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Forensic psychology

Marlene Macinnes, Gary Macpherson, Jessica Austin, Matthias Schwannauer
Previous research has found an association between childhood trauma and insecure attachment and psychological distress, risk of violence and engagement in therapy. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationships between these factors in a forensic population. Sixty-four participants from three secure psychiatric hospitals completed the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ), the Relationship Scales Questionnaire (RSQ) and the Clinical Outcomes in Routine Evaluation - Outcome Measure (CORE-OM). Overall scores from participants' Historical Clinical Risk Management Violence Risk Assessment Scheme, (HCR-20) were calculated...
September 29, 2016: Psychiatry Research
Martina Hinsberger, Leon Holtzhausen, Jessica Sommer, Debra Kaminer, Thomas Elbert, Soraya Seedat, Sarah Wilker, Anselm Crombach, Roland Weierstall
Objective: In an observer-blinded intervention trial, we tested the reduction of posttraumatic stress symptoms, aggressive attitude, and behavior in young males living in a context of ongoing community and gang violence by means of (a) forensic offender rehabilitation narrative exposure therapy (FORNET), and (b) the cognitive-behavioral intervention "Thinking for a Change" (TFAC). A waiting list served as the control condition. Method: A total of 39 young men were included in the data analysis: 15 completed FORNET, 11 underwent cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), and 13 were on a waiting list for later treatment...
October 6, 2016: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
Cynthia Watters, Paul O'Callaghan
This article reviews the available quantitative literature on mental health and psychosocial interventions among children and adolescents in street situations (CASS) in low- and middle-income countries (LAMIC). PRISMA standards for systematic reviews were used to search five databases as well as grey literature. There were four inclusion criteria; studies had to involve a description of an external (i.e. outside of the home) mental health or psychosocial intervention/treatment, must be focused in LAMIC, must be focused on CASS, and must empirically evaluate the effectiveness of the intervention described...
September 21, 2016: Child Abuse & Neglect
Elizabeth Scruggs, Timothy C Guetterman, Anna C Meyer, Jamie VanArtsdalen, Michele Heisler
A key challenge for asylum seekers in the United States is being able to provide evidence of prior persecution in their home countries. Medical/psychological affidavits corroborating applicants' accounts often make the difference between successful and unsuccessful applications. The purpose of this study was to identify the unmet demand for and features of effective medical/psychological affidavits in the asylum process, as well as the personal and systemic barriers for asylum seekers. This is a qualitative study of semi-structured interviews with legal professionals who work in asylum law...
September 5, 2016: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
Laura Mosqueda, Kerry Burnight, Melanie W Gironda, Alison A Moore, Jehni Robinson, Bonnie Olsen
Ten percent of older adults experience elder mistreatment, and it is much more common in older adults with dementia. It is associated with higher rates of psychological distress, hospitalization, and death and, in the United States, costs billions of dollars each year. Although elder mistreatment is relatively common and costly, it is estimated that fewer than 10% of instances of elder mistreatment are reported. Given these data, there is a great need for research on interventions to mitigate elder mistreatment and for a practical model or framework to use in approaching such interventions...
September 2016: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
Paul M Kaufmann
Clinical neuropsychologists accept more forensic referrals now and spend more time in forensic consulting than ever before. Recent surveys show weekly hours devoted to forensic consulting increased 97% in the past decade. During the same time period, the number of board certified neuropsychologists more than doubled. Under recently published Specialty Guidelines for Forensic Psychology, clinical neuropsychologists practice forensic psychology when applying scientific, technical, or specialized knowledge of neuropsychology to the law to assist in addressing legal, contractual, or administrative matters...
September 2016: Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology: the Official Journal of the National Academy of Neuropsychologists
Zeeshan Butt
For the past 27 years, has been committed to publishing empirical research relevant to clinical assessment of basic and applied cognition, personality, interpersonal behavior, psychopathology, forensics, and biological psychology. There is growing interest in the use of patient-centered outcomes in medical/surgical care and for measuring health care performance. Patient-centered outcome measures complement traditional clinical outcomes of morbidity and mortality, capturing the patient's perspective regarding their health and its treatment...
