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Criminal profiling

María Carou, Estrella Romero, Mª Ángeles Luengo
In recent decades, research has identified a set of impulsive/disinhibited personality variables closely associated with drug addiction. As well as this, disorders linked with these variables, such as ADHD and personality disorders, are being closely studied in the field of drug addiction. Although much knowledge has been accumulated about the relation of these variables and disorders taken separately, less is known about how these constructs allow identify-specific profiles within the drug dependent population to be identified...
October 7, 2016: Adicciones
Diana W Williams, Greg Gibson
A potential application of microbial genetics in forensic science is detection of transfer of the pubic hair microbiome between individuals during sexual intercourse using high-throughput sequencing. In addition to the primary need to show whether the pubic hair microbiome is individualizing, one aspect that must be addressed before using the microbiome in criminal casework involves the impact of storage on the microbiome of samples recovered for forensic testing. To test the effects of short-term storage, pubic hair samples were collected from volunteers and stored at room temperature (∼20°C), refrigerated (4°C), and frozen (-20°C) for 1 week, 2 weeks, 4 weeks, and 6 weeks along with a baseline sample...
October 7, 2016: Forensic Science International. Genetics
Patricia E J Wiltshire
Palynology (including mycology) is widely used in palaeoecological and bioarchaeological studies. Lake and mire sediments, soils, and the deposits accumulating in archaeological features, invariably contain plant and fungal remains, particularly pollen and spores. These serve as proxy indicators of ancient environmental conditions and events. Forensic palynology has been successfully employed in criminal investigations for more than two decades. In recent years, it has included fungal palynomorphs in profiling samples from crime scenes, and from exhibits obtained from suspects and victims...
November 2016: Fungal Biology
Sanford Nidich, Tom O'connor, Thomas Rutledge, Jeff Duncan, Blaze Compton, Angela Seng, Randi Nidich
CONTEXT: Trauma events are four times more prevalent in inmates than in the general public and are associated with increased recidivism and other mental and physical health issues. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of Transcendental Meditation(a) (TM) on trauma symptoms in male inmates. DESIGN: One hundred eighty-one inmates with a moderate- to high-risk criminal profile were randomly assigned to either the TM program or to a usual care control group...
October 7, 2016: Permanente Journal
K C N Rabêlo, C M R Albuquerque, V B Tavares, S M Santos, C A Souza, T C Oliveira, R R Moura, L A C Brandão, S Crovella
Criminal traces commonly found at crime scenes may present mixtures from two or more individuals. The scene of the crime is important for the collection of various types of traces in order to find the perpetrator of the crime. Thus, we propose that hematophagous mosquitoes found at crime scenes can be used to perform genetic testing of human blood and aid in suspect investigation. The aim of the study was to obtain a single Aedes aegypti mosquito profile from a human DNA mixture containing genetic materials of four individuals...
August 26, 2016: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
Karen McElrath, Angela Taylor, Kimberly K Tran
Slightly more than half of admissions to U.S. publicly-funded treatment for marijuana use are referred by the criminal justice system; this pattern has remained for at least 20 years. Nationally, Blacks comprise nearly a third of treatment admissions for marijuana use. This article explores the interplay between race and criminal justice referrals to treatment for marijuana use. Using data from the (U.S.) 2011 Treatment Episode Data Set, we examine the relationship between race and diagnosis of cannabis use disorder (dependence versus abuse) among referrals to community-based treatment in North Carolina...
October 2, 2016: Behavioral Sciences
Jack Hietpas, JoAnn Buscaglia, Adam H Richard, Stephen Shaw, Hilda S Castillo, Joseph Donfack
A postmortem root band (PMRB) is a distinct microscopic feature that is postulated to occur in hair remaining in the follicle during the postmortem interval [1] (Petraco et al., 1998). The scientific validity of this premise has been highlighted in two recent high-profile criminal cases involving PMRBs [2,3] (State of Florida v. Casey Marie Anthony, 2008; People v. Kogut, 2005). To better understand the fundamental aspects of postmortem root banding, the microscopical properties of known PMRBs(1) were characterized by light microscopy, and scanning electron microscope (SEM) imaging of microtomed sections of hairs showing root banding...
