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Forensic psychology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121812/risk-assessment-interviews-exploring-the-perspectives-of-psychologists-and-indeterminate-sentenced-prisoners-in-the-united-kingdom
#1
Jo Shingler, Stefanie J Sonnenberg, Adrian Needs
This study explores the forensic risk assessment interview from the perspectives of qualified prison-based psychologists and indeterminate sentenced prisoners in the United Kingdom. It focuses on the psychologist-prisoner relationship in the interview context. Twenty-one in-depth individual interviews were conducted with psychologists and prisoners and analysed using Grounded Theory methods. The analysis identified the following categories reflecting participants' descriptions of risk assessment interviews: "Emphasising Clarity and Transparency," "Collaborative Engagement," "Making a Respectful, Boundaried yet Human Connection," "Respecting Individuality," and "Having a Purposeful Conversation...
November 1, 2017: International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050993/psychological-causes-of-autobiographical-amnesia-a-study-of-28-cases
#2
Angelica Staniloiu, Hans J Markowitsch, Andreas Kordon
Autobiographical amnesia is found in patients with focal or diffuse brain damage ("organic amnesia"), but also without overt brain damage (at least when measured with conventional brain imaging methods). This last condition is usually named dissociative amnesia at present, and was originally described as hysteria. Classically and traditionally, dissociative amnesia is seen as a disorder that causes retrograde amnesia in the autobiographical domain in the aftermath of incidents of major psychological stress or trauma...
October 16, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048939/supporting-law-enforcement-personnel-working-with-distressing-material-online
#3
Nicola Fortune, Brendan Rooney, Grainne H Kirwan
This study aimed to expand on previous research by gathering international data on key stressors impacting on computer forensic investigators who are exposed to child exploitation material (CEM) as part of their role. Semistructured interviews were conducted with five members of law enforcement (LE) working in this area, from five independent and internationally separated organizations. The results of these interviews were explored using thematic analysis. The three key themes identified were "stressors related to work investigating CEM online," "strategies for mediating stress related to investigating CEM online," and "training to investigate CEM online...
October 19, 2017: Cyberpsychology, Behavior and Social Networking
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038950/firing-a-loaded-gun-during-sleep-in-an-elderly-man-with-a-perfect-storm-of-risk-factors-including-severe-obstructive-sleep-apnea
#4
Francesca Ingravallo, Carlos H Schenck, Ernesto D'Aloja, Monica Puligheddu
PURPOSE: We report a case of firing a loaded gun during sleep in a geriatric patient with undiagnosed major sleep disorders and multiple risk factors for sleep violence. Polysomnographic findings, diagnostic challenges, and forensic implications in this unprecedented geriatric case are discussed. METHODS: A 75-year-old employed man, married for 32 years, presented to a sleep center reporting to having fired a shot in his bedroom during sleep while his wife was away, without memory of hearing the gunshot...
October 16, 2017: Sleep & Breathing, Schlaf & Atmung
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029370/elder-neglect-oral-diseases-and-injuries
#5
Stefano Petti
Elder Neglect (EN) is the failure of a designated caregiver to meet the needs of a dependent older person. World EN prevalence, meta-analyzed in this study, is 1.0% or 1.8% according to different statistical methods. Referring alleged EN cases to Adult Protective Services (APSs) by healthcare workers (HCWs) is mandatory in many countries. However, only few claims are substantiated, as EN could be confused with Self-Neglect, neglect could be unintentional or due to caregiver unawareness. Screening tools are inaccurate and their use is discouraged by public health organizations, because they lead to too many false positives, which engulf the already overwhelmed APSs...
October 13, 2017: Oral Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983814/ann-d-poole-interviewing-children-the-science-of-conversation-in-forensic-contexts-washington-dc-american-psychological-association-2016-233-pp-isbn-978-1-4338-2215-5
#6
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942376/a-psychosocial-approach-in-humanitarian-forensic-action-the-latin-american-perspective
#7
Ute Hofmeister, Susana Navarro
Forensic humanitarian action is aimed at alleviating suffering and maintaining human dignity, with the victims and their families at the core. International recommendations emphasize the importance of psychological support and psychosocial work as an integral part of forensic investigations into missing persons. Psychosocial action does not simply refer to emotional support but is based on the idea of the individual being the holder of rights, encouraging decision taking, affirming actions, and elaborating personal and collective histories...