September 2016: Psychological Assessment
Philip R Magaletta, Gary R VandenBos
This article is an introduction to the special section "Correctional and Criminal Justice Psychology." The eight articles in this issue advance the goals of delivering and assessing psychological services within the legal and correctional systems and achieving lasting change in individuals, groups, and systems. (PsycINFO Database Record
August 2016: Psychological Services
Michael D Maraun, Stephen D Hart
Recently, researchers in the field of forensic mental health have attempted to address the technical, empirical question of whether important clinical problems, such as psychopathy or malingering, constitute taxa (i.e., discrete conditions). In this paper, we provide a detailed elucidation of the foundational logic of the quantitative methods employed to answer this question, focusing on the taxometric procedures developed by Paul Meehl and colleagues. We attempt to demonstrate that research on taxonicity is hampered by (a) researchers' unfamiliarity with or misunderstanding of the logic underlying latent variable technologies and (b) the fundamental incapacity of Meehlian procedures to provide a test of taxonicity...
October 2016: Psychological Reports
José L S A Rodrigues, Anderson P B Lima, Juliana Y Nagata, Lilian Rigo, Graziela O Cericato, Ademir Franco, Luiz R Paranhos
The domestic violence against children (DVAC) interferes in the psychological development leading to sequels that manifest and persist up to the adulthood. The physical evidences of domestic violence are more easily observed in the orofacial complex, becoming eventually detected by dentists. The present systematic literature review aimed to investigate the perception, knowledge and attitude of dentists towards the detection and management of DVAC cases. A systematic search was performed in 6 databases: PubMed, ScienceDirect, LILACS, SciELO, GoogleScholar, and OpenGrey...
October 2016: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
Sanne L Hillege, Lieke van Domburgh, Eva A Mulder, Lucres M C Jansen, Robert R J M Vermeiren
Adolescents in forensic care display wide varieties of complex psychiatric, psychological, and contextual problems. Based on large amounts of information, clinicians need to consider, integrate, and prioritize these offender characteristics to construct individual treatment trajectories. So far, scientific knowledge on how these treatment decisions take place is scarce. Current study uses a qualitative design for detecting implicit knowledge of clinicians on which offender characteristics they consider while making treatment decisions...
July 11, 2016: International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology
Gwennis A Bärthel, Ineke Wessel, Rafaële J C Huntjens, Johan Verwoerd
Research on collaborative remembering suggests that collaboration hampers group memory (i.e., collaborative inhibition), yet enhances later individual memory. Studies examining collaborative effects on memory for emotional stimuli are scarce, especially concerning later individual memory. In the present study, female undergraduates watched an emotional movie and recalled it either collaboratively (n = 60) or individually (n = 60), followed by an individual free recall test and a recognition test. We replicated the standard collaborative inhibition effect...
July 12, 2016: Memory
Rageshri Dhairyawan, Kate Shardlow, Michelle Carroll, Rachel Sacks
In 2006, a national survey demonstrated wide disparities in services offered to sexual assault complainants in the UK, most marked between sexual assault referral centres and non-sexual assault referral centres (police victim examination suites). With national standards introduced in 2009 and the expansion of sexual assault referral centres, we aimed to evaluate the current situation. A questionnaire based on the original 2006 survey, collecting data on population covered, access, funding, personnel, medical care and clinical governance was sent to all 44 UK sexual assault referral centres open in 2012...
July 8, 2016: International Journal of STD & AIDS
Jorge O Selandari, María S Ciruzzi, Adriel J Roitman, Fernanda Ledesma, Célica Menéndez, Hernán O García
INTRODUCTION: The possibility of sustaining life functions makes it difficult to distinguish between a dying patient and a patient with chances of survival, raising a dilemma for everyone around them. On the one side, continuing with life support techniques that would only extend an irreversible process and result in physical and psychological damage and harm their dignity. On the other side, withholding or withdrawing life support without an adequate reflection and diagnostic-therapeutic effort which may lead to the death of a potentially recoverable child...
