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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864958/patient-profiles-of-criminal-behavior-in-the-context-of-traumatic-brain-injury
#1
Kristy S Lane, Maria E St Pierre, Margo D Lauterbach, Vassilis E Koliatsos
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) can lead to significant post-traumatic disturbances in mood and behavior, with the frontal lobes playing a key role in emotional and behavioral regulation. Injury to the frontal lobe can result in disinhibition and aggression which can result in police intervention and/or incarceration. We highlight four adult cases with a history of severe TBI with frontal lobe injuries and the presence of post-TBI criminal behaviors. There is evidence to support an anatomical basis for aggressive behaviors, yet there are other risk factors to be considered...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27849584/lifestyle-chemistries-from-phones-for-individual-profiling
#2
Amina Bouslimani, Alexey V Melnik, Zhenjiang Xu, Amnon Amir, Ricardo R da Silva, Mingxun Wang, Nuno Bandeira, Theodore Alexandrov, Rob Knight, Pieter C Dorrestein
Imagine a scenario where personal belongings such as pens, keys, phones, or handbags are found at an investigative site. It is often valuable to the investigative team that is trying to trace back the belongings to an individual to understand their personal habits, even when DNA evidence is also available. Here, we develop an approach to translate chemistries recovered from personal objects such as phones into a lifestyle sketch of the owner, using mass spectrometry and informatics approaches. Our results show that phones' chemistries reflect a personalized lifestyle profile...
November 29, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826316/ltdna-evidence-on-trial
#3
Paul Roberts
Adopting the interpretative/hermeneutical method typical of much legal scholarship, this article considers two sets of issues pertaining to LTDNA profiles as evidence in criminal proceedings. The section titled Expert Evidence as Forensic Epistemic Warrant addresses some rather large questions about the epistemic status and probative value of expert testimony in general. It sketches a theoretical model of expert evidence, highlighting five essential criteria: (1) expert competence; (2) disciplinary domain; (3) methodological validity; (4) materiality; and (5) legal admissibility...
2016: Frontiers in Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27819737/human-autosomal-dna-and-x-chromosome-str-profiles-obtained-from-chrysomya-albiceps-diptera-calliphoridae-larvae-used-as-a-biological-trace
#4
T C Oliveira, A B R Santos, K C N Rabelo, C A Souza, S M Santos, S Crovella
The use of insects to answer questions in criminal investigations, as well as a combination of forensic genetic techniques to obtain human DNA from the organisms, especially necrophagous dipterians, have gained ground in recent decades among researchers and professionals in this area. The objective of our study was to evaluate and compare two methods of human DNA extraction, commonly used for forensic samples, to obtain human autosomal DNA and X chromosome short tandem repeat profiles from the digestive tract of Chrysomya albiceps (Diptera: Calliphoridae) larvae...
November 3, 2016: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807203/characteristics-of-brazilian-offenders-and-victims-of-interpersonal-violence-an-exploratory-study
#5
Sérgio d'Avila, Ana Cristina Campos, Ítalo de Macedo Bernardino, Gigliana Maria Sobral Cavalcante, Lorena Marques da Nóbrega, Efigênia Ferreira E Ferreira
The aim of this study was to characterize the profile of Brazilian offenders and victims of interpersonal violence, following a medicolegal and forensic perspective. A cross-sectional and exploratory study was performed in a Center of Forensic Medicine and Dentistry. The sample was made up of 1,704 victims of nonlethal interpersonal violence with some type of trauma. The victims were subject to forensic examinations by a criminal investigative team that identified and recorded the extent of the injuries. For data collection, a specific form was designed consisting of four parts according to the information provided in the medicolegal and social records: sociodemographic data of the victims, offender's characteristics, aggression characteristics, and types of injuries...
November 1, 2016: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27799417/predicting-re-incarceration-status-of-prisoners-in-contemporary-china-applying-western-criminological-theories
#6
Steven F Messner, Jianhong Liu, Yunhan Zhao
Studies have revealed that self-control theory, social learning theory, and strain theory are useful in explaining criminal activity in China. Previous research with Chinese data, however, has focused almost exclusively on samples of adolescents and the minor types of offending that are typically captured in such samples. The present study builds upon prior work by considering the extent to which these three major etiological theories of crime can help differentiate between profiles of Chinese prisoners categorized with respect to re-incarceration status...
October 30, 2016: International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27749975/profiles-of-drug-addicts-in-relation-to-personality-variables-and-disorders
#7
María Carou, Estrella Romero, Mª Ángeles Luengo
In recent decades, research has identified a set of impulsive/disinhibited personality variables closely associated with drug addiction. As well as this, disorders linked with these variables, such as ADHD and personality disorders, are being closely studied in the field of drug addiction. Although much knowledge has been accumulated about the relation of these variables and disorders taken separately, less is known about how these constructs allow identify-specific profiles within the drug dependent population to be identified...
