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Forensic psychology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053132/varieties-of-voice-hearing-psychics-and-the-psychosis-continuum
#1
Albert R Powers, Megan S Kelley, Philip R Corlett
Hearing voices that are not present is a prominent symptom of serious mental illness. However, these experiences may be common in the non-help-seeking population, leading some to propose the existence of a continuum of psychosis from health to disease. Thus far, research on this continuum has focused on what is impaired in help-seeking groups. Here we focus on protective factors in non-help-seeking voice-hearers. We introduce a new study population: clairaudient psychics who receive daily auditory messages...
January 2017: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052103/bmi-and-whr-are-reflected-in-female-facial-shape-and-texture-a-geometric-morphometric-image-analysis
#2
Christine Mayer, Sonja Windhager, Katrin Schaefer, Philipp Mitteroecker
Facial markers of body composition are frequently studied in evolutionary psychology and are important in computational and forensic face recognition. We assessed the association of body mass index (BMI) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) with facial shape and texture (color pattern) in a sample of young Middle European women by a combination of geometric morphometrics and image analysis. Faces of women with high BMI had a wider and rounder facial outline relative to the size of the eyes and lips, and relatively lower eyebrows...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030362/the-guilty-brain-the-utility-of-neuroimaging-and-neurostimulation-studies-in-forensic-field
#3
Francesca Mameli, Cristina Scarpazza, Emanuele Tomasini, Roberta Ferrucci, Fabiana Ruggiero, Giuseppe Sartori, Alberto Priori
Several studies have aimed to address the natural inability of humankind to detect deception and accurately discriminate lying from truth in the legal context. To date, it has been well established that telling a lie is a complex mental activity. During deception, many functions of higher cognition are involved: the decision to lie, withholding the truth, fabricating the lie, monitoring whether the receiver believes the lie, and, if necessary, adjusting the fabricated story and maintaining a consistent lie...
December 28, 2016: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28029436/psychiatric-psychological-forensic-report-writing
#4
Gerald Young
Approaches to forensic report writing in psychiatry, psychology, and related mental health disciplines have moved from an organization, content, and stylistic framework to considering ethical and other codes, evidentiary standards, and practice considerations. The first part of the article surveys different approaches to forensic report writing, including that of forensic mental health assessment and psychiatric ethics. The second part deals especially with psychological ethical approaches. The American Psychological Association's Ethical Principles and Code of Conduct (2002) provide one set of principles on which to base forensic report writing...
October 28, 2016: International Journal of Law and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28029435/assessment-of-complex-dissociative-disorder-patients-and-simulated-dissociation-in-forensic-contexts
#5
Bethany L Brand, Aliya R Webermann, A Steven Frankel
Few assessors receive training in assessing dissociation and complex dissociative disorders (DDs). Potential differential diagnoses include anxiety, mood, psychotic, substance use, and personality disorders, as well as exaggeration and malingering. Individuals with DDs typically elevate on many clinical and validity scales on psychological tests, yet research indicates that they can be distinguished from DD simulators. Becoming informed about the testing profiles of DD individuals and DD simulators can improve the accuracy of differential diagnoses in forensic settings...
October 29, 2016: International Journal of Law and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28024169/evaluation-of-kims-immunoassays-on-a-cobas-c-501-analyzer-for-drugs-of-abuse-and-ethyl-glucuronide-testing-in-urine-for-forensic-abstinence-control
#6
Merja A Neukamm, Arsham Bahrami, Volker Auwärter, Felix M P Mehne, Eva Höss
For the medico-psychological assessment (MPA) during driving license re-granting in Germany, abstinence control including urine samples is required. In these programs, even small amounts of markers for drug or alcohol abuse have to be detected. Thus, the concentrations of the target compounds are very low, and, in consequence, the sensitivity of the applied screening method has to be much higher than for clinical use. Modified drugs of abuse and ethyl glucuronide immunoassays on a Roche cobas c 501 analyzer were evaluated for precision, accuracy, onboard calibration stability, cross reactivity, sensitivity and specificity using authentic urine samples...
December 26, 2016: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27965330/approach-to-risk-identification-in-undifferentiated-mental-disorders
#7
REVIEW
José Silveira, Patricia Rockman, Casey Fulford, Jon Hunter
OBJECTIVE: To provide primary care physicians with a novel approach to risk identification and related clinical decision making in the management of undifferentiated mental disorders. SOURCES OF INFORMATION: We conducted a review of the literature in PubMed, CINAHL, PsycINFO, and Google Scholar using the search terms diagnostic uncertainty, diagnosis, risk identification, risk assessment/methods, risk, risk factors, risk management/methods, cognitive biases and psychiatry, decision making, mental disorders/diagnosis, clinical competence, evidence-based medicine, interviews as topic, psychiatry/education, psychiatry/methods, documentation/methods, forensic psychiatry/education, forensic psychiatry/methods, mental disorders/classification, mental disorders/psychology, violence/prevention and control, and violence/psychology...
