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Jon-Vidar Gaustad, Trude G Simonsen, Lise Mari K Andersen, Einar K Rofstad
In this study, the effect of properdistatin, a novel peptide derived from the thrombospondin 1 (TSP-1) domain of properdin, was investigated in three melanoma xenograft models with different TSP-1 expression. The tumors were grown in dorsal window chambers and were treated with 80 mg/kg/day properdistatin or vehicle. Morphological parameters of the tumor vasculature were assessed from high resolution transillumination images. Blood supply time (i.e., the time required for arterial blood to flow from a supplying artery to downstream microvessels) and plasma velocities were assessed from first-pass imaging movies recorded after a bolus of fluorescence-labeled dextran had been administered intravenously...
October 15, 2016: Oncotarget
(no author information available yet)
This policy statement provides recommendations for the prevention of serogroup B meningococcal disease through the use of 2 newly licensed serogroup B meningococcal vaccines: MenB-FHbp (Trumenba; Wyeth Pharmaceuticals, a subsidiary of Pfizer, Philadelphia, PA) and MenB-4C (Bexsero; Novartis Vaccines, Siena, Italy). Both vaccines are approved for use in persons 10 through 25 years of age. MenB-FHbp is licensed as a 2- or 3-dose series, and MenB-4C is licensed as a 2-dose series for all groups. Either vaccine is recommended for routine use in persons 10 years and older who are at increased risk of serogroup B meningococcal disease (category A recommendation)...
September 2016: Pediatrics
Naylene C S Silva, Vladimir F Vale, Paula F Franco, Nelder F Gontijo, Jesus G Valenzuela, Marcos H Pereira, Mauricio R V Sant'Anna, Daniel S Rodrigues, Walter S Lima, Blima Fux, Ricardo N Araujo
BACKGROUND: Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus is the main ectoparasite affecting livestock worldwide. For a successful parasitism, ticks need to evade several immune responses of their hosts, including the activation of the complement system. In spite of the importance of R. microplus, previous work only identified one salivary molecule that blocks the complement system. The current study describes complement inhibitory activities induced by R. microplus salivary components and mechanisms elicited by putative salivary proteins on both classical and alternative complement pathways...
2016: Parasites & Vectors
Felix Poppelaars, Mariana Gaya da Costa, Stefan P Berger, Solmaz Assa, Anita H Meter-Arkema, Mohamed R Daha, Willem J van Son, Casper F M Franssen, Marc A J Seelen
BACKGROUND: Hemodialysis patients have higher rates of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality compared to the general population. Mannose-binding lectin (MBL) plays an important role in the development of cardiovascular disease. In addition, hemodialysis alters MBL concentration and functional activity. The present study determines the predictive value of MBL levels for future cardiac events (C-event), cardiovascular events (CV-event) and all-cause mortality in HD patients. METHODS: We conducted a prospective study of 107 patients on maintenance hemodialysis...
2016: Journal of Translational Medicine
Thomas C B Wong, Martha Rebbert, Chengdong Wang, Xiongfong Chen, Alison Heffer, Valeria E Zarelli, Igor B Dawid, Hui Zhao
Neural crest (NC) development is controlled precisely by a regulatory network with multiple signaling pathways and the involvement of many genes. The integration and coordination of these factors are still incompletely understood. Overexpression of Wnt3a and the BMP antagonist Chordin in animal cap cells from Xenopus blastulae induces a large number of NC specific genes. We previously suggested that Potassium Channel Tetramerization Domain containing 15 (Kctd15) regulates NC formation by affecting Wnt signaling and the activity of transcription factor AP-2...
2016: International Journal of Developmental Biology
Soren W K Hansen, Katsuki Ohtani, Nitai Roy, Nobutaka Wakamiya
Both the complement system and collectins play important roles in our innate immune system. The collectins, which are characterized by their inclusion of a collagen-like region and a calcium-dependent carbohydrate recognition domain, are pattern recognition molecules and include the well characterized proteins mannan-binding lectin (MBL) and the surfactant proteins SP-A/-D. Collectin liver 1 (CL-L1), collectin kidney 1 (CL-K1) and collectin placenta 1 (CL-P1) are the most recently discovered collectins. Although their function is still under investigation, accumulating information suggests that CL-L1, CL-K1 and CL-P1 play important roles in host defense by recognizing a variety of microorganisms and interacting with effector proteins, including complement components...
October 2016: Immunobiology
Satoshi Uchiyama, Nadia Keller, Erika Schlaepfer, Christina Grube, Reto A Schuepbach, Roberto F Speck, Annelies S Zinkernagel
BACKGROUND: Neutrophils and monocytes are crucial for controlling bacterial infections. More-frequent bacterial infections are accordingly encountered in neutropenic patients undergoing chemotherapy. This is not the case for pegylated interferon α (IFN-α)-induced neutropenia. We hypothesized that IFN-α induces a compensatory innate antibacterial state that prevents bacterial infections despite the neutropenia. METHODS: To investigate whether patients with hepatitis C virus infection treated with IFN-α killed group A Streptococcus (GAS) better than before initiating therapy, whole blood was used to perform ex vivo GAS killing assays before, during, and after IFN-α therapy...
