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Respiratory physiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351446/mechanisms-and-consequences-of-oxidative-stress-in-lung-disease-therapeutic-implications-for-an-aging-populace
#1
Louise Hecker
The rapid expansion of the elderly population has led to the recent epidemic of age-related diseases, including increased incidence and mortality of chronic and acute lung diseases. Numerous studies have implicated aging and oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of various pulmonary diseases; however, despite recent advances in these fields, the specific contributions of aging and oxidative stress remain elusive. This review will discuss the consequences of aging on lung morphology and physiology, and how redox imbalance with aging contributes to lung disease susceptibility...
December 14, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345967/reclassifying-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome
#2
Giorgia Maiolo, Francesca Collino, Francesco Vasques, Francesca Rapetti, Tommaso Tonetti, Federica Romitti, Massimo Cressoni, Davide Chiumello, Onnen Mörer, Peter Herrmann, Tim Friede, Michael Quintel, Luciano Gattinoni
RATIONALE: The ratio of PaO2 to FiO2 (P/F) defines ARDS severity and suggests appropriate therapies. OBJECTIVES: We investigated 1) whether a 150 mmHg P/F threshold within the range of moderate ARDS (100-200 mmHg) would define two, more homogeneous subgroups, 2) which criteria led the clinicians to apply ECMO in severe ARDS. Methods & Measurements: At 150 mmHg P/F threshold, moderate patients were split in mild-moderate (n=50) and moderate-severe (n=55). Severe ARDS patients (FiO2 not available in 3 patients ) were split in higher (n=63) and lower-FiO2 (n=18) at 80% FiO2 threshold...
January 18, 2018: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345213/matcha-green-tea-drinks-enhance-fat-oxidation-during-brisk-walking-in-females
#3
Mark Elisabeth Theodorus Willems, Mehmet Akif Şahin, Matthew David Cook
Intake of the catechin epigallocatechin gallate and caffeine has been shown to enhance exercise-induced fat oxidation. Matcha green tea powder contains catechins and caffeine and is consumed as a drink. We examined the effect of Matcha green tea drinks on metabolic, physiological and perceived intensity responses during brisk walking. Thirteen females (age: 27±8 yr, body mass: 65±7 kg, height: 166±6 cm) volunteered. Resting metabolic equivalent (1-MET) was measured using Douglas bags (1-MET: 3.4±0.3 ml·kg-1·min-1)...
January 18, 2018: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344945/cumulative-risk-exposure-moderates-the-association-between-parasympathetic-reactivity-and-inhibitory-control-in-preschool-age-children
#4
Ryan J Giuliano, Leslie E Roos, Jessica D Farrar, Elizabeth A Skowron
A child's cumulative risk for early exposure to stress has been linked to alterations of self-regulation outcomes, including neurobiological correlates of inhibitory control (IC). We examined whether children's ability to engage the parasympathetic nervous system impacts how risk affects IC. Children ages 3-5 years completed two laboratory measures of IC while respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) was measured, indexing parasympathetic activity. Children with greater risk demonstrated lower IC; risk also moderated associations between RSA reactivity and IC...
January 18, 2018: Developmental Psychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341023/anesthesia-and-monitoring-of-animals-during-mri-studies
#5
Jordi L Tremoleda, Sven Macholl, Jane K Sosabowski
The use of imaging represents a major impact on the refinement and the reduction of in vivo studies in animal models, in particular for allowing longitudinal monitoring of the onset and the progression of disease within the same animal, and studying the biological effects of drug candidate and their therapeutic effectiveness. But the use of imaging procedures can affect animal physiology, and the need to anesthetize the animals for imaging entails potential health risks. During anesthesia, there is an inevitable autonomic nervous system depression which induces cardiovascular depression, respiratory depression, and hypothermia...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340799/fully-automated-life-support-an-implementation-and-feasibility-pilot-study-in-healthy-pigs
#6
Wilfried Klingert, Jörg Peter, Christian Thiel, Karolin Thiel, Wolfgang Rosenstiel, Kathrin Klingert, Christian Grasshoff, Alfred Königsrainer, Martin Schenk
BACKGROUND: Automated systems are available in various application areas all over the world for the purpose of reducing workload and increasing safety. However, such support systems that would aid caregivers are still lacking in the medical sector. With respect to workload and safety, especially, the intensive care unit appears to be an important and challenging application field. Whereas many closed-loop subsystems for single applications already exist, no comprehensive system covering multiple therapeutic aspects and interactions is available yet...