September 1, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936821/-forensic-psychiatric-assessment-with-the-claim-of-incitement-solicitation-assistance-to-suicide-and-reinforcement-of-suicide-decision-a-case-report
#8
Altan Eşsizoğlu, Mustafa Sercan
Although the act of suicide is not considered a crime in Turkish Criminal Law, any contribution (incitement, solicitation, assistance and reinforcement of suicide decision) to the commitment of suicide is a crime according to the 84th item. However, the number of cases opened with respect to this item as well as request for forensic psychiatric expertise is very rare. In these cases, forensic psychiatric expertise depends on the psychiatric evaluation of the individual that committed suicide and the analysis of his/her relationship with the person that incited the suicide...
2017: Türk Psikiyatri Dergisi, Turkish Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922010/detecting-memory-performance-validity-with-detects-a-computerized-performance-validity-test
#9
Rui Paulo, Pedro B Albuquerque
Evaluating performance validity is essential in neuropsychological and forensic assessments. Nonetheless, most psychological assessment tests are unable to detect performance validity and other methods must be used for this purpose. A new Performance Validity Test (DETECTS - Memory Performance Validity Test) was developed with several characteristics that enhance test utility. Moreover, precise response time measurement was added to DETECTS. Two groups of participants (normative and simulator group) completed DETECTS and three memory tests from the Wechsler Memory Scale III...
September 18, 2017: Applied Neuropsychology. Adult
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916405/love-death-a-retrospective-and-prospective-follow-up-mortality-study-over-45-years
#10
Lena Lange, Barbara Zedler, Marcel A Verhoff, Markus Parzeller
BACKGROUND: Although sexual activity can cause moderate stress, it can cause natural death in individuals with pre-existing illness. The aim of this study was to identify additional pre-existing health problems, sexual practices, and potential circumstances that may trigger fatal events. METHODS: This medicolegal postmortem, retrospective, and prospective study is based on data of autopsies performed at the Institute of Legal Medicine of the University hospital, Goethe-University, Frankfurt/Main, Germany...
October 2017: Journal of Sexual Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28828586/committed-as-a-violent-sexual-predator-in-his-10th-decade-a-case-study
#11
Ryan Mattek, R Karl Hanson
We report a case study of Atypical Offender (AO), a man who was civilly committed as a sexually violent person several years after his 90th birthday. In this article, we review the factors that usually contribute to virtually zero rates of sexual crime among nonagenarians for clues as to why these protective factors did not apply to this exceptional case. Psychological assessments and court records portrayed AO as having many of the features expected of persistent sexual offenders against children (e.g., pedophilic interests, child-oriented lifestyle)...
August 21, 2017: Archives of Sexual Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820772/the-individual-experience-of-aging-patients-and-the-current-service-provision-in-the-context-of-italian-forensic-psychiatry-a-case-study
#12
Claudio Di Lorito, Luca Castelletti, Giuseppa Tripi, Maria Gloria Gandellini, Tom Dening, Birgit Völlm
INTRODUCTION: After the recent development of residential units for the execution of security measures managed by the National Health Service and the closing down of forensic psychiatric hospitals, no study has been conducted to investigate the individual experience of aging patients and to assess whether the new service is adequately meeting their needs. We aimed to explore the experience of the service of a sample of patients aged 50 years and above living in one of the Italian residential units for the execution of security measures...
July 2017: Journal of Forensic Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810073/implications-of-pseudologia-fantastica-in-criminal-forensic-evaluations-a-review-and-case-report
#13
Richard L Frierson, Kaustubh G Joshi
Pseudologia fantastica, a psychological phenomenon that has been described in the literature for at least a century, is an understudied and poorly understood entity. Sometimes referred to as pathological lying, pseudologia fantastica involves disproportionate fabrication that may be present for many years or a lifetime. In a forensic context, it can significantly complicate the evaluation of capacity to stand trial and, in certain jurisdictions, criminal responsibility. We review the current literature regarding pseudologia fantastica and present a case to highlight the clinical and forensic challenges it may create...
August 15, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776278/expression-of-thyroid-stimulating-hormone-receptors-and-thyroglobulin-in-limbic-regions-in-the-adult-human-brain
#14
Meleshni Naicker, Strinivasen Naidoo
Expression of the human thyroid-specific proteins, thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor (TSH-R) and thyroglobulin (TG) in non-thyroid tissue is well-documented. TSH-R has been identified in the heart, kidney, bone, pituitary, adipose tissue, skin and astrocyte cultures. TG has been identified in the skin, thymus and kidney. However, none of those previous studies had identified TSH-R or TG in specific human brain regions. Previously, a pilot study conducted by our group on normal adult human brain demonstrated TSH-R and TG in cortical neurons and cerebral vasculature, respectively, within various brain areas...
