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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792614/mutation-rates-in-21-autosomal-short-tandem-repeat-loci-in-a-population-from-goi%C3%A3-s-brazil
#1
Thaís Cidália Vieira, Marc Alexandre Duarte Gigonzac, Ricardo Goulart Rodovalho, Luana Morais Cavalcanti, Lysa Bernardes Minasi, Flávia Melo Rodrigues, Aparecido Divino da Cruz
The appearance of new mutations in polymorphic markers plays a central role in a range of genetic applications, including dating phylogenetic events, informing disease studies, and evaluating forensic evidence. The present study estimated the mutation rates of 21 autosomal short tandem repeat (STR) loci in a population from Central Brazil. We studied 15,046 paternity cases from Goiás, Brazil from August 2012 to February 2015. We identified 262 mutations in the 21 loci. The loci that presented more mutations were FGA and D18S51, with a total of 46 and 28 mutations, respectively...
August 9, 2017: Electrophoresis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765666/-in-case-of-an-adverse-event-don%C3%A2-t-forget-to-say-sorry
#2
J J Mira Solves, C Romeo Casabona, P Astier, A Urruela, I Carrillo, S Lorenzo, Y Agra
BACKGROUND: Disclosing information to a patient who is a victim of an adverse event (AE) presents some particularities depending on the legal framework in the country where the AE occurred. The aim of this study is to identify the limits and conditions when apologizing to a patient who has suffered an AE. METHODS: A consensus conference involving 26 professionals from different autonomous communities, institutions, and profiles (health, insurance, inspection, academic) with accredited experience in patient safety management systems and criminal law...
July 28, 2017: Anales del Sistema Sanitario de Navarra
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755606/subtypes-of-suicide-attempters-based-on-longitudinal-childhood-profiles-of-co-occurring-depressive-anxious-and-aggressive-behavior-symptoms
#3
Shelley R Hart, Kathryn Van Eck, Elizabeth D Ballard, Rashelle J Musci, Alison Newcomer, Holly C Wilcox
Because suicide attempts are multi-determined events, multiple pathways to suicidal behaviors exist. However, as a low-frequency behavior, within group differences in trajectories to attempts may not emerge when examined in samples including non-attempters. We used longitudinal latent profile analysis to identify subtypes specific for suicide attempters based on longitudinal trajectories of childhood clinical symptoms (i.e., depression, anxiety, and aggression measured in 2nd, 4th-7th grades) for 161 young adults (35...
July 20, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755253/as-solid-as-a-rock-comparison-of-ce-and-mps-based-analyses-of-the-petrosal-bone-as-a-source-of-dna-for-forensic-identification-of-challenging-cranial-bones
#4
Galina Kulstein, Thorsten Hadrys, Peter Wiegand
Short tandem repeat (STR) typing from skeletal remains can be a difficult task. Dependent on the environmental conditions of the provenance of the bones, DNA can be degraded and STR typing inhibited. Generally, dense and compact bones are known to preserve DNA better. Several studies already proved that femora and teeth have high DNA typing success rates. Unfortunately, these elements are not present in all cases involving skeletal remains. Processing partial or singular skeletal elements, it is favorable to select bone areas where DNA preservation is comparably higher...
July 28, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733295/the-impact-of-healthcare-professionals-personality-and-religious-beliefs-on-the-decisions-to-forego-life-sustaining-treatments-an-observational-multicentre-cross-sectional-study-in-greek-intensive-care-units
#5
Asimenia Ntantana, Dimitrios Matamis, Savvoula Savvidou, Kyriaki Marmanidou, Maria Giannakou, Μary Gouva, George Nakos, Vasilios Koulouras
OBJECTIVES: To assess the opinion of intensive care unit (ICU) personnel and the impact of their personality and religious beliefs on decisions to forego life-sustaining treatments (DFLSTs). SETTING: Cross-sectional, observational, national study in 18 multidisciplinary Greek ICUs, with >6 beds, between June and December 2015. PARTICIPANTS: 149 doctors and 320 nurses who voluntarily and anonymously answered the End-of-Life (EoL) attitudes, Personality (EPQ) and Religion (SpREUK) questionnaires...