October 7, 2016: Adicciones
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27744226/individualization-of-pubic-hair-bacterial-communities-and-the-effects-of-storage-time-and-temperature
#8
Diana W Williams, Greg Gibson
A potential application of microbial genetics in forensic science is detection of transfer of the pubic hair microbiome between individuals during sexual intercourse using high-throughput sequencing. In addition to the primary need to show whether the pubic hair microbiome is individualizing, one aspect that must be addressed before using the microbiome in criminal casework involves the impact of storage on the microbiome of samples recovered for forensic testing. To test the effects of short-term storage, pubic hair samples were collected from volunteers and stored at room temperature (∼20°C), refrigerated (4°C), and frozen (-20°C) for 1 week, 2 weeks, 4 weeks, and 6 weeks along with a baseline sample...
October 7, 2016: Forensic Science International. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27742090/mycology-in-palaeoecology-and-forensic-science
#9
Patricia E J Wiltshire
Palynology (including mycology) is widely used in palaeoecological and bioarchaeological studies. Lake and mire sediments, soils, and the deposits accumulating in archaeological features, invariably contain plant and fungal remains, particularly pollen and spores. These serve as proxy indicators of ancient environmental conditions and events. Forensic palynology has been successfully employed in criminal investigations for more than two decades. In recent years, it has included fungal palynomorphs in profiling samples from crime scenes, and from exhibits obtained from suspects and victims...
November 2016: Fungal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27723444/reduced-trauma-symptoms-and-perceived-stress-in-male-prison-inmates-through-the-transcendental-meditation-program-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#10
Sanford Nidich, Tom O'connor, Thomas Rutledge, Jeff Duncan, Blaze Compton, Angela Seng, Randi Nidich
CONTEXT: Trauma events are four times more prevalent in inmates than in the general public and are associated with increased recidivism and other mental and physical health issues. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of Transcendental Meditation (TM) on trauma symptoms in male inmates. DESIGN: One hundred eighty-one inmates with a moderate- to high-risk criminal profile were randomly assigned to either the TM program or to a usual care control group...
2016: Permanente Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27706606/detecting-multiple-dna-human-profile-from-a-mosquito-blood-meal
#11
K C N Rabêlo, C M R Albuquerque, V B Tavares, S M Santos, C A Souza, T C Oliveira, R R Moura, L A C Brandão, S Crovella
Criminal traces commonly found at crime scenes may present mixtures from two or more individuals. The scene of the crime is important for the collection of various types of traces in order to find the perpetrator of the crime. Thus, we propose that hematophagous mosquitoes found at crime scenes can be used to perform genetic testing of human blood and aid in suspect investigation. The aim of the study was to obtain a single Aedes aegypti mosquito profile from a human DNA mixture containing genetic materials of four individuals...
August 26, 2016: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27706092/black-white-disparities-in-criminal-justice-referrals-to-drug-treatment-addressing-treatment-need-or-expanding-the-diagnostic-net
#12
Karen McElrath, Angela Taylor, Kimberly K Tran
Slightly more than half of admissions to U.S. publicly-funded treatment for marijuana use are referred by the criminal justice system; this pattern has remained for at least 20 years. Nationally, Blacks comprise nearly a third of treatment admissions for marijuana use. This article explores the interplay between race and criminal justice referrals to treatment for marijuana use. Using data from the (U.S.) 2011 Treatment Episode Data Set, we examine the relationship between race and diagnosis of cannabis use disorder (dependence versus abuse) among referrals to community-based treatment in North Carolina...
October 2, 2016: Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27639210/microscopical-characterization-of-known-postmortem-root-bands-using-light-and-scanning-electron-microscopy
#13
Jack Hietpas, JoAnn Buscaglia, Adam H Richard, Stephen Shaw, Hilda S Castillo, Joseph Donfack
A postmortem root band (PMRB) is a distinct microscopic feature that is postulated to occur in hair remaining in the follicle during the postmortem interval [1] (Petraco et al., 1998). The scientific validity of this premise has been highlighted in two recent high-profile criminal cases involving PMRBs [2,3] (State of Florida v. Casey Marie Anthony, 2008; People v. Kogut, 2005). To better understand the fundamental aspects of postmortem root banding, the microscopical properties of known PMRBs(1) were characterized by light microscopy, and scanning electron microscope (SEM) imaging of microtomed sections of hairs showing root banding...