October 2016: Forensic Science International
Elena Ortega-Campos, Juan García-García, Maria José Gil-Fenoy, Flor Zaldívar-Basurto
Research on juvenile justice aims to identify profiles of risk and protective factors in juvenile offenders. This paper presents a study of profiles of risk factors that influence young offenders toward committing sanctionable antisocial behavior (S-ASB). Decision tree analysis is used as a multivariate approach to the phenomenon of repeated sanctionable antisocial behavior in juvenile offenders in Spain. The study sample was made up of the set of juveniles who were charged in a court case in the Juvenile Court of Almeria (Spain)...
2016: PloS One
Kumiko Ando, Takahiro Soshi, Kanako Nakazawa, Takamasa Noda, Takayuki Okada
The Medical Treatment and Supervision Act (MTSA) was enacted in 2005 in Japan to promote the reintegration of clinical offenders with mental disorders into society. Under the MTSA, individuals who committed serious crimes in a state of insanity or diminished responsibility are diverted from the criminal justice system to the mental health system. Based on court decisions about MTSA-based treatment, clinical offenders have an obligation to engage in rehabilitation within their local community under the guidance of mental health professionals...
2016: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Alycia K Buckingham, Michelle L Harvey, Roland A H van Oorschot
The presence of DNA in a criminal investigation often requires scrutiny in relation to how it came to be where it was found. There is a paucity of data with respect to the extent to which one can assume that the last person handling an object, which has previously been touched by others, will contribute to the DNA profile generated from it. There are limited data in detailing the extent to which any foreign DNA is picked-up from a previously touched object and transferred to subsequently touched objects. This study focuses on DNA transfer and persistence on a knife handle after multiple handlings with the knife by different individuals soon after each other, as well as handprints left on flat DNA-free surfaces immediately after touching a knife handle with a known history of prior handling...
July 28, 2016: Forensic Science International. Genetics
Duncan Taylor, David Powers
Electropherograms are produced in great numbers in forensic DNA laboratories as part of everyday criminal casework. Before the results of these electropherograms can be used they must be scrutinised by analysts to determine what the identified data tells us about the underlying DNA sequences and what is purely an artefact of the DNA profiling process. A technique that lends itself well to such a task of classification in the face of vast amounts of data is the use of artificial neural networks. These networks, inspired by the workings of the human brain, have been increasingly successful in analysing large datasets, performing medical diagnoses, identifying handwriting, playing games, or recognising images...
July 28, 2016: Forensic Science International. Genetics
Catherine M Comiskey, John Hyland, Pauline Hyland
BACKGROUND: Internationally there is a lack of measurement on the impact of childcare on people who use drugs. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this article was to longitudinally measure drug use, familial and social status and criminal involvement between parents and nonparents who use heroin and have children in their care. METHODS: From 2003 to 2006, 404 participants were recruited to the Research Outcome Study in Ireland Evaluating Drug Treatment Effectiveness (ROSIE) as part of a longitudinal cohort study design...
October 14, 2016: Substance Use & Misuse
Dan I Lubman, Joshua B B Garfield, Victoria Manning, Lynda Berends, David Best, Janette M Mugavin, Tina Lam, Penny Buykx, Andrew Larner, Belinda Lloyd, Robin Room, Steve Allsop
BACKGROUND: People seeking treatment for substance use disorders often have additional health and social issues. Although individuals presenting with alcohol as the primary drug of concern (PDOC) account for nearly half of all treatment episodes to the Australian alcohol and other drug (AOD) service system, previous treatment cohort studies have focused only on the profile of Australian heroin or methamphetamine users. While studies overseas indicate that clients seeking treatment primarily for their drinking are less likely to experience social and economic marginalisation than those seeking treatment primarily for illicit or pharmaceutical drug use, very little research has directly compared individuals presenting with alcohol as the PDOC to those primarily presenting with other drugs as their PDOC...
