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Respiratory physiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432665/systemic-and-microcirculatory-effects-of-blood-transfusion-in-experimental-hemorrhagic-shock
#1
Gonzalo Ferrara, Vanina S Kanoore Edul, Héctor S Canales, Enrique Martins, Carlos Canullán, Gastón Murias, Mario O Pozo, Juan F Caminos Eguillor, María G Buscetti, Can Ince, Arnaldo Dubin
BACKGROUND: The microvascular reperfusion injury after retransfusion has not been completely characterized. Specifically, the question of heterogeneity among different microvascular beds needs to be addressed. In addition, the identification of anaerobic metabolism is elusive. The venoarterial PCO2 to arteriovenous oxygen content difference ratio (Pv-aCO2/Ca-vO2) might be a surrogate for respiratory quotient, but this has not been validated. Therefore, our goal was to characterize sublingual and intestinal (mucosal and serosal) microvascular injury after blood resuscitation in hemorrhagic shock and its relation with O2 and CO2 metabolism...
December 2017: Intensive Care Medicine Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432664/human-perinatal-immunity-in-physiological-conditions-and-during-infection
#2
REVIEW
Gijs T J van Well, Leonie A Daalderop, Tim Wolfs, Boris W Kramer
The intrauterine environment was long considered sterile. However, several infectious threats are already present during fetal life. This review focuses on the postnatal immunological consequences of prenatal exposure to microorganisms and related inflammatory stimuli. Both the innate and adaptive immune systems of the fetus and neonate are immature, which makes them highly susceptible to infections. There is good evidence that prenatal infections are a primary cause of preterm births. Additionally, the association between antenatal inflammation and adverse neonatal outcomes has been well established...
December 2017: Molecular and Cellular Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431550/the-physiological-cost-of-male-biased-parasitism-in-a-nearly-monomorphic-mammal
#3
Arturo Oliver-Guimerá, Carlos Martínez-Carrasco, Asta Tvarijonaviciute, María Rocío Ruiz de Ybáñez, Jordi Martínez-Guijosa, Jorge Ramón López-Olvera, Xavier Fernández-Aguilar, Andreu Colom-Cadena, Gregorio Mentaberre, Roser Velarde, Diana Gassó, Mathieu Garel, Luca Rossi, Santiago Lavín, Emmanuel Serrano
BACKGROUND: Even though male-biased parasitism is common in mammals, little effort has been made to evaluate whether higher parasitic burden in males results in an extra biological cost, and thus a decrease in fitness. Body condition impairment and the augmentation of oxidative stress can be used as indicators of the cost of parasite infections. Here, we examined relationships between gastrointestinal and respiratory helminths, body condition and oxidative stress markers (glutathione peroxidase, paraoxonase-1) in 28 Pyrenean chamois (Rupicapra p...
April 21, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431199/staphylococcus-aureus-nitric-oxide-synthase-sanos-modulates-aerobic-respiratory-metabolism-and-cell-physiology
#4
Austin B Mogen, Ronan K Carroll, Kimberly L James, Genevy Lima, Dona Silva, Jeffrey A Culver, Christopher Petucci, Lindsey N Shaw, Kelly C Rice
Nitric oxide (NO) is generated from arginine and oxygen via NO synthase (NOS). Staphylococcus aureus NOS (saNOS) has previously been shown to affect virulence and resistance to exogenous oxidative stress, yet the exact mechanism is unknown. Herein, we report a previously-undescribed role of saNOS in S. aureus aerobic physiology. Specifically, aerobic S. aureus nos mutant cultures presented with elevated endogenous reactive oxygen species (ROS) and superoxide levels, as well as increased membrane potential, increased respiratory dehydrogenase activity, and slightly elevated oxygen consumption...