January 16, 2018: Intensive Care Medicine Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340500/respiratory-evaluation-through-volumetric-capnography-among-grade-iii-obese-and-eutrophic-individuals-a-comparative-study
#7
Débora Aparecida Oliveira Modena, Marcos Mello Moreira, Ilma Aparecida Paschoal, Mônica Corso Pereira, Luiz Cláudio Martins, Everton Cazzo, Elinton Adami Chaim
BACKGROUND: Excess trunk body fat in obese individuals influences respiratory physiological function. The aims of this study were to compare volumetric capnography findings (VCap) between severely obese patients and normal-weight subjects and to assess whether there is any association between neck circumference (NC), waist-hip ratio (WHR) and VCap among grade III obese individuals. DESIGN AND SETTING: Analytical observational case-matched cross-sectional study, University of Campinas...
January 15, 2018: São Paulo Medical Journal, Revista Paulista de Medicina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337433/numerical-simulation-of-two-consecutive-nasal-respiratory-cycles-toward-a-better-understanding-of-nasal-physiology
#8
Ludovic de Gabory, Nicolas Reville, Yannick Baux, Nicolas Boisson, Laurence Bordenave
BACKGROUND: Computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulations have greatly improved the understanding of nasal physiology. We postulate that simulating the entire and repeated respiratory nasal cycles, within the whole sinonasal cavities, is mandatory to gather more accurate observations and better understand airflow patterns. METHODS: A 3-dimensional (3D) sinonasal model was constructed from a healthy adult computed tomography (CT) scan which discretized in 6.6 million cells (mean volume, 0...
January 16, 2018: International Forum of Allergy & Rhinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336842/immunohistochemical-localization-of-angiotensin-at1-receptors-in-the-rat-carotid-body
#9
Dimitrinka Y Atanasova, Angel D Dandov, Nikolay D Dimitrov, Nikolai E Lazarov
The carotid body (CB) is a major peripheral arterial chemoreceptor that initiates respiratory and cardiovascular adjustments to maintain homeostasis. Recent evidence suggests that circulating or locally produced hormones like angiotensin II acting via AT1 receptors modulate its activity in a paracrine-autocrine manner. The aim of this study was to examine the immunohistochemical localization of AT1 receptor in the CB of adult rats and to compare its expression in vehicle-treated animals, and after the long-term application of its selective blocker losartan...
January 12, 2018: Acta Histochemica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331348/effects-of-l-tryptophan-on-the-growth-intestinal-enzyme-activities-and-non-specific-immune-response-of-sea-cucumber-apostichopus-japonicus-selenka-exposed-to-crowding-stress
#10
Endong Zhang, Shuanglin Dong, Fang Wang, Xiangli Tian, Qinfeng Gao
In order to reveal the effects of l-tryptophan (Trp) on the physiology and immune response of sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus Selenka) exposed to crowding stress, four density groups of sea cucumbers (i.e. 4, 8, 16 and 32 individuals per 40 L water, represented as L, ML, MH and H) were fed with diets containing 0, 1, 3 and 5% l-tryptophan respectively for 75 days. The results showed that the specific growth rates (SGR) of the sea cucumber fed with diet with 3% Trp (L, 2.1; ML, 1.76; MH, 1.2; H, 0.7) were significantly higher than those fed with basal diet without Trp supplementation (P < ...
January 10, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330917/mitochondrial-respiratory-capacity-remains-stable-despite-a-comprehensive-and-sustained-increase-in-insulin-sensitivity-in-obese-patients-undergoing-gastric-bypass-surgery
#11
Michael T Lund, Steen Larsen, Merethe Hansen, Julie Courraud, Andrea K Floyd, Mikael Støckel, Jørn W Helge, Flemming Dela
AIM: It has been proposed, but not yet demonstrated by convincing evidence in published articles, that insulin resistance and mitochondrial respiratory function are causally-related physiological phenomena. Here, we tested the prediction that weight loss induced increase in insulin sensitivity will correlate with a corresponding change in mitochondrial respiratory capacity over the same time period. METHODS: Insulin sensitivity was evaluated using the hyperinsulinaemic-euglycemic clamp technique and skeletal muscle mitochondrial respiratory capacity was evaluated by high-resolution respirometry in 26 patients with obesity...
