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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508591/serious-offenders-using-evidence-to-predict-and-manage-the-risk
#1
Dominic A S Pearson, Cynthia McDougall
In response to the risk of serious further offences, an evidence-based approach is needed in risk management. A recent joint prison-probation inspection of the management of life sentence prisoners in six U.K. prisons found that the quality of assessment and plans to manage risk of harm to others was insufficient, with too much focus on the offender's verbal account. The present paper discusses observations of regular prisoner behaviour as the basis for predictions, and summarizes results of an evaluation of this methodology based on a sample of high-risk category prisoners released into the community...
May 16, 2017: Behavioral Sciences & the Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400064/sexually-violent-predator-risk-assessments-with-the-violence-risk-appraisal-guide-revised-a-shaky-practice
#2
REVIEW
Brian R Abbott
Twenty-two jurisdictions in the United States permit the involuntary civil confinement of sexual offenders upon expiration of their criminal sentence and, if committed, these individuals face possible lifetime commitment. One of the legal requirements that psychologists must address in sexually violent predator evaluations is the likelihood that an individual will engage in dangerous sexual behavior and consideration of the probabilities for sexual recidivism contained in actuarial experience tables best address this inquiry...
April 8, 2017: International Journal of Law and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28383985/violent-offending-among-juveniles-a-7-year-longitudinal-study-of-recidivism-desistance-and-associations-with-mental-health
#3
Sascha Hein, Baptiste Barbot, Amanda Square, John Chapman, Catherine Foley Geib, Elena L Grigorenko
Serious and violent offending among juveniles is a consistent concern of researchers, practitioners, and policymakers, yet the development of violent offending remains poorly understood because of limited availability of relevant data, small sample sizes, and shortage of longitudinal data sets. This study analyzed developmental patterns of violent offending over 7 years in the complete population of court-referred youth in Connecticut between 2006 and 2012 (N = 58,678; mean age at first offense = 14.7 years)...
April 6, 2017: Law and Human Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28368169/the-predictive-properties-of-dynamic-sex-offender-risk-assessment-instruments-a-meta-analysis
#4
Jan Willem van den Berg, Wineke Smid, Klaartje Schepers, Edwin Wever, Daan van Beek, Erick Janssen, Luk Gijs
This meta-analysis is the first to our knowledge to evaluate the predictive properties of dynamic sex offender risk assessment instruments, which are designed to assess factors associated with recidivism that are amenable to change. Based on 52 studies (N = 13,446), we found that dynamic risk assessment instruments have small-to-moderate predictive properties, with Cohen's d ranging between 0.71 for sexual recidivism (41 studies, 22 unique samples, N = 5,699) and 0.43 for violent (including sexual) recidivism (27 studies, 14 unique samples, N = 10,368)...
April 3, 2017: Psychological Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28367514/impulsive-antisocial-dimension-of-psychopathy-linked-to-enlargement-and-abnormal-functional-connectivity-of-the-striatum
#5
Cole Korponay, Maia Pujara, Philip Deming, Carissa Philippi, Jean Decety, David S Kosson, Kent A Kiehl, Michael Koenigs
BACKGROUND: Psychopathy is a mental health disorder characterized by callous and impulsive antisocial behavior, and is associated with a high incidence of violent crime, substance abuse, and recidivism. Recent studies suggest that the striatum may be a key component of the neurobiological basis for the disorder, though structural findings have been mixed and functional connectivity of the striatum in psychopathy has yet to be fully examined. METHODS: We performed a multimodal neuroimaging study of striatum volume and functional connectivity in psychopathy, using a large sample of adult male prison inmates (N=124)...
March 2017: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326453/violent-trauma-recidivism-does-all-violence-escalate
#6
R M Nygaard, A P Marek, S R Daly, J M Van Camp
PURPOSE: Rates of trauma patients presenting with history of prior trauma range from 25 to 44%. Outcomes involving recidivists in the setting of intentional trauma, especially penetrating trauma, are conflicting. We hypothesized that if violence does escalate with successive incidence, then injuries due to successive violence should escalate or become increasingly severe with successive admissions. METHODS: The trauma registry from an urban level I adult and pediatric trauma center was queried for injuries due to blunt assault, stabbing, and firearm injury...
