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Criminal profiling

Verica Radojicic, Milica Keckarevic Markovic, Feđa Puac, Miljana Kecmanovic, Dusan Keckarevic
Casings represent common evidence in a forensic laboratory, due to high frequency of firearms usage during perpetration of criminal offenses. Possible DNA evidence from casings is compromised by degradation, inhibition, and initial low-quantity deposition of biological material. For that reason, in the last 15 years, scientists have been trying to optimize procedures for recovery and amplification of DNA possibly present on its surface. In this study, we share our 12-year experience done on a total of 698 casework casings, comparing two DNA recovery methods commonly used-soaking and swabbing, as well as efficacy of two commercially available DNA amplification kits (AmpFLSTR® Identifiler® and AmpFLSTR® Identifiler® Plus kits)...
March 13, 2018: International Journal of Legal Medicine
Jack Morrison, Giles Watts, Glyn Hobbs, Nick Dawnay
Field based forensic tests commonly provide information on the presence and identity of biological stains and can also support the identification of species. Such information can support downstream processing of forensic samples and generate rapid intelligence. These approaches have traditionally used chemical and immunological techniques to elicit the result but some are known to suffer from a lack of specificity and sensitivity. The last 10 years has seen the development of field-based genetic profiling systems, with specific focus on moving the mainstay of forensic genetic analysis, namely STR profiling, out of the laboratory and into the hands of the non-laboratory user...
February 21, 2018: Forensic Science International
Byung-Yoon Roh, Won-Joon Lee, Jeong-Uk Seo, U-Young Lee, Sang-Seob Lee
The National Forensic Service (NFS) of Korea is a government agency responsible for examining and evaluating evidence obtained at crime scenes. The Section of Forensic Odontology of the Medical Examiner's Office conducts forensic odontological analyses of human remains, and mainly criminal cases are handled. In this study, 588 forensic odontological cases referred to NFS during 2011-2015 were analyzed for referral pattern, evidence material, examination criteria, and other factors and were compared with respective data from 2007 to 2010...
March 2, 2018: Legal Medicine
Can Wang, Lawrence M Wein
Motivated by the debate over how to deal with the huge backlog of untested sexual assault kits in the U.S.A., we construct and analyze a mathematical model that predicts the expected number of hits (i.e., a new DNA profile matches a DNA sample in the criminal database) as a function of both the proportion of the backlog that is tested and whether the victim-offender relationship is used to prioritize the kits that are tested. Refining the results in Ref. (Criminol Public Policy, 2016, 15, 555), we use data from Detroit, where government funding was used to process ≈15% of their backlog, to predict that prioritizing stranger kits over nonstranger kits leads to only a small improvement in performance (a 0...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Forensic Sciences
Matthew L Topel, Heval M Kelli, Tené T Lewis, Sandra B Dunbar, Viola Vaccarino, Herman A Taylor, Arshed A Quyyumi
PURPOSE: To examine the association between residence in neighborhoods with high rates of incarceration and cardiometabolic disease among nonincarcerated individuals. METHODS: We used data from two community cohort studies (n = 1368) in Atlanta, Georgia-META-Health and Predictive Health (2005-2012)-to assess the association between neighborhood incarceration rate and cardiometabolic disease, adjusting for individual-level and neighborhood-level factors. We also examined the interaction between race and neighborhood incarceration rate...
February 2, 2018: Annals of Epidemiology
Walther Parson
Forensic genetics developed from protein-based techniques a quarter of a century ago and became famous as "DNA fingerprinting," this being based on restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) of high-molecular-weight DNA. The amplification of much smaller short tandem repeat (STR) sequences using the polymerase chain reaction soon replaced RFLP analysis and advanced to become the gold standard in genetic identification. Meanwhile, STR multiplexes have been developed and made commercially available which simultaneously amplify up to 30 STR loci from as little as 15 cells or fewer...
