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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329724/accurate-predictions-of-postmortem-interval-using-linear-regression-analyses-of-gene-meter-expression-data
#1
M Colby Hunter, Alex E Pozhitkov, Peter A Noble
In criminal and civil investigations, postmortem interval is used as evidence to help sort out circumstances at the time of human death. Many biological, chemical, and physical indicators can be used to determine the postmortem interval - but most are not accurate. Here, we sought to validate an experimental design to accurately predict the time of death by analyzing the expression of hundreds of upregulated genes in two model organisms, the zebrafish and mouse. In a previous study, the death of healthy adults was conducted under strictly controlled conditions to minimize the effects of confounding factors such as lifestyle and temperature...
March 4, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314238/paternity-testing-and-other-inference-about-relationships-from-dna-mixtures
#2
Peter J Green, Julia Mortera
We present methods for inference about relationships between contributors to a DNA mixture and other individuals of known genotype: a basic example would be testing whether a contributor to a mixture is the father of a child of known genotype. The evidence for such a relationship is evaluated as the likelihood ratio for the specified relationship versus the alternative that there is no relationship. We analyse real casework examples from a criminal case and a disputed paternity case; in both examples part of the evidence was from a DNA mixture...
February 16, 2017: Forensic Science International. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292226/outcomes-of-offenders-with-co-occurring-substance-use-disorders-and-mental-disorders
#3
Geoff Wilton, Lynn A Stewart
OBJECTIVE: Whether a diagnosis of a mental disorder contributes to the risk of poorer correctional outcomes is controversial. This study aimed to clarify the extent to which mental and substance use disorders individually and in combination contribute to correctional outcomes in order to determine optimal treatment and promote public safety. METHODS: Differences were examined between four groups of federal offenders in Canada (N=715): those with a mental disorder only, those with a substance use disorder only, those with co-occurring mental and substance use disorders, and those with no disorder...
March 15, 2017: Psychiatric Services: a Journal of the American Psychiatric Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284283/-the-interaction-between-the-judge-and-doctors-with-court-ordered-therapy
#4
Frédérique Iragnes
Faced with the increase in convictions for sex offences, legislators in the 1990s studied the possibility of monitoring these criminals and offenders, considered to be among the most dangerous, following their imprisonment. This resulted in the law of 17th June 1998, establishing socio-judicial supervision. Inspired by several high-profile cases, the resulting changes to the legislation have reinforced judicial measures aimed at preventing repeat offending with regard to the most serious crimes. Socio-judicial supervision in particular is routinely ordered as part of certain safety measures while court-ordered therapy has become a cornerstone in the management of the most dangerous prisoners...
March 2017: Soins. Psychiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279310/personality-and-trait-aggression-profiles-of-male-and-female-prison-inmates
#5
Örjan Falk, Anis Sfendla, Sven Brändström, Henrik Anckarsäter, Thomas Nilsson, Nóra Kerekes
Gender specific personality profiles in association with the level of aggressive antisocial behavior in offenders have not been previously investigated. In the present study we analyzed data collected from 65 male and 50 female offenders using structured protocols regarding criminal history (by criminal register data), trait aggression (by the Life History of Aggression (LHA) questionnaire), and personality profiles (by the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI)). Prison inmates differed significantly on several personality dimensions, most pronouncedly were they characterized with low character maturity (low scores in the Self-Directedness and Cooperativeness dimensions of TCI) when compared to gender and age matched controls of the general population...
April 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273611/the-quasi-market-for-adult-residential-care-in-the-uk-do-for-profit-not-for-profit-or-public-sector-residential-care-and-nursing-homes-provide-better-quality-care
#6
David N Barron, Elizabeth West
There has been a radical transformation in the provision of adult residential and nursing home care in England over the past four decades. Up to the 1980s, over 80% of adult residential care was provided by the public sector, but today public sector facilities account for only 8% of the available places, with the rest being provided by a mixture of for-profit firms (74%) and non-profit charities (18%). The public sector's role is often now that of purchaser (paying the fees of people unable to afford them) and regulator...
February 27, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273508/helping-to-distinguish-primary-from-secondary-transfer-events-for-trace-dna
#7
Duncan Taylor, Alex Biedermann, Lydie Samie, Ka-Man Pun, Tacha Hicks, Christophe Champod
DNA is routinely recovered in criminal investigations. The sensitivity of laboratory equipment and DNA profiling kits means that it is possible to generate DNA profiles from very small amounts of cellular material. As a consequence, it has been shown that DNA we detect may not have arisen from a direct contact with an item, but rather through one or more intermediaries. Naturally the questions arising in court, particularly when considering trace DNA, are of how DNA may have come to be on an item. While scientists cannot directly answer this question, forensic biological results can help in discriminating between alleged activities...