December 2016: Canadian Family Physician Médecin de Famille Canadien
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863281/the-unfamiliar-face-effect-on-forensic-craniofacial-reconstruction-and-recognition
#8
Won-Joon Lee, Caroline M Wilkinson
Previous research into the reliability of forensic craniofacial reconstruction (CFR) has focused primarily on the accuracy of reconstructed faces from European or African ancestry skulls. Moreover, the recognition of CFR in relation to the experience and ancestry of the practitioners and the assessors has not been previously considered. The cross-race effect is a recognised phenomenon in psychology studies, where familiar ancestry faces are recognised more readily than unfamiliar ancestry faces, but there is a paucity of research addressing the relationship between the accuracy of reconstructed faces and the familiarity with this ancestry by the practitioners/assessors...
December 2016: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815437/special-competencies-for-psychological-assessment-of-torture-survivors
#9
Kirby Huminuik
In spite of the absolute prohibition against torture in international law, this grave human rights abuse is still practiced systematically and with impunity in the majority of countries around the world. Mental health professionals can play a positive role in the fight against torture and impunity, by developing competencies to assess the psychological sequelae of torture. High-quality psychological evidence can help to substantiate allegations of torture, thereby increasing the likelihood of success in civil, administrative, and criminal proceedings...
November 4, 2016: Transcultural Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810113/prediction-of-occupational-disability-from-psychological-and-neuropsychological-evidence-in-forensic-context
#10
Izabela Z Schultz, Ada K Law, Leanna C Cruikshank
Within the fields of psychiatry, psychology, and neuropsychology, medical examiners are often tasked with providing an opinion about an injured individual's health prognosis and likelihood of returning to work. Traditionally, examiners have conducted such assessments by employing clinical intuition, expert knowledge, and judgment. More recently, however, an accumulation of research on factors predictive of disability has allowed examiners to provide prognostications using specific empirically supported evidence...
November 2016: International Journal of Law and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27808560/evidence-based-psychological-assessment
#11
Robert F Bornstein
In recent years there has been increasing emphasis on evidence-based practice in psychology (EBPP), and as is true in most health care professions, the primary focus of EBPP has been on treatment. Comparatively little attention has been devoted to applying the principles of EBPP to psychological assessment, despite the fact that assessment plays a central role in myriad domains of empirical and applied psychology (e.g., research, forensics, behavioral health, risk management, diagnosis and classification in mental health settings, documentation of neuropsychological impairment and recovery, personnel selection and placement in organizational contexts)...
November 3, 2016: Journal of Personality Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27806889/forensic-implications-of-changes-in-dsm-5-criteria-for-responses-to-trauma-and-stress
#12
Madelyn Simring Milchman
DSM-5 significantly changed the diagnostic criteria for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) relative to DSM-IV/DSM-IV-TR. These changes do not alter its basic approach to diagnosing mental disorders, which treats each disorder as a separate category. This article analyzes the strengths and weaknesses of the categorical approach, and reviews empirical evidence regarding the impact of changes within it on the ease or difficulty of receiving the PTSD diagnosis. It especially analyzes the impact of newly included symptoms that are meant to identify cases in which trauma exposure was associated with changes in more serious PTSD cases, known as Complex PTSD (C-PTSD)...
November 2016: International Journal of Law and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27744234/examining-the-effect-of-childhood-trauma-on-psychological-distress-risk-of-violence-and-engagement-in-forensic-mental-health
#13
Marlene Macinnes, Gary Macpherson, Jessica Austin, Matthias Schwannauer
Previous research has found an association between childhood trauma and insecure attachment and psychological distress, risk of violence and engagement in therapy. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationships between these factors in a forensic population. Sixty-four participants from three secure psychiatric hospitals completed the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ), the Relationship Scales Questionnaire (RSQ) and the Clinical Outcomes in Routine Evaluation - Outcome Measure (CORE-OM). Overall scores from participants' Historical Clinical Risk Management Violence Risk Assessment Scheme, (HCR-20) were calculated...