January 23, 2018: Gerontology
V Pinchi, M Focardi, F Pradella, R Grifoni, M Palandri, G A Norelli
The migratory flows to Europe from the African countries, Asia and Middle East, have hugely intensified in the recent years. In 2016, more than 98,000 out of a total of 260,000 migrants across the Mediterranean Sea arrived in Italy and in May 2017, the trend of arrivals is: Italy +576%; Greece -39% compared to previous years. Some migrants die before touching the sole of the European continent, during the crossing, often afforded with ships, made available by unscrupulous smugglers or criminal organizations, which are unsuitable for this type of transportation...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Forensic Odonto-stomatology
Rachel L Fazio, Robert L Denney
Objective: To compare the efficacy of the Validity Indicator Profile (VIP) and Word Memory Test (WMT) in a criminal forensic population. Method: Potential participants included 225 male evaluees from a maximum-security Federal prison referred for neuropsychological evaluation for either forensic purposes or for suspected neurocognitive dysfunction as part of a medical evaluation. Examinees were included in the analysis if administered the VIP (Verbal, Nonverbal, or both tests) and WMT along with at least two other freestanding PVTs; 74 satisfied these criteria...
January 24, 2018: Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology: the Official Journal of the National Academy of Neuropsychologists
Stephanie R Penney, Aaron Prosser, Alexander I F Simpson
BACKGROUND: Developmental typologies regarding age of onset of violence and offending have not routinely taken account of the role of serious mental illness (SMI), and whether age of onset of offending in relation to onset of illness impacts on the manifestation of offending over the life course. AIMS: To test whether forensic psychiatric patients can be classified according to age of onset of SMI and offending, and, if so, whether subtypes differ by sex. METHODS: Details of all 511 patients enrolled into a large forensic mental health service in Ontario, Canada, in 2011 or 2012 were collected from records...
January 16, 2018: Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health: CBMH
Marc A Lindberg, Dana Zeid
The Attachment and Developmental Dynamic Systems Theory of Crime was tested on 206 male inmates. They completed measures tapping attachments, clinical issues, adverse childhood events, peer crime, and crime addictions. A significant path model was found, going from insecure parental attachments to adverse childhood events, and then on to the behavioral crime addiction and criminal peers scales. Peer crime was also predicted by insecure parent attachments and the crime addiction scale. Finally, the crime addiction, peer crime, and insecure parental attachment scales predicted frequencies of criminal behavior...
January 1, 2018: International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology
Amy E Lansing, Wendy Y Plante, Christine Fennema-Notestine, Shahrokh Golshan, Audrey N Beck
AIM: Psychotic-spectrum symptoms are linked to trauma, substance/alcohol use (SAU), criminality/violence and poor functional outcomes, supporting the need for early detection in vulnerable populations. To better understand high-risk girls' mental health, we assessed: (1) psychotic-spectrum symptoms; (2) cumulative trauma, adversity and loss exposures (C-TALE) and adversity-indicators (symptoms, maladaptive coping, stressor-reactivity); and SAU risk-factors; and (3) relationships among psychotic-spectrum symptoms, adversity-indicators and SAU risk-factors...
December 28, 2017: Early Intervention in Psychiatry
Theresa A Joslin Yogi, Michael Penrod, Melinda Holt, Patrick Buzzini
Wig fragments or fibers may occasionally be recognized as potential physical evidence during criminal investigations. While analytical methods traditionally adopted for the examination of textile fibers are utilized for the characterizations and comparisons of wig specimens, it is essential to understand in deeper detail the valuable contribution of features of these non-routine evidentiary materials as well as the relationship of the gathered analytical data. This study explores the dependence between the microscopic features of cross-sectional shapes and the polymer type gathered by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy...
December 15, 2017: Forensic Science International
Bianca Szkuta, Kaye N Ballantyne, Bas Kokshoorn, Roland A H van Oorschot
Questions relating to how DNA from an individual got to where it was recovered from and the activities associated with its pickup, retention and deposition are increasingly relevant to criminal investigations and judicial considerations. To address activity level propositions, investigators are typically required to assess the likelihood that DNA was transferred indirectly and not deposited through direct contact with an item or surface. By constructing a series of Bayesian networks, we demonstrate their use in assessing activity level propositions derived from a recent legal case involving the alleged secondary transfer of DNA to a surface following a handshaking event...