February 20, 2017: Forensic Science International. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270462/controversies-concerning-the-canadian-not-criminally-responsible-reform-act
#8
Robert Lacroix, Roy O'Shaughnessy, Dale E McNiel, Renée L Binder
In Canada, individuals found not criminally responsible on account of mental disorder are subject to the disposition recommendations of the Provincial or Territorial Review Board of the jurisdiction where the offense was committed. Bill C-14, known as "The Not Criminally Responsible Reform Act" made changes to the postverdict disposition process of these individuals. This legislation was consistent with a broader "tough-on-crime" agenda of the previous federal government. The legislative changes codify that Review Boards take public safety as the "paramount consideration" in making their recommendations...
March 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28249201/genome-wide-screening-for-highly-discriminative-snps-for-personal-identification-and-their-assessment-in-world-populations
#9
Liming Li, Yi Wang, Shuping Yang, Mingying Xia, Yajun Yang, Jiucun Wang, Daru Lu, Xingwei Pan, Teng Ma, Pei Jiang, Ge Yu, Ziqin Zhao, Yuan Ping, Huaigu Zhou, Xueying Zhao, Hui Sun, Bing Liu, Dongtao Jia, Chengtao Li, Rile Hu, Hongzhou Lu, Xiaoyang Liu, Wenqing Chen, Qin Mi, Fuzhong Xue, Yongdong Su, Li Jin, Shilin Li
The applications of DNA profiling aim to identify perpetrators, missing family members and disaster victims in forensic investigations. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) based forensic applications are emerging rapidly with a potential to replace short tandem repeats (STRs) based panels which are now being used widely, and there is a need for a well-designed SNP panel to meet such challenge for this transition. Here we present a panel of 175 SNP markers (referred to as Fudan ID Panel or FID), selected from ∼3...
February 16, 2017: Forensic Science International. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28171796/increased-recovery-of-touch-dna-evidence-using-fta-paper-compared-to-conventional-collection-methods
#10
Irina A Kirgiz, Cassandra Calloway
Tape lifting and FTA paper scraping methods were directly compared to traditional double swabbing for collecting touch DNA from car steering wheels (n = 70 cars). Touch DNA was collected from the left or right side of each steering wheel (randomized) using two sterile cotton swabs, while the other side was sampled using water-soluble tape or FTA paper cards. DNA was extracted and quantified in duplicate using qPCR. Quantifiable amounts of DNA were detected for 100% of the samples (n = 140) collected independent of the method...
January 31, 2017: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28171783/attitudes-regarding-the-national-forensic-dna-database-survey-data-from-the-general-public-prison-inmates-and-prosecutors-offices-in-the-republic-of-serbia
#11
Smilja Teodorović, Dragan Mijović, Una Radovanović Nenadić, Marina Savić
Worldwide, the establishment of national forensic DNA databases has transformed personal identification in the criminal justice system over the past two decades. It has also stimulated much debate centering on ethical issues, human rights, individual privacy, lack of safeguards and other standards. Therefore, a balance between effectiveness and intrusiveness of a national DNA repository is an imperative and needs to be achieved through a suitable legal framework. On its path to the European Union (EU), the Republic of Serbia is required to harmonize its national policies and legislation with the EU...
January 21, 2017: Forensic Science International. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063583/analysis-of-fingerprint-samples-testing-various-conditions-for-forensic-dna-identification
#12
Lana Ostojic, Elisa Wurmbach
Fingerprints can be of tremendous value for forensic biology, since they can be collected from a wide variety of evident types, such as handles of weapons, tools collected in criminal cases, and objects with no apparent staining. DNA obtained from fingerprints varies greatly in quality and quantity, which ultimately affects the quality of the resulting STR profiles. Additional difficulties can arise when fingerprint samples show mixed STR profiles due to the handling of multiple persons. After applying a tested protocol for sample collection (swabbing with 5% Triton X-100), DNA extraction (using an enzyme that works at elevated temperatures), and PCR amplification (AmpFlSTR® Identifiler® using 31cycles) extensive analysis was performed to better understand the challenges inherent to fingerprint samples, with the ultimate goal of developing valuable profiles (≥50% complete)...
January 2017: Science & Justice: Journal of the Forensic Science Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063582/cross-border-patterns-in-dna-matches-between-the-netherlands-and-belgium
#13
M D Taverne, A P A Broeders
In this article we present the results of a study to explore if cross-border DNA matches between the Netherlands and Belgium are relatively more likely to occur in areas near the Dutch-Belgian border than in areas at some distance from this border. For this study we used the results of the transnational DNA profile exchange and comparison between the Belgian and Dutch DNA databases, which first took place in 2014. It appears that the Dutch regions adjacent to Belgium, i.e., Zeeland-West-Brabant, Oost-Brabant and Limburg, have relatively more DNA matches with Belgium than the other Dutch regions...