April 21, 2017: Molecular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431142/respiratory-chain-enzyme-deficiency-induces-mitochondrial-location-of-actin-binding-gelsolin-to-modulate-the-oligomerization-of-vdac-complexes-and-cell-survival
#5
Alberto García-Bartolomé, Ana Peñas, Lorena Marín-Buera, Teresa Lobo-Jarne, Rafael Pérez-Pérez, María Morán, Joaquín Arenas, Miguel A Martín, Cristina Ugalde
Despite considerable knowledge on the genetic basis of mitochondrial disorders, their pathophysiological consequences remain poorly understood. We previously used 2D-DIGE analyses to define a protein profile characteristic for respiratory chain complex III-deficiency that included a significant overexpression of cytosolic Gelsolin (GSN), a cytoskeletal protein that regulates the severing and capping of the actin filaments. Biochemical and immunofluorescence assays confirmed a specific increase of GSN levels in the mitochondria from patientś fibroblasts and from transmitochondrial cybrids with complex III assembly defects...
April 18, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428678/productive-cough-in-children-and-adolescents-view-from-primary-health-care-system
#6
REVIEW
Edin Begic, Zijo Begic, Amra Dobraca, Edo Hasanbegovic
Cough is one of the most common symptoms that doctor faces in working with pediatric population, and according to some characteristics of cough, doctors can often conclude localization, and sometimes even the nature of the disease that causes it. Cough is not only the physiological defense reaction, but a symptom of a disease. According to duration it can be acute, chronic and recidivist, recurrent and persistent, strong or discreet, caused by changes in body position and changes in outside temperature. Pathoanatomically it is divided into lobar, lobular, alveolar and interstitial, pathogenetically to bronchogenic and hematogenous, as well as in immuno competent and immunocompromised, and clinically on the local and inpatient (72 hours after hospital admission)...
February 2017: Medical Archives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428045/sco2-deficient-mice-develop-increased-adiposity-and-insulin-resistance
#7
Shauna Hill, Sathyaseelan S Deepa, Kavithalakshmi Sataranatarajan, Pavithra Premkumar, Daniel Pulliam, Yuhong Liu, Vanessa Y Soto, Kathleen E Fischer, Holly Van Remmen
Cytochrome c oxidase (COX) is an essential transmembrane protein complex (Complex IV) in the mitochondrial respiratory electron chain. Mutations in genes responsible for the assembly of COX are associated with Leigh syndrome, cardiomyopathy, spinal muscular atrophy and other fatal metabolic disorders in humans. Previous studies have shown that mice lacking the COX assembly protein Surf1 (Surf1(-/-) mice) paradoxically show a number of beneficial metabolic phenotypes including increased insulin sensitivity, upregulation of mitochondrial biogenesis, induction of stress response pathways and increased lifespan...
April 17, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427918/endocan-is-a-stable-circulating-molecule-in-icu-patients
#8
Gaudet Alexandre, Chenevier-Gobeaux Camille, Parmentier Erika, Delobel Jean-Edouard, Dubucquoi Sylvain, Mathieu Daniel, Lassalle Philippe, De Freitas Caires Nathalie
BACKGROUND: Endocan is a lung endothelial cell secreted proteoglycan, possessing multiple physiological roles and potential therapeutic and diagnostic utility as biomarker in pneumonia and acute respiratory distress syndrome. Endocan synthesis and secretion can be induced by proinflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α, but can also be subject of proteolytic degradation causing preanalytical variation. METHODS: We investigated the stability of endocan in conventional serum, plasma, anticoagulated whole blood, as well as whole blood and plasma stabilized with protease inhibitors...
April 17, 2017: Clinical Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424806/book-review-oxford-desk-reference-acute-medicine
#9
Chris Roseveare
This book was published in hardback by Oxford University Press in 2016. Comprising 824 pages of small font text, it covers the full range of conditions which would be encountered on the acute medical take in considerable detail. The book is laid out in a traditional format, with most of the chapters defined by a physiological system - cardiovascular, respiratory, endocrinology, etc, and subsections for individual diagnoses within each of the chapters.