January 13, 2018: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329416/automatic-ecg-based-detection-of-autonomic-arousals-and-their-association-with-cortical-arousals-leg-movements-and-respiratory-events-in-sleep
#12
Mads Olsen, Logan Douglas Schneider, Joseph Cheung, Paul E Peppard, Poul J Jennum, Emmanuel Mignot, Helge Bjarup Dissing Sorensen
Study objectives: The current definition of sleep arousals neglects to address the diversity of arousals and their systemic cohesion. Autonomic arousals (AA) are autonomic activations often associated with cortical arousals (CA), but they may also occur in isolation in relation to a respiratory event, a leg movement event or spontaneously, without any other physiological associations. AA should be acknowledged as essential events to understand and explore the systemic implications of arousals...
January 10, 2018: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327410/genomic-insights-into-the-acidobacteria-reveal-strategies-for-their-success-in-terrestrial-environments
#13
Stephanie A Eichorst, Daniela Trojan, Simon Roux, Craig Herbold, Thomas Rattei, Dagmar Woebken
Members of the phylum Acidobacteria are abundant and ubiquitous across soils. We performed the largest (to date) comparative genome analysis spanning subdivisions 1, 3, 4, 6, 8, and 23 (n=24) with the goal to identify features to help explain their prevalence in soils and understand their ecophysiology. In contrast to earlier studies, our analysis revealed that bacteriophage integration events along with transposable and mobile elements influenced the structure and plasticity of these genomes. Low- and high-affinity respiratory oxygen reductases were detected in multiple genomes, suggesting the capacity for growing across different oxygen gradients...
January 12, 2018: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325753/induced-hypothermia-in-patients-with-septic-shock-and-respiratory-failure-cass-a-randomised-controlled-open-label-trial
#14
Theis Skovsgaard Itenov, Maria Egede Johansen, Morten Bestle, Katrin Thormar, Lars Hein, Louise Gyldensted, Anne Lindhardt, Henrik Christensen, Stine Estrup, Henrik Planck Pedersen, Matthew Harmon, Uday Kant Soni, Silvia Perez-Protto, Nicolai Wesche, Ulrik Skram, John Asger Petersen, Thomas Mohr, Tina Waldau, Lone Musaeus Poulsen, Ditte Strange, Nicole P Juffermans, Daniel I Sessler, Else Tønnesen, Kirsten Møller, Dennis Karsten Kristensen, Alessandro Cozzi-Lepri, Jens D Lundgren, Jens-Ulrik Jensen
BACKGROUND: Animal models of serious infection suggest that 24 h of induced hypothermia improves circulatory and respiratory function and reduces mortality. We tested the hypothesis that a reduction of core temperature to 32-34°C attenuates organ dysfunction and reduces mortality in ventilator-dependent patients with septic shock. METHODS: In this randomised, controlled, open-label trial, we recruited patients from ten intensive care units (ICUs) in three countries in Europe and North America...
January 8, 2018: Lancet Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325586/high-frequency-percussive-ventilation-increases-alveolar-recruitment-in-early-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome-an-experimental-physiological-and-ct-scan-study
#15
Thomas Godet, Matthieu Jabaudon, Raïko Blondonnet, Aymeric Tremblay, Jules Audard, Benjamin Rieu, Bruno Pereira, Jean-Marc Garcier, Emmanuel Futier, Jean-Michel Constantin
BACKGROUND: High frequency percussive ventilation (HFPV) combines diffusive (high frequency mini-bursts) and convective ventilation patterns. Benefits include enhanced oxygenation and hemodynamics, and alveolar recruitment, while providing hypothetic lung-protective ventilation. No study has investigated HFPV-induced changes in lung aeration in patients with early acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). METHODS: Eight patients with early non-focal ARDS were enrolled and five swine with early non-focal ARDS were studied in prospective computed tomography (CT) scan and animal studies, in a university-hospital tertiary ICU and an animal laboratory...