December 30, 2016: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27710003/feasibility-and-effectiveness-of-narrative-exposure-therapy-and-cognitive-behavioral-therapy-in-a-context-of-ongoing-violence-in-south-africa
#14
Martina Hinsberger, Leon Holtzhausen, Jessica Sommer, Debra Kaminer, Thomas Elbert, Soraya Seedat, Sarah Wilker, Anselm Crombach, Roland Weierstall
Objective: In an observer-blinded intervention trial, we tested the reduction of posttraumatic stress symptoms, aggressive attitude, and behavior in young males living in a context of ongoing community and gang violence by means of (a) forensic offender rehabilitation narrative exposure therapy (FORNET), and (b) the cognitive-behavioral intervention "Thinking for a Change" (TFAC). A waiting list served as the control condition. Method: A total of 39 young men were included in the data analysis: 15 completed FORNET, 11 underwent cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), and 13 were on a waiting list for later treatment...
October 6, 2016: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27664812/mental-health-and-psychosocial-interventions-for-children-and-adolescents-in-street-situations-in-low-and-middle-income-countries-a-systematic-review
#15
Cynthia Watters, Paul O'Callaghan
This article reviews the available quantitative literature on mental health and psychosocial interventions among children and adolescents in street situations (CASS) in low- and middle-income countries (LAMIC). PRISMA standards for systematic reviews were used to search five databases as well as grey literature. There were four inclusion criteria; studies had to involve a description of an external (i.e. outside of the home) mental health or psychosocial intervention/treatment, must be focused in LAMIC, must be focused on CASS, and must empirically evaluate the effectiveness of the intervention described...
October 2016: Child Abuse & Neglect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27639654/-an-absolutely-necessary-piece-a-qualitative-study-of-legal-perspectives-on-medical-affidavits-in-the-asylum-process
#16
Elizabeth Scruggs, Timothy C Guetterman, Anna C Meyer, Jamie VanArtsdalen, Michele Heisler
A key challenge for asylum seekers in the United States is being able to provide evidence of prior persecution in their home countries. Medical/psychological affidavits corroborating applicants' accounts often make the difference between successful and unsuccessful applications. The purpose of this study was to identify the unmet demand for and features of effective medical/psychological affidavits in the asylum process, as well as the personal and systemic barriers for asylum seekers. This is a qualitative study of semi-structured interviews with legal professionals who work in asylum law...
November 2016: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27550723/the-abuse-intervention-model-a-pragmatic-approach-to-intervention-for-elder-mistreatment
#17
Laura Mosqueda, Kerry Burnight, Melanie W Gironda, Alison A Moore, Jehni Robinson, Bonnie Olsen
Ten percent of older adults experience elder mistreatment, and it is much more common in older adults with dementia. It is associated with higher rates of psychological distress, hospitalization, and death and, in the United States, costs billions of dollars each year. Although elder mistreatment is relatively common and costly, it is estimated that fewer than 10% of instances of elder mistreatment are reported. Given these data, there is a great need for research on interventions to mitigate elder mistreatment and for a practical model or framework to use in approaching such interventions...
September 2016: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27538441/neuropsychologist-experts-and-civil-capacity-evaluations-representative-cases
#18
REVIEW
Paul M Kaufmann
Clinical neuropsychologists accept more forensic referrals now and spend more time in forensic consulting than ever before. Recent surveys show weekly hours devoted to forensic consulting increased 97% in the past decade. During the same time period, the number of board certified neuropsychologists more than doubled. Under recently published Specialty Guidelines for Forensic Psychology, clinical neuropsychologists practice forensic psychology when applying scientific, technical, or specialized knowledge of neuropsychology to the law to assist in addressing legal, contractual, or administrative matters...
September 2016: Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology: the Official Journal of the National Academy of Neuropsychologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27536998/assessment-in-health-psychology-introduction-to-the-special-issue
#19
Zeeshan Butt
For the past 27 years, has been committed to publishing empirical research relevant to clinical assessment of basic and applied cognition, personality, interpersonal behavior, psychopathology, forensics, and biological psychology. There is growing interest in the use of patient-centered outcomes in medical/surgical care and for measuring health care performance. Patient-centered outcome measures complement traditional clinical outcomes of morbidity and mortality, capturing the patient's perspective regarding their health and its treatment...
September 2016: Psychological Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27504641/violence-risk-assessment-and-psychological-treatment-in-correctional-and-forensic-settings-advances-in-research-and-practice
#20
Philip R Magaletta, Gary R VandenBos
This article is an introduction to the special section "Correctional and Criminal Justice Psychology." The eight articles in this issue advance the goals of delivering and assessing psychological services within the legal and correctional systems and achieving lasting change in individuals, groups, and systems. (PsycINFO Database Record
August 2016: Psychological Services
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