2017: Acute Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421269/thermal-balance-of-nellore-cattle
#10
Cíntia Carol de Melo Costa, Alex Sandro Campos Maia, Sheila Tavares Nascimento, Carolina Cardoso Nagib Nascimento, Marcos Chiquitelli Neto, Vinícius de França Carvalho Fonsêca
This work aimed at characterizing the thermal balance of Nellore cattle from the system of indirect calorimetry using a facial mask. The study was conducted at the Animal Biometeorology Laboratory of the São Paulo State University, Jaboticabal, Brazil. Five male Nellore weighing 750 ± 62 kg, at similar ages and body conditions were distributed in four 5 × 5 Latin squares (5 days of records and five schedules) during 20 days. Physiological and environmental measurements were obtained from the indirect calorimetry system using a facial mask...
April 18, 2017: International Journal of Biometeorology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420470/-explore-objective-clinical-variables-for-detecting-delirium-in-icu-patients-a-prospective-case-control-study
#11
Xiaojiang Liu, Jie Lyu, Youzhong An
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this case-control study is to explore clinical objective variables for diagnosing delirium of intensive care unit (ICU) patients. METHODS: According to the method of prospective case-control study, critical adult postoperative patients who were transferred to ICU of Peking University People's Hospital from October 2015 to May 2016 and needed mechanical ventilation were included. After evaluating the Richmond agitation sedation scale score (RASS), the patients whose score were -2 or greater were sorted into two groups, delirium and non-delirium, according to the confusion assessment method for the ICU (CAM-ICU)...
April 2017: Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419872/stimulation-of-the-brain-serotonin-receptor-7-rescues-mitochondrial-dysfunction-in-female-mice-from-two-models-of-rett-syndrome
#12
Daniela Valenti, Lidia de Bari, Daniele Vigli, Enza Lacivita, Marcello Leopoldo, Giovanni Laviola, Rosa Anna Vacca, Bianca De Filippis
Rett syndrome (RTT) is a rare neurodevelopmental disorder, characterized by severe behavioral and physiological symptoms. Mutations in the methyl CpG binding protein 2 gene (MECP2) cause more than 95% of classic cases, and currently there is no cure for this devastating disorder. Recently we have demonstrated that neurobehavioral and brain molecular alterations can be rescued in a RTT mouse model, by pharmacological stimulation of the brain serotonin receptor 7 (5-HT7R). This member of the serotonin receptor family, crucially involved in the regulation of brain structural plasticity and cognitive processes, can be stimulated by systemic repeated treatment with LP-211, a brain-penetrant selective agonist...
April 15, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418684/slow-yogic-breathing-and-long-term-cardiac-autonomic-adaptations-a-pilot-study
#13
Suzanne M Bertisch, Jason Hamner, J Andrew Taylor
OBJECTIVES: To examine whether long-term practice of yogic breathing alters cardiac autonomic control. DESIGN: Age-sex matched, cross-sectional, physiologic pilot study. SETTINGS/LOCATION: Spaulding Rehabilitation Hospital, Cardiovascular Laboratory, Cambridge, MA. PARTICIPANTS: Twenty-six (26) long-term yoga practitioners and 26 age- and sex-matched controls, free of cardiovascular disease. OUTCOME: Cardiac vagal outflow as assessed by respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA)...
April 18, 2017: Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine: Research on Paradigm, Practice, and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418073/evolved-changes-in-the-intracellular-distribution-and-physiology-of-muscle-mitochondria-in-high-altitude-native-deer-mice
#14
Sajeni Mahalingam, Grant B McClelland, Graham R Scott
High-altitude natives that have evolved to live in hypoxic environments provide a compelling system to understand how animals can overcome impairments in oxygen availability. We examined whether these include changes in mitochondrial physiology or intracellular distribution that contribute to hypoxia resistance in high-altitude deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus). Mice from populations native to high- and low-altitudes were born and raised in captivity, and as adults were acclimated to normoxia or hypobaric hypoxia (equivalent to 4,300 m elevation)...
April 18, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416899/the-efficacy-of-a-discontinuous-graded-exercise-test-in-measuring-peak-oxygen-uptake-in-children-aged-8-to-10-years
#15
D Lambrick, J Jakeman, R Grigg, S Kaufmann, J Faulkner
As children's natural activity patterns are highly intermittent in nature, and characterised by rapid changes from rest to vigorous physical activity, discontinuous exercise tests may be considered ecologically valid for this population group. This study compared the peak physiological responses from a discontinuous and continuous graded exercise test (GXT_D, GXT_C, respectively) during treadmill exercise in children. Twenty-one healthy children (9.6 ± 0.6 y) completed GXT_D and GXT_C in a randomised order, separated by 72-hours...