July 15, 2016: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Antonio F Mendes-Sousa, Daniel C Queiroz, Vladimir F Vale, José M C Ribeiro, Jesus G Valenzuela, Nelder F Gontijo, John F Andersen
The complement system present in circulating blood is an effective mechanism of host defense, responsible for the killing of pathogens and the production of potent anaphylatoxins. Inhibitors of the complement system have been described in the saliva of hematophagous arthropods that are involved in the protection of digestive tissues against complement system-mediated damage. In this study, we describe albicin, a novel inhibitor of the alternative pathway of complement from the salivary glands of the malaria vector, Anopheles albimanus The inhibitor was purified from salivary gland homogenates by reverse-phase HPLC and identified by mass spectrometry as a small (13...
July 15, 2016: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
Simon J Freeley, Reena J Popat, Kiran Parmar, Martin Kolev, Beverley J Hunt, Cordula M Stover, Willhelm Schwaeble, Claudia Kemper, Michael G Robson
Anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody vasculitis is a systemic autoimmune disease with glomerulonephritis and pulmonary haemorrhage as major clinical manifestations. The name reflects the presence of autoantibodies to myeloperoxidase and proteinase-3, which bind to both neutrophils and monocytes. Evidence of the pathogenicity of these autoantibodies is provided by the observation that injection of anti-myeloperoxidase antibodies into mice causes a pauci-immune focal segmental necrotizing glomerulonephritis which is histologically similar to the changes seen on renal biopsy in patients...
September 2016: Journal of Pathology
Adam Z Blatt, Gurpanna Saggu, Koustubh V Kulkarni, Claudio Cortes, Joshua M Thurman, Daniel Ricklin, John D Lambris, Jesus G Valenzuela, Viviana P Ferreira
Enhanced levels of platelet/granulocyte aggregates (PGAs) are found in patients suffering from many different inflammatory vascular diseases, and their formation in animal models of vascular disease is associated with increased thromboinflammation and worsened outcomes. The complement system, a part of the innate immune system, influences PGA formation, but the mechanisms for its effects are unknown. In this study, we have defined complement-mediated mechanisms that enhance PGA formation in human whole blood stimulated with thrombin receptor-activating peptide (TRAP) using ex vivo flow cytometry assays...
June 1, 2016: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
Stéphane Bally, Hanna Debiec, Denise Ponard, Frédérique Dijoud, John Rendu, Julien Fauré, Pierre Ronco, Chantal Dumestre-Perard
Most patients with idiopathic membranous nephropathy (IMN) have IgG4 autoantibodies against phospholipase A2 receptor (PLA2R). C3 and C5b-9 are found in immune deposits of IMN kidney biopsy specimens, but the pathway of complement activation in IMN remains elusive. We report the case of a patient who developed IMN with intense staining for PLA2R, IgG4, C3, C5b-9, factor B, and properdin and very weak staining for C1q, C4d, and IgG1. Measurement of mannan binding lectin (MBL) antigenic level and activity revealed MBL deficiency...
May 6, 2016: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
Joshua Yuen, Fred G Pluthero, David N Douda, Magdalena Riedl, Ahmed Cherry, Marina Ulanova, Walter H A Kahr, Nades Palaniyar, Christoph Licht
Neutrophils deposit antimicrobial proteins, such as myeloperoxidase and proteases on chromatin, which they release as neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). Neutrophils also carry key components of the complement alternative pathway (AP) such as properdin or complement factor P (CFP), complement factor B (CFB), and C3. However, the contribution of these complement components and complement activation during NET formation in the presence and absence of bacteria is poorly understood. We studied complement activation on NETs and a Gram-negative opportunistic bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA01, PAKwt, and PAKgfp)...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
Anna M Blom, Fernando Corvillo, Michal Magda, Grzegorz Stasiłojć, Pilar Nozal, Miguel Ángel Pérez-Valdivia, Virginia Cabello-Chaves, Santiago Rodríguez de Córdoba, Margarita López-Trascasa, Marcin Okrój
Autoantibodies termed C3-nephritic factor (C3NeF), which stabilize convertases of the alternative complement pathway, often stimulate autoinflammatory diseases. However, knowledge about analogous autoantibodies acting on the classical pathway (C4NeF) is limited to a few reports, which indicate association with kidney dysfunction, systemic lupus erythematous, and infections. C4NeF may appear independently from C3NeF, but the lack of a routine diagnostic method predisposes C4NeF for being an underestimated player in autoinflammatory episodes...