July 21, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728054/an-artificial-neural-network-system-to-identify-alleles-in-reference-electropherograms
#6
Duncan Taylor, Ash Harrison, David Powers
Electropherograms are produced in great numbers in forensic DNA laboratories as part of everyday criminal casework. Before the results of these electropherograms can be used they must be scrutinised by analysts to determine what the identified data tells them about the underlying DNA sequences and what is purely an artefact of the DNA profiling process. This process of interpreting the electropherograms can be time consuming and is prone to subjective differences between analysts. Recently it was demonstrated that artificial neural networks could be used to classify information within an electropherogram as allelic (i...
July 8, 2017: Forensic Science International. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691916/social-and-ethical-aspects-of-forensic-genetics-a-critical-review
#7
REVIEW
R Williams, M Wienroth
This review describes the social and ethical responses to the history of innovations in forensic genetics and their application to criminal investigations. Following an outline of the three recurrent social perspectives that have informed these responses (crime management, due process, and genetic surveillance), it goes on to introduce the repertoire of ethical considerations by describing a series of key reports that have shaped subsequent commentaries on forensic DNA profiling and databasing. Four major ethical concerns form the focus of the remainder of the paper (dignity, privacy, justice, and social solidarity), and key features of forensic genetic practice are examined in the light of these concerns...
July 2017: Forensic Science Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625876/mental-health-in-zimbabwe-a-health-systems-analysis
#8
Khameer Kidia, Debra Machando, Walter Mangezi, Reuben Hendler, Megan Crooks, Melanie Abas, Dixon Chibanda, Graham Thornicroft, Maya Semrau, Helen Jack
There has been little external analysis of Zimbabwe's mental health system. We did a systems analysis to identify bottlenecks and opportunities for mental health service improvement in Zimbabwe and to generate cost-effective, policy-relevant solutions. We combined in-depth interviews with a range of key stakeholders in health and mental health, analysis of mental health laws and policies, and publicly available data about mental health. Five themes are key to mental health service delivery in Zimbabwe: policy and law; financing and resources; criminal justice; workforce, training, and research; and beliefs about mental illness...
June 15, 2017: Lancet Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603825/the-profile-of-drug-users-in-tunisia-implications-for-prevention
#9
Rim Sellami, Ines Feki, Abdelmajid Zahaf, Jawaher Masmoudi
BACKGROUND: Despite cultural, religious, and legal constraints on Muslims against the consumption of drugs, usage and misuse do exist. Drug addiction in Tunisia is a wide-spread problem and is destroying the lives of many individuals and families. AIMS: To examine the socio-demographic characteristics of substance users and to identify the drugs commonly used. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, all the patients admitted at the addiction treatment center ''Aide et Ecoute'' in the period from January 2014 to September 2014 formed the sample of the present study...
August 2016: La Tunisie Médicale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600257/search-for-more-effective-microsatellite-markers-for-forensics-with-next-generation-sequencing
#10
Bowen Tan, Zicheng Zhao, Zhe Zhang, Shengbin Li, Shuai Cheng Li
Published by the Combined DNA Index System (CODIS) program of the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) in 1997, the 13 core short tandem repeat (STR) loci are widely adopted as genetic markers in forensic applications, e.g., identity testing and paternity testing. However, these loci may be biased and suffer from reduced sensitivities toward specific population groups. In addition, the rapid growth of entries in forensic databases raises the chance of random hits, which can cause false recognitions of criminal suspects...