March 2017: Biology of Sport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416656/effect-of-cholesterol-on-the-molecular-structure-and-transitions-in-a-clinical-grade-lung-surfactant-extract
#16
Jenny Marie Andersson, Carl Grey, Marcus Larsson, Tiago Mendes Ferreira, Emma Sparr
The lipid-protein film covering the interface of the lung alveolar in mammals is vital for proper lung function and its deficiency is related to a range of diseases. Here we present a molecular-level characterization of a clinical-grade porcine lung surfactant extract using a multitechnique approach consisting of [Formula: see text]-[Formula: see text] solid-state nuclear magnetic spectroscopy, small- and wide-angle X-ray scattering, and mass spectrometry. The detailed characterization presented for reconstituted membranes of a lung extract demonstrates that the molecular structure of lung surfactant strongly depends on the concentration of cholesterol...
April 17, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416423/dietary-administration-of-sodium-alginate-ameliorated-stress-and-promoted-immune-resistance-of-grouper-epinephelus-coioides-under-cold-stress
#17
Pai-Po Lee, Yu-Hung Lin, Min-Chieh Chen, Winton Cheng
Grouper, Epinephelus coioides, fed a diet containing sodium alginate at 0 (control, named C) and 1.0 g kg(-1) (named S) at a temperature of 28 °C for 12 days, were then further individually transferred to 28 (two groups named C-28 and S-28) or 20 °C (two groups named C-20 and S-20), and immune parameters and stress indexes were measured at the beginning and after 6, 12, 24 and 48 h of exposure. Examination of immune parameters revealed that the alternative complement activity (ACH50), lysozyme activity, phagocytic activity, superoxide dismutase, and respiratory bursts significantly increased in groupers fed the sodium alginate-containing diet for 12 days, and were higher in the S-28 than those of the C-28 and S-20 groups, which were higher than those of the C-20 group from 6 to 48 h except for ACH50 at 48 h, respiratory bursts at 48 h, and lysozymes at 6 h...
April 14, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413621/recent-advances-in-pediatric-ventilatory-assistance
#18
REVIEW
Nicolas Nardi, Guillaume Mortamet, Laurence Ducharme-Crevier, Guillaume Emeriaud, Philippe Jouvet
In this review on respiratory assistance, we aim to discuss the following recent advances: the optimization and customization of mechanical ventilation, the use of high-frequency oscillatory ventilation, and the role of noninvasive ventilation. The prevention of ventilator-induced lung injury and diaphragmatic dysfunction is now a key aspect in the management of mechanical ventilation, since these complications may lead to higher mortality and prolonged length of stay in intensive care units. Different physiological measurements, such as esophageal pressure, electrical activity of the diaphragm, and volumetric capnography, may be useful objective tools to help guide ventilator assistance...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413081/how-can-video-based-sessions-improve-e-learning-of-respiratory-physiology
#19
Pierantonio Laveneziana, Alexandre Duguet, Christian Straus
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 13, 2017: Archivos de Bronconeumología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412613/intensified-emotion-perception-in-depression-differences-in-physiological-arousal-and-subjective-perceptions
#20
Sofia Wenzler, Marleen Hagen, Mika P Tarvainen, Marietheres Hilke, Naddy Ghirmai, Ann-Caitlin Huthmacher, Marco Trettin, Rolf van Dick, Andreas Reif, Viola Oertel-Knöchel
People suffering from depression perceive themselves and their surroundings as more negative than healthy ones. An explanation might be that depressed individuals experience negative information as more stressful than non-depressed subjects and, consequently, respond in an amplified manner on a subjective and physiological level. To test this proposition, we presented 41 patients with recurrent depressive episodes and 42 controls with stimuli from the International Affective Picture System split into three valence categories while different parameters of physiological arousal (e...
April 2, 2017: Psychiatry Research
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