to tertiary Australian ED with suspected sepsis (n = 215) underwent near-simultaneous end-tidal carbon dioxide and partial pressure of carbon dioxide measurements...
May 13, 2018: Emergency Medicine Australasia: EMA
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