August 1, 2016: Archivos Argentinos de Pediatría
Sonja Heinl, Oliver Lerch, Freidoon Erdmann
The determination of Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), cannabinol (CBN) and cannabidiol (CBD) in hair is a major routine task in forensic laboratories worldwide. A comprehensively automated liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) method has been developed. The automation was carried out by an x-y-z sample robot equipped with modules capable of shaking, centrifugation and solvent evaporation. It comprises digestion of hair in sodium hydroxide solution, LLE, extract evaporation, reconstitution in silylation reagent, inlet derivatization and GC-MS analysis...
September 2016: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
Shreemanta Kumar Dash, Shailendra Patel, Krishnadutt Chavali
Sexual violence is a significant cause of physical and psychological harm and suffering for women and children. Although sexual violence mostly affects women and girls, boys are also subject to child sexual abuse. Nurse is the person who attends the victim first. In order to meet the rigid and ever-changing demands of providing care to the victim and complying with our confusing system of laws, the nursing should has been forced to expand into a Forensic nursing, specialty of its own. Nursing roles in the criminal justice service known by many names worldwide-Custody nursing, Prison/Correctional nursing, Immigration centre nursing, Sexual Assault Nurse Examiner (SANE) or Sexual Assault Forensic Examiner (SAFE), SARTs (Sexual assault response team), SARCs (Sexual assault referral centre) and FNDIs (Forensic nurse death investigator)...
August 2016: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
F Barton Evans
This article illustrates the complex sociocultural components in the forensic psychological assessment of a young Ethiopian woman's claim for political asylum due to a well-founded fear of persecution and for relief under the Convention Against Torture. It draws attention to the subtle social and cultural influences in the practice of forensic psychological assessment with an emphasis of reflective practice, which is contextualized in the interpersonal theory of Sullivan. In the interpersonal approach, the essential work of the assessor is to pay careful attention to the microinteractions between the client and the assessor as reflections of the interpersonal (meaning social and cultural) processes, eschewing the illusion of objectivity...
November 2016: Journal of Personality Assessment
David S Im
In examining contributors to violence among individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), one factor that has received little attention is a history of psychological trauma. This study's purpose was to explore the possible mechanisms for an association between trauma and violence in persons with ASD. The literature regarding the neurobiology and theoretical underpinnings of ASD is reviewed and compared with the literature on the neurobiology and theoretical underpinnings of trauma as a risk factor for violence in individuals without ASD...
June 2016: Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law
Paula Reavey, Rachel Wilcock, Steven D Brown, Richard Batty, Serina Fuller
Individuals with mental health problems are considered to be part of a group labeled 'vulnerable' in forensic psychology literature and the legal system more generally. In producing witness statements, there are numerous guidelines in the UK, designed to facilitate the production of reliable and valid accounts by those deemed to be vulnerable witnesses. And yet, it is not entirely clear how mental health impacts on reliability and validity within the judicial system, partly due to the diversity of those who present with mental health difficulties...
May 2016: International Journal of Law and Psychiatry
Trista Haupt Wright, Chad Harris
Twenty-one cases involving alpha-pyrrolidinovalerophenone (α-PVP) were submitted between 2012 and 2015 to the Western Department of Forensic Science Laboratory. Eighteen suspected impaired driving cases were determined to have α-PVP concentrations <0.005-0.09 mg/L. Three fatalities during this period were determined to have α-PVP concentrations ranging from 0.03 to >20 mg/L. Human use of synthetic cathinones like α-PVP has been reported to induce psychological effects such as delusions, paranoia, hallucinations and deleterious cardiovascular effects...
June 2016: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
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