January 2017: Science & Justice: Journal of the Forensic Science Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28041751/a-comparison-of-suicidal-behavior-by-burns-five-years-before-and-five-years-after-the-2011-tunisian-revolution
#14
Mehdi Ben Khelil, Amine Zgarni, Mounir Ben Mohamed, Mohamed Allouche, Anis Benzarti, Ahmed Banasr, Moncef Hamdoun
INTRODUCTION: In Tunisia, the phenomenon of self-immolation has increased dramatically since the self-burn of Mohamed Bouazizi which occurred on 17 December 2010. The aim of our study was to compare the casualties' profile of suicide by self-immolation before and after the Tunisian Revolution over a period of 10 years (2006-2015). METHODS: We conducted a retrospective review including all the cases of self-immolation suicides that occurred in Northern Tunisia five years before and five years after the January 2011 Revolution...
December 29, 2016: Burns: Journal of the International Society for Burn Injuries
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28024238/forensic-application-of-phylogenetic-analyses-exploration-of-suspected-hiv-1-transmission-case
#15
Marina Siljic, Dubravka Salemovic, Valentina Cirkovic, Ivana Pesic-Pavlovic, Jovan Ranin, Marija Todorovic, Slobodan Nikolic, Djordje Jevtovic, Maja Stanojevic
Transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) between individuals may have important legal implications and therefore may come to require forensic investigation based upon phylogenetic analysis. In criminal trials results of phylogenetic analyses have been used as evidence of responsibility for HIV transmission. In Serbia, as in many countries worldwide, exposure and deliberate transmission of HIV are criminalized. We present the results of applying state of the art phylogenetic analyses, based on pol and env genetic sequences, in exploration of suspected HIV transmission among three subjects: a man and two women, with presumed assumption of transmission direction from one woman to a man...
December 19, 2016: Forensic Science International. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27989568/child-abuse-and-neglect-profiles-and-their-psychosocial-consequences-in-a-large-sample-of-incarcerated-males
#16
Agata Debowska, Daniel Boduszek
Research examining child abuse and neglect (CAN) profiles among adult offender populations is lacking. Therefore, the primary aim of the present study was to address this limitation by using latent class analysis (LCA) to identify meaningful classes of individuals who have experienced physical abuse, emotional abuse, sexual abuse, as well as neglect. Another aim was to estimate the association between CAN class membership and external criteria (psychopathy factors, self-esteem, attitudes towards male sexual violence in dating relationships, child sexual abuse myth acceptance, violent offending, and age)...
March 2017: Child Abuse & Neglect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864958/patient-profiles-of-criminal-behavior-in-the-context-of-traumatic-brain-injury
#17
Kristy S Lane, Maria E St Pierre, Margo D Lauterbach, Vassilis E Koliatsos
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) can lead to significant post-traumatic disturbances in mood and behavior, with the frontal lobes playing a key role in emotional and behavioral regulation. Injury to the frontal lobe can result in disinhibition and aggression which can result in police intervention and/or incarceration. We highlight four adult cases with a history of severe TBI with frontal lobe injuries and the presence of post-TBI criminal behaviors. There is evidence to support an anatomical basis for aggressive behaviors, yet there are other risk factors to be considered...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27849584/lifestyle-chemistries-from-phones-for-individual-profiling
#18
Amina Bouslimani, Alexey V Melnik, Zhenjiang Xu, Amnon Amir, Ricardo R da Silva, Mingxun Wang, Nuno Bandeira, Theodore Alexandrov, Rob Knight, Pieter C Dorrestein
Imagine a scenario where personal belongings such as pens, keys, phones, or handbags are found at an investigative site. It is often valuable to the investigative team that is trying to trace back the belongings to an individual to understand their personal habits, even when DNA evidence is also available. Here, we develop an approach to translate chemistries recovered from personal objects such as phones into a lifestyle sketch of the owner, using mass spectrometry and informatics approaches. Our results show that phones' chemistries reflect a personalized lifestyle profile...
November 29, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826316/ltdna-evidence-on-trial
#19
Paul Roberts
Adopting the interpretative/hermeneutical method typical of much legal scholarship, this article considers two sets of issues pertaining to LTDNA profiles as evidence in criminal proceedings. The section titled Expert Evidence as Forensic Epistemic Warrant addresses some rather large questions about the epistemic status and probative value of expert testimony in general. It sketches a theoretical model of expert evidence, highlighting five essential criteria: (1) expert competence; (2) disciplinary domain; (3) methodological validity; (4) materiality; and (5) legal admissibility...
2016: Frontiers in Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27819737/human-autosomal-dna-and-x-chromosome-str-profiles-obtained-from-chrysomya-albiceps-diptera-calliphoridae-larvae-used-as-a-biological-trace
#20
T C Oliveira, A B R Santos, K C N Rabelo, C A Souza, S M Santos, S Crovella
The use of insects to answer questions in criminal investigations, as well as a combination of forensic genetic techniques to obtain human DNA from the organisms, especially necrophagous dipterians, have gained ground in recent decades among researchers and professionals in this area. The objective of our study was to evaluate and compare two methods of human DNA extraction, commonly used for forensic samples, to obtain human autosomal DNA and X chromosome short tandem repeat profiles from the digestive tract of Chrysomya albiceps (Diptera: Calliphoridae) larvae...
November 3, 2016: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
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