July 2017: IEEE Transactions on Nanobioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583030/sexual-murderers-sex-offender-murderer-or-both
#11
Eric Beauregard, Matt DeLisi, Ashley Hewitt
Sexual murderers perpetrate homicide and rape/sexual abuse, but it is unclear whether they should primarily be considered homicide offenders, sexual offenders, or both. Most studies have merged together different types of non-homicidal sex offenders (NHSOs), neglecting to consider the potential differences between the nonviolent and violent sex offenders. Here, we suggest it is important to isolate those violent sex offenders who inflict severe physical injuries that could potentially lead to a lethal outcome...
June 1, 2017: Sexual Abuse: a Journal of Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575840/typing-dna-profiles-from-previously-enhanced-fingerprints-using-direct-pcr
#12
Jennifer E L Templeton, Duncan Taylor, Oliva Handt, Adrian Linacre
Fingermarks are a source of human identification both through the ridge patterns and DNA profiling. Typing nuclear STR DNA markers from previously enhanced fingermarks provides an alternative method of utilising the limited fingermark deposit that can be left behind during a criminal act. Dusting with fingerprint powders is a standard method used in classical fingermark enhancement and can affect DNA data. The ability to generate informative DNA profiles from powdered fingerprints using direct PCR swabs was investigated...
July 2017: Forensic Science International. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521251/the-protective-effect-of-character-maturity-in-child-aggressive-antisocial-behavior
#13
Nóra Kerekes, Örjan Falk, Sven Brändström, Henrik Anckarsäter, Maria Råstam, Björn Hofvander
BACKGROUND: Childhood aggressive antisocial behavior (CD) is one of the strongest predictors of mental health problems and criminal behavior in adulthood. The aims of this study were to describe personality profiles in children with CD, and to determine the strength of association between defined neurodevelopmental symptoms, dimensions of character maturity and CD. METHODS: A sample of 1886 children with a close to equal distribution of age (9 or 12) and gender, enriched for neurodevelopmental and psychiatric problems were selected from the nationwide Child and Adolescent Twin Study in Sweden...
July 2017: Comprehensive Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511680/cohort-profile-seek-test-treat-and-retain-united-states-criminal-justice-cohort
#14
Redonna Chandler, Michael S Gordon, Bridget Kruszka, Lauren N Strand, Frederick L Altice, Curt G Beckwith, Mary L Biggs, William Cunningham, J A Chris Delaney, Patrick M Flynn, Carol E Golin, Kevin Knight, Alex H Kral, Irene Kuo, Jennifer Lorvick, Robin M Nance, Lawrence J Ouellet, Josiah D Rich, Stanley Sacks, David Seal, Anne Spaulding, Sandra A Springer, Faye Taxman, David Wohl, Jeremy D Young, Rebekah Young, Heidi M Crane
BACKGROUND: The STTR treatment cascade provides a framework for research aimed at improving the delivery of services, care and outcomes of PLWH. The development of effective approaches to increase HIV diagnoses and engage PLWH in subsequent steps of the treatment cascade could lead to earlier and sustained ART treatment resulting in viral suppression. There is an unmet need for research applying the treatment cascade to improve outcomes for those with criminal justice involvement. METHODS: The Seek, Test, Treat, and Retain (STTR) criminal justice (CJ) cohort combines data from 11 studies across the HIV treatment cascade that focused on persons involved in the criminal justice system, often but not exclusively for reasons related to substance use...
May 16, 2017: Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28457515/terminal-restriction-fragment-length-polymorphism-profiling-of-bacterial-flora-derived-from-single-human-hair-shafts-can-discriminate-individuals
#15
Eiji Nishi, Kota Watanabe, Yukihiro Tashiro, Kenji Sakai
Human hairs are the trace evidence most commonly encountered at many crime scenes. However, they have not been effectively utilized for actual criminal investigations because of the low accuracy of their morphological inspection, low detection rate of short tandem repeat (STR) typing, and the problem of heteroplasmy in mitochondrial DNA analysis. Here, we examined the possibility of individual discrimination by comparing profiles of bacterial flora on hair. We carried out the profiling of terminal restriction fragment length polymorphisms (T-RFLP) of the amplified bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene from hair samples...