2016: BMC Psychiatry
Marden Marques Soares, Paula Michele Martins Gomes Bueno
This study investigates the latest research on the profile of the Brazilian prison population, its demography and current laws and regulations. It aims in the direction of ensuring the human right to health. Brazilian prison system is a complex universe in which state and federal criminal contexts keep more than 607,000 people in custody. This population is composed of 75% of young and black people, 67% poorly educated and 41% are pre-trial detainees, living in overcrowded prisons and architecturally vandalized, with population growth of around 575% in 24 years, making this environment a major focus of production of diseases...
June 2016: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
Nadav Shalit, Ran Barzilay, Gal Shoval, Dan Shlosberg, Nofar Mor, Nofar Zweigenhaft, Abraham Weizman, Amir Krivoy
BACKGROUND: Psychotic and affective exacerbations associated with synthetic cannabinoid (SC) use are becoming an emerging concern in psychiatric hospitals. However, data are lacking regarding whether clinical manifestations of SC use differ from those associated with cannabis use. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to explore the unique profile of SC users admitted to a mental health center in terms of demographic, clinical, and physiologic variables in comparison to cannabis users...
August 2016: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
Anna A Mapes, Ate D Kloosterman, Vincent van Marion, Christianne J de Poot
DNA analysis has become an essential intelligence tool in the criminal justice system for the identification of possible offenders. However, it appears that about half of the processed DNA samples contains too little DNA for analysis. This study looks at DNA success rates within 28 different categories of trace exhibits and relates the DNA concentration to the characteristics of the DNA profile. Data from 2260 analyzed crime samples show that cigarettes, bloodstains, and headwear have relatively high success rates...
July 2016: Journal of Forensic Sciences
Rajani Bhatia
In the spring of 2015, news media across the world displayed images of a young, South Asian American woman in handcuffs, her long, untied black hair flowing forward and shielding her face as a Caucasian male police officer led her into a US court room. In another image, mug shot frontal and profile views of her face as a criminal, dotted online press reports, blogs and the social media. Although criminalised people of colour occupy a permanent space in the US media, her image jars. What is a young woman from a so-called "model minority" doing in handcuffs?...
May 19, 2016: Indian Journal of Medical Ethics
Richard N Kocsis, George B Palermo
The use and development of the investigative tool colloquially known as criminal profiling has steadily increased over the past five decades throughout the world. Coupled with this growth has been a diversification in the suggested range of applications for this technique. Possibly the most notable of these has been the attempted transition of the technique from a tool intended to assist police investigations into a form of expert witness evidence admissible in legal proceedings. Whilst case law in various jurisdictions has considered with mutual disinclination the evidentiary admissibility of criminal profiling, a disjunction has evolved between these judicial examinations and the scientifically vetted research testing the accuracy (i...
June 20, 2016: International Journal of Law and Psychiatry
Laurence Roy, Anne G Crocker, Tonia L Nicholls, Eric Latimer, Corinne A Isaak
OBJECTIVES: This study examines whether baseline profiles of criminal justice involvement are independently associated with 24-month trajectories of arrests in a sample of homeless adults living with mental illness. METHODS: Interviews with justice-involved participants from the At Home/Chez soi project, a multisite trial of Housing First in Canada, yielded information related to arrests, as well as demographic, clinical, and contextual predictors of criminal justice system involvement...
June 10, 2016: International Journal of Law and Psychiatry
Wei Pei, Michiel van der Wolf
Reforms of the criminal justice system in China in recent years have included the 2012 Code of Criminal Procedure (CCP), which resulted in new disposals for mentally disordered offenders. From a Western perspective, changes in Chinese criminal law are sometimes clichéd as toothless window dressing, but they may represent a genuine step forward in safeguarding human rights. Taking a historical perspective, this paper reveals that in the East, as much as in the West, there is a 'moral tradition' of not punishing mentally disordered offenders who are not considered responsible for their acts...
June 4, 2016: International Journal of Law and Psychiatry
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