July 2016: Journal of Clinical Immunology
Lubna Kouser, Munirah Abdul-Aziz, Anthony G Tsolaki, Dipti Singhal, Wilhelm J Schwaeble, Britta C Urban, Haseeb A Khan, Robert B Sim, Uday Kishore
Properdin upregulates the alternative complement pathway by binding and stabilising the C3 convertase complex (C3bBb). Properdin is a soluble glycoprotein and its flexible rod-like 53kDa monomers form cyclic polymers (dimers, trimers, tetramers and pentamers). The properdin monomer consists of seven thrombospondin type I repeats (TSR 0-6), which are similar and homologous to domains found in circumsporozoite and thrombospondin-related anonymous proteins of Plasmodium species, ETP100 of Eimeria tenella, various complement components C6-C9, and thrombospondin I and II...
May 2016: Molecular Immunology
Nehemiah Zewde, Ronald D Gorham, Angel Dorado, Dimitrios Morikis
The complement system is an integral part of innate immunity that detects and eliminates invading pathogens through a cascade of reactions. The destructive effects of the complement activation on host cells are inhibited through versatile regulators that are present in plasma and bound to membranes. Impairment in the capacity of these regulators to function in the proper manner results in autoimmune diseases. To better understand the delicate balance between complement activation and regulation, we have developed a comprehensive quantitative model of the alternative pathway...
2016: PloS One
Sébastien Jaillon, Andrea Ponzetta, Elena Magrini, Isabella Barajon, Marialuisa Barbagallo, Cecilia Garlanda, Alberto Mantovani
The innate immune system comprises both a cellular and a humoral arm. Neutrophils are key effector cells of the immune and inflammatory responses and have emerged as a major source of humoral pattern recognition molecules (PRMs). These molecules, which include collectins, ficolins, and pentraxins, are specialised in the discrimination of self versus non-self and modified-self and share basic multifunctional properties including recognition and opsonisation of pathogens and apoptotic cells, activation and regulation of the complement cascade and tuning of inflammation...
April 2016: Seminars in Immunology
Joseph O'Flynn, Pieter van der Pol, Karen O Dixon, Zoltán Prohászka, Mohamed R Daha, Cees van Kooten
Previous studies have shown that complement activation on renal tubular cells is involved in the induction of interstitial fibrosis and cellular injury. Evidence suggests that the tubular cell damage is initiated by the alternative pathway (AP) of complement with properdin having an instrumental role. Properdin is a positive regulator of the AP, which can bind necrotic cells as well as viable proximal tubular epithelial cells (PTECs), inducing complement activation. Various studies have indicated that in the circulation there is an unidentified inhibitor of properdin...
June 1, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
Nitai Roy, Katsuki Ohtani, Yasuyuki Matsuda, Kenichiro Mori, Insu Hwang, Yasuhiko Suzuki, Norimitsu Inoue, Nobutaka Wakamiya
BACKGROUND: C-reactive protein (CRP) is a plasma pentraxin family protein that is massively induced as part of the innate immune response to infection and tissue injury. CRP and other pentraxin proteins can activate a complement pathway through C1q, collectins, or on microbe surfaces. It has been found that a lectin-like oxidized LDL receptor 1 (LOX-1), which is an endothelial scavenger receptor (SR) having a C-type lectin-like domain, interacts with CRP to activate the complement pathway using C1q...
June 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Serena Bettoni, Elena Bresin, Giuseppe Remuzzi, Marina Noris, Roberta Donadelli
The activated fragment of C3 (C3b) and factor B form the C3 proconvertase (C3bB), which is cleaved by factor D to C3 convertase (C3bBb). Older studies (Conrad, D. H., Carlo, J. R., and Ruddy, S. (1978)J. Exp. Med.147, 1792-1805; Pangburn, M. K., and Müller-Eberhard, H. J. (1978)Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.75, 2416-2420; Kazatchkine, M. D., Fearon, D. T., and Austen, K. F. (1979)J. Immunol.122, 75-81) indicated that the complement alternative pathway regulator factor H (FH) competes with factor B for C3b binding; however, the capability of FH to prevent C3bB assembly has not been formally investigated...
April 8, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Xinliu Gao, Hui Lin, Carsten Krantz, Arlette Garnier, Jimmy Flarakos, Francis L S Tse, Wenkui Li
AIM: Factor P (Properdin), an endogenous glycoprotein, plays a key role in innate immune defense. Its quantification is important for understanding the pharmacodynamics (PD) of drug candidate(s). RESULTS: In the present work, an immunoaffinity capturing LC-MS/MS method has been developed and validated for the first time for the quantification of factor P in monkey serum with a dynamic range of 125 to 25,000 ng/ml using the calibration standards and QCs prepared in factor P depleted monkey serum...
2016: Bioanalysis
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