March 2017: Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449257/the-development-and-application-of-random-match-probabilities-to-firearm-and-toolmark-identification
#16
John E Murdock, Nicholas D K Petraco, John I Thornton, Michael T Neel, Todd J Weller, Robert M Thompson, James E Hamby, Eric R Collins
The field of firearms and toolmark analysis has encountered deep scrutiny of late, stemming from a handful of voices, primarily in the law and statistical communities. While strong scrutiny is a healthy and necessary part of any scientific endeavor, much of the current criticism leveled at firearm and toolmark analysis is, at best, misinformed and, at worst, punditry. One of the most persistent criticisms stems from the view that as the field lacks quantified random match probability data (or at least a firm statistical model) with which to calculate the probability of a false match, all expert testimony concerning firearm and toolmark identification or source attribution is unreliable and should be ruled inadmissible...
May 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441635/validation-of-smartrank-a-likelihood-ratio-software-for-searching-national-dna-databases-with-complex-dna-profiles
#17
Corina C G Benschop, Linda van de Merwe, Jeroen de Jong, Vanessa Vanvooren, Morgane Kempenaers, C P Kees van der Beek, Filippo Barni, Eusebio López Reyes, Léa Moulin, Laurent Pene, Hinda Haned, Titia Sijen
Searching a national DNA database with complex and incomplete profiles usually yields very large numbers of possible matches that can present many candidate suspects to be further investigated by the forensic scientist and/or police. Current practice in most forensic laboratories consists of ordering these 'hits' based on the number of matching alleles with the searched profile. Thus, candidate profiles that share the same number of matching alleles are not differentiated and due to the lack of other ranking criteria for the candidate list it may be difficult to discern a true match from the false positives or notice that all candidates are in fact false positives...
July 2017: Forensic Science International. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382646/an-optimized-dna-analysis-workflow-for-the-sampling-extraction-and-concentration-of-dna-obtained-from-archived-latent-fingerprints
#18
April D Solomon, Madison E Hytinen, Aryn M McClain, Marilyn T Miller, Tracey Dawson Cruz
DNA profiles have been obtained from fingerprints, but there is limited knowledge regarding DNA analysis from archived latent fingerprints-touch DNA "sandwiched" between adhesive and paper. Thus, this study sought to comparatively analyze a variety of collection and analytical methods in an effort to seek an optimized workflow for this specific sample type. Untreated and treated archived latent fingerprints were utilized to compare different biological sampling techniques, swab diluents, DNA extraction systems, DNA concentration practices, and post-amplification purification methods...
April 6, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329724/accurate-predictions-of-postmortem-interval-using-linear-regression-analyses-of-gene-meter-expression-data
#19
M Colby Hunter, Alex E Pozhitkov, Peter A Noble
In criminal and civil investigations, postmortem interval is used as evidence to help sort out circumstances at the time of human death. Many biological, chemical, and physical indicators can be used to determine the postmortem interval - but most are not accurate. Here, we sought to validate an experimental design to accurately predict the time of death by analyzing the expression of hundreds of upregulated genes in two model organisms, the zebrafish and mouse. In a previous study, the death of healthy adults was conducted under strictly controlled conditions to minimize the effects of confounding factors such as lifestyle and temperature...
March 4, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314238/paternity-testing-and-other-inference-about-relationships-from-dna-mixtures
#20
Peter J Green, Julia Mortera
We present methods for inference about relationships between contributors to a DNA mixture and other individuals of known genotype: a basic example would be testing whether a contributor to a mixture is the father of a child of known genotype. The evidence for such a relationship is evaluated as the likelihood ratio for the specified relationship versus the alternative that there is no relationship. We analyse real casework examples from a criminal case and a disputed paternity case; in both examples part of the evidence was from a DNA mixture...
May 2017: Forensic Science International. Genetics
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