March 2018: Forensic Science International. Genetics
François-Xavier Laurent, Geoffrey Vibrac, Aurélien Rubio, Marie-Thérèse Thévenot, Laurent Pène
In the criminal framework, the analysis of approximately 20 DNA microsatellites enables the establishment of a genetic profile with a high statistical power of discrimination. This technique gives us the possibility to establish or exclude a match between a biological trace detected at a crime scene and a suspect whose DNA was collected via an oral swab. However, conventional techniques do tend to complexify the interpretation of complex DNA samples, such as degraded DNA and mixture DNA. The aim of this review is to highlight the powerness of new forensic DNA methods (including high-throughput sequencing or single-cell sequencing) to facilitate the interpretation of the expert with full compliance with existing french legislation...
November 2017: Médecine Sciences: M/S
Gulnaz T Javan, Sheree J Finley, Tasia Smith, Joselyn Miller, Jeremy E Wilkinson
Human thanatomicrobiome studies have established that an abundant number of putrefactive bacteria within internal organs of decaying bodies are obligate anaerobes, Clostridium spp. These microorganisms have been implicated as etiological agents in potentially life-threatening infections; notwithstanding, the scale and trajectory of these microbes after death have not been elucidated. We performed phylogenetic surveys of thanatomicrobiome signatures of cadavers' internal organs to compare the microbial diversity between the 16S rRNA gene V4 hypervariable region and V3-4 conjoined regions from livers and spleens of 45 cadavers undergoing forensic microbiological studies...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
Sho Manabe, Chie Morimoto, Yuya Hamano, Shuntaro Fujimoto, Keiji Tamaki
In criminal investigations, forensic scientists need to evaluate DNA mixtures. The estimation of the number of contributors and evaluation of the contribution of a person of interest (POI) from these samples are challenging. In this study, we developed a new open-source software "Kongoh" for interpreting DNA mixture based on a quantitative continuous model. The model uses quantitative information of peak heights in the DNA profile and considers the effect of artifacts and allelic drop-out. By using this software, the likelihoods of 1-4 persons' contributions are calculated, and the most optimal number of contributors is automatically determined; this differs from other open-source software...
2017: PloS One
Melissa J Green, Stacy Tzoumakis, Kristin R Laurens, Kimberlie Dean, Maina Kariuki, Felicity Harris, Nicole O'Reilly, Marilyn Chilvers, Sally A Brinkman, Vaughan J Carr
OBJECTIVE: Detecting the early emergence of childhood risk for adult mental disorders may lead to interventions for reducing subsequent burden of these disorders. We set out to determine classes of children who may be at risk for later mental disorder on the basis of early patterns of development in a population cohort, and associated exposures gleaned from linked administrative records obtained within the New South Wales Child Development Study. METHODS: Intergenerational records from government departments of health, education, justice and child protection were linked with the Australian Early Development Census for a state population cohort of 67,353 children approximately 5 years of age...
November 1, 2017: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry
Aileen O'Brien, Faisil Sethi, Mark Smith, Annie Bartlett
The interface between mental health services and the criminal justice system presents challenges both for professionals and patients. Both systems are stressed and inherently complex. Section 136 of the Mental Health Act is unusual being both an aspect of the Mental Health Act and a power of arrest. It has a long and controversial history related to concerns about who has been detained and how the section was applied. More recently, Section 136 has had a public profile stemming from the use of police cells as places of safety for young, mentally disturbed individuals...
October 23, 2017: Journal of Medical Ethics
G Kulstein, P Wiegand
Body fluids like blood and saliva are commonly encountered during investigations of high volume crimes like homicides. The identification of the cellular origin and the composition of the trace can link suspects or victims to a certain crime scene and provide a probative value for criminal investigations. To erase all traces from the crime scene, perpetrators often wash away their traces. Characteristically, items that show exposed stains like blood are commonly cleaned or laundered to free them from potential visible leftovers...
September 29, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
Nikki Freeman, Justin Landwehr, Tasseli McKay, James Derzon, Anupa Bir
Substance users are more likely to have co-occurring health problems, and this pattern is intensified among those involved with the criminal justice system. Interview data for 1977 incarcerated men in 5 states from the Multi-site Family Study on Incarceration, Parenting, and Partnering that was conducted between December 2008 and August 2011 were analyzed to compare pre-incarceration substance use patterns and health outcomes between men who primarily used marijuana, primarily used alcohol, primarily used other drugs, and did not use any illicit substances during that time...
2017: Substance Abuse: Research and Treatment
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