October 2016: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27611313/identifying-risk-and-protective-factors-in-recidivist-juvenile-offenders-a-decision-tree-approach
#14
Elena Ortega-Campos, Juan García-García, Maria José Gil-Fenoy, Flor Zaldívar-Basurto
Research on juvenile justice aims to identify profiles of risk and protective factors in juvenile offenders. This paper presents a study of profiles of risk factors that influence young offenders toward committing sanctionable antisocial behavior (S-ASB). Decision tree analysis is used as a multivariate approach to the phenomenon of repeated sanctionable antisocial behavior in juvenile offenders in Spain. The study sample was made up of the set of juveniles who were charged in a court case in the Juvenile Court of Almeria (Spain)...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27605915/risk-factors-for-problematic-behaviors-among-forensic-outpatients-under-the-medical-treatment-and-supervision-act-in-japan
#15
Kumiko Ando, Takahiro Soshi, Kanako Nakazawa, Takamasa Noda, Takayuki Okada
The Medical Treatment and Supervision Act (MTSA) was enacted in 2005 in Japan to promote the reintegration of clinical offenders with mental disorders into society. Under the MTSA, individuals who committed serious crimes in a state of insanity or diminished responsibility are diverted from the criminal justice system to the mental health system. Based on court decisions about MTSA-based treatment, clinical offenders have an obligation to engage in rehabilitation within their local community under the guidance of mental health professionals...
2016: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27497642/the-origin-of-unknown-source-dna-from-touched-objects
#16
Alycia K Buckingham, Michelle L Harvey, Roland A H van Oorschot
The presence of DNA in a criminal investigation often requires scrutiny in relation to how it came to be where it was found. There is a paucity of data with respect to the extent to which one can assume that the last person handling an object, which has previously been touched by others, will contribute to the DNA profile generated from it. There are limited data in detailing the extent to which any foreign DNA is picked-up from a previously touched object and transferred to subsequently touched objects. This study focuses on DNA transfer and persistence on a knife handle after multiple handlings with the knife by different individuals soon after each other, as well as handprints left on flat DNA-free surfaces immediately after touching a knife handle with a known history of prior handling...
July 28, 2016: Forensic Science International. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27491066/teaching-artificial-intelligence-to-read-electropherograms
#17
Duncan Taylor, David Powers
Electropherograms are produced in great numbers in forensic DNA laboratories as part of everyday criminal casework. Before the results of these electropherograms can be used they must be scrutinised by analysts to determine what the identified data tells us about the underlying DNA sequences and what is purely an artefact of the DNA profiling process. A technique that lends itself well to such a task of classification in the face of vast amounts of data is the use of artificial neural networks. These networks, inspired by the workings of the human brain, have been increasingly successful in analysing large datasets, performing medical diagnoses, identifying handwriting, playing games, or recognising images...
July 28, 2016: Forensic Science International. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27484781/parenthood-child-care-and-heroin-use-outcomes-after-three-years
#18
Catherine M Comiskey, John Hyland, Pauline Hyland
BACKGROUND: Internationally there is a lack of measurement on the impact of childcare on people who use drugs. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this article was to longitudinally measure drug use, familial and social status and criminal involvement between parents and nonparents who use heroin and have children in their care. METHODS: From 2003 to 2006, 404 participants were recruited to the Research Outcome Study in Ireland Evaluating Drug Treatment Effectiveness (ROSIE) as part of a longitudinal cohort study design...
October 14, 2016: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27435013/characteristics-of-individuals-presenting-to-treatment-for-primary-alcohol-problems-versus-other-drug-problems-in-the-australian-patient-pathways-study
#19
Dan I Lubman, Joshua B B Garfield, Victoria Manning, Lynda Berends, David Best, Janette M Mugavin, Tina Lam, Penny Buykx, Andrew Larner, Belinda Lloyd, Robin Room, Steve Allsop
BACKGROUND: People seeking treatment for substance use disorders often have additional health and social issues. Although individuals presenting with alcohol as the primary drug of concern (PDOC) account for nearly half of all treatment episodes to the Australian alcohol and other drug (AOD) service system, previous treatment cohort studies have focused only on the profile of Australian heroin or methamphetamine users. While studies overseas indicate that clients seeking treatment primarily for their drinking are less likely to experience social and economic marginalisation than those seeking treatment primarily for illicit or pharmaceutical drug use, very little research has directly compared individuals presenting with alcohol as the PDOC to those primarily presenting with other drugs as their PDOC...
2016: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27383334/demography-vulnerabilities-and-right-to-health-to-brazilian-prison-population
#20
Marden Marques Soares, Paula Michele Martins Gomes Bueno
This study investigates the latest research on the profile of the Brazilian prison population, its demography and current laws and regulations. It aims in the direction of ensuring the human right to health. Brazilian prison system is a complex universe in which state and federal criminal contexts keep more than 607,000 people in custody. This population is composed of 75% of young and black people, 67% poorly educated and 41% are pre-trial detainees, living in overcrowded prisons and architecturally vandalized, with population growth of around 575% in 24 years, making this environment a major focus of production of diseases...
June 2016: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
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