August 3, 2017: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759775/forensic-mental-health-evaluations-of-military-personnel-with-traumatic-life-event-in-a-university-hospital-in-ankara-turkey
#15
Huseyin Balandiz, Abdullah Bolu
INTRODUCTION: The definition of psychological trauma has been rephrased with the DSM-5. From now on, witnessing someone else's traumatic event is also accepted as a traumatic life event. Therefore, the psychiatric examination of forensic cases gains importance for not overlooking a psychiatric trauma. This research aims to discuss the psychiatric examinations of military personnel who had a traumatic life event and to reveal psychiatric states of soldiers after trauma. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The forensic reports prepared at Gulhane Military Medical Academy (GMMA), Forensic Medicine polyclinic between January 1, 2011 and November 30, 2014 were examined, and among them the cases sent to GMMA Psychiatry polyclinic for psychiatric examination were analyzed retrospectively...
October 2017: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731649/opinions-of-members-of-the-national-civil-family-proceedings-and-criminal-courts-in-withholding-or-withdrawing-of-life-support-situations-in-pediatrics
#16
Jorge O Selandari, María S Ciruzzi, Adriel J Roitman, Fernanda Ledesma, Célica Menéndez, Hernán O García
INTRODUCTION: The possibility of sustaining life functions makes it difficult to distinguish between a dying patient and a patient with chances of survival, raising a dilemma for everyone around them. On the one side, continuing with life support techniques that would only extend an irreversible process and result in physical and psychological damage and harm their dignity. On the other side, withholding or withdrawing life support without an adequate reflection and diagnostic-therapeutic effort which may lead to the death of a potentially recoverable child...
August 1, 2017: Archivos Argentinos de Pediatría
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709048/intentional-burn-injury-assessment-of-allegations-of-self-infliction
#17
Juliet Cohen, Jo Pettitt, Emily Wilbourn
This study investigates the question of whether there is evidence that suggests the possibility of self-infliction, or self-infliction by proxy, of burn injury among a group of asylum claimants in the UK who have attributed such injuries to torture, and how such evidence might be assessed. The question arose from the observations of doctors at the UK-based charity Freedom from Torture that increasing numbers of individuals from Sri Lanka who described a history of torture had suffered severe and disfiguring burn injuries from heated metal objects, and the suggestion from asylum decision-makers that in some cases such injuries could have been acquired deliberately by self-infliction or self-infliction by proxy rather than by torture as claimed...
October 2017: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28703837/multiple-stab-wounds-understanding-the-manner-of-death-through-the-psychological-autopsy
#18
G Di Vella, I Grattagliano, S Curti, R Catanesi, M K Sullivan, L Tattoli
A 48-year-old physical therapist with no history of psychiatric disorders or suicidal tendencies was found dead by his relatives inside his apartment. Multiple stab wounds were present on the chest and the abdomen. Several more superficial cuts were also seen on the neck and the left wrist. At the death scene, there was a large pool of blood in the room, with secondary droplets and stains; a kitchen knife was found beside the body, and a suicide note on a table. Especially the number of wounds raised strong suspicion of a homicide in the first instance but some circumstances (the farewell letter, the absence of clothing injuries, no signs of third-party involvement) and autopsy findings (absence of defense or blunt injuries, the localization of the wounds, the presence of hesitation marks) pointed toward a suicide etiology...
July 2017: La Clinica Terapeutica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697408/a-finding-in-genetic-polymorphism-analysis-study-a-case-of-non-mosaic-47-xxx-without-manifestations
#19
Xingyi Yang, Zilan Ye, Xiaofang Zhang, Huijun Wang, Chao Liu
Trisomy X (47, XXX) is a sex chromosome aneuploidy condition in which females have an extra X chromosome, compared to the 46, XX karyotype in typical females. There is considerable variation in the phenotype, with some individuals very mildly affected and others with more significant physical and psychological features. However, the trisomy X in this case, without any of these phenotype, is rarely reported. Here, we report a case found during DNA sample collection in a study of genetic polymorphism analysis of loci in Chinese ethnic group, of a female with neither laboratory or clinical signs of Triple X syndrome...
July 2017: Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696182/prediction-of-psychiatric-hospitalization-diagnoses-arrests-and-violent-behavior-through-scored-drawings-and-associations
#20
Frank J Dyer
The article presents a completely empirical approach to using drawings and associations as a supplemental tool in forensic psychological assessment. The present system represents a modern alternative to prior theory-driven "projective technique" approaches that have failed to pass scientific scrutiny. Using an archival sample of 252 forensic cases, House-Tree-Person drawing protocols were scored according to preliminary test items developed from published handbooks, academic courses, and workshops on the use of drawings and related associations for assessment...
January 1, 2017: Psychological Reports
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