January 11, 2018: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325098/high-level-of-neutrophil-extracellular-traps-correlates-with-poor-prognosis-of-severe-influenza-a-infection
#16
Liuluan Zhu, Lu Liu, Yue Zhang, Lin Pu, Jingyuan Liu, Xingwang Li, Zhihai Chen, Yu Hao, Beibei Wang, Junyan Han, Guoli Li, Shuntao Liang, Haofeng Xiong, Hong Zheng, Ang Li, Jianqing Xu, Hui Zeng
Background: Most patients with severe infection with influenza A virus (IAV) progress to acute respiratory distress syndrome and even multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS). Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) can be induced by pathogens and are responsible for immune tissue damage. We conducted a prospective study on the production and effects of NETs in H7N9 and H1N1 patients. Methods: We investigated NET production in plasma and supernatant of cultured neutrophils by measuring cell-free deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and myeloperoxidase (MPO)-DNA complexes with PicoGreen dye and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay methods, respectively...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324771/impact-of-grouping-complications-on-mortality-in-traumatic-brain-injury-a-nationwide-population-based-study
#17
Chung-Han Ho, Fu-Wen Liang, Jhi-Joung Wang, Chung-Ching Chio, Jinn-Rung Kuo
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is an important health issue with high mortality. Various complications of physiological and cognitive impairment may result in disability or death after TBI. Grouping of these complications could be treated as integrated post-TBI syndromes. To improve risk estimation, grouping TBI complications should be investigated, to better predict TBI mortality. This study aimed to estimate mortality risk based on grouping of complications among TBI patients. Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database was used in this study...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321057/influenza-a-virus-infection-impacts-systemic-microbiota-dynamics-and-causes-quantitative-enteric-dysbiosis
#18
Soner Yildiz, Béryl Mazel-Sanchez, Matheswaran Kandasamy, Balaji Manicassamy, Mirco Schmolke
BACKGROUND: Microbiota integrity is essential for a growing number of physiological processes. Consequently, disruption of microbiota homeostasis correlates with a variety of pathological states. Importantly, commensal microbiota provide a shield against invading bacterial pathogens, probably by direct competition. The impact of viral infections on host microbiota composition and dynamics is poorly understood. Influenza A viruses (IAV) are common respiratory pathogens causing acute infections...
January 10, 2018: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319013/intraoperative-cardiovascular-response-of-natural-orifice-transluminal-endoscopic-surgery-versus-laparoscopy-a-comparative-animal-study
#19
Stefan Patrascu, Catalin Andu Copaescu, Valeriu Surlin, Sandu Ramboiu, Alice Nicoleta Dragoescu, Sorin Stanilescu, Dan Cristian, Bogdan Silviu Ungureanu, Daniela Elena Burtea, Ana Maria Patrascu, Florin Turcu, Adrian Saftoiu
BACKGROUND: Natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) emerged as a new alternative method in minimally invasive techniques. Although a very small number of studies have compared the physiologic response in NOTES to laparoscopy, the results remain controversial. AIM: This experimental animal study aims to evaluate the intraoperative cardiovascular and respiratory effects of pure transluminal natural orifice surgery and conventional laparoscopy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty female pigs (Sus scrofa domesticus) equally divided into two study groups were assigned to either pure natural orifice transluminal endoscopic techniques (Group 1) or conventional laparoscopic surgery (Group 2) and monitored intraoperatively in terms of heart rate (HR), systolic blood pressure (SBP) and O2saturation (SpO2) for 1 h...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Minimal Access Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317806/profile-of-sugammadex-for-reversal-of-neuromuscular-blockade-in-the-elderly-current-perspectives
#20
REVIEW
Michele Carron, Francesco Bertoncello, Giovanna Ieppariello
The number of elderly patients is increasing worldwide. This will have a significant impact on the practice of anesthesia in future decades. Anesthesiologists must provide care for an increasing number of elderly patients, who have an elevated risk of perioperative morbidity and mortality. Complications related to postoperative residual neuromuscular blockade, such as muscle weakness, airway obstruction, hypoxemia, atelectasis, pneumonia, and acute respiratory failure, are more frequent in older than in younger patients...
2018: Clinical Interventions in Aging
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