March 22, 2017: European Journal of Trauma and Emergency Surgery: Official Publication of the European Trauma Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205232/preliminary-study-of-testosterone-and-empathy-in-determining-recidivism-and-antisocial-behavior
#7
Samuel J House, Jacob M Laan, Raymond K Molden, James C Ritchie, Zachary N Stowe
Recidivism, repeated criminal behavior after conviction and correction of prior offenses, is a costly problem across the nation. However, the contribution of empathy in determining the risk of recidivism has received limited attention, although lack of empathy has been related to antisocial personality disorder in various studies. Studies linked testosterone to aggression, antisocial behavior, and criminality, and evidence support hormonal connections between empathy and aggression. Adult male prison inmates convicted of violent or nonviolent offenses were included in a cross-sectional study of empathy, antisocial behavior, salivary testosterone, and recidivism...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28173890/differences-in-executive-functioning-between-violent-and-non-violent-offenders
#8
J Meijers, J M Harte, G Meynen, P Cuijpers
BACKGROUND: A growing body of neuropsychological and neurobiological research shows a relationship between functioning of the prefrontal cortex and criminal and violent behaviour. The prefrontal cortex is crucial for executive functions such as inhibition, attention, working memory, set-shifting and planning. A deficit in these functions - a prefrontal deficit - may result in antisocial, impulsive or even aggressive behaviour. While several meta-analyses show large effect sizes for the relationship between a prefrontal deficit, executive dysfunction and criminality, there are few studies investigating differences in executive functions between violent and non-violent offenders...
February 8, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152325/violent-crime-in-the-lives-of-homeless-female-ex-offenders
#9
Adeline M Nyamathi, Benissa E Salem, Elizabeth Hall, Tanya Oleskowicz, Maria Ekstrand, Kartik Yadav, Joy Toyama, Susan Turner, Mark Faucette
The cyclical pattern of violence in the lives of homeless female ex-offenders may precipitate ongoing substance use and recidivism; all of which have shown to be mounting public health issues affecting successful reentry. This paper, which analyzed baseline data from a longitudinal study of 126 female ex-offenders in Los Angeles and Pomona, California, highlighted the factors found to be associated with violent crime among homeless female ex-offenders. A multiple logistic regression model for whether or not the last conviction was for a violent offense indicated that poor housing (p = ...
February 2017: Issues in Mental Health Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095932/the-role-of-marriage-in-criminal-recidivism-a-longitudinal-and-co-relative-analysis
#10
K S Kendler, S L Lönn, J Sundquist, K Sundquist
AIMS: Marriage is associated with a reduced rate of criminal recidivism, but the underlying mechanisms have only partly been elucidated. We seek to clarify the nature of the association between marriage and recidivism and how that relationship may be moderated as a function of gender, deviance of spouse, a history of violence and familial risk. METHOD: We utilise a longitudinal cohort design consisting of Swedish men (n = 239 328) and women (n = 72 280), born between 1958 and 1986, who were convicted of at least one crime before age 20 and were not married prior to age 20...
January 18, 2017: Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076443/predicting-reoffending-using-the-structured-assessment-of-violence-risk-in-youth-savry-a-5-year-follow-up-study-of-male-juvenile-offenders-in-hunan-province-china
#11
Jiansong Zhou, Katrina Witt, Xia Cao, Chen Chen, Xiaoping Wang
BACKGROUND: Juvenile violent offending is a serious worldwide public health issue. OBJECTIVE: The study examined whether the Structured Assessment of Violence Risk in Youth (SAVRY) can be used to predict violent reoffending in Chinese male juvenile offenders, and to determine which risk/protective domains (items) are associated with violent recidivism. METHODS: A total of 246 male juvenile offenders were recruited. SAVRY domains were scored by trained raters based on file review and interviews with participants and their legal guardians...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027710/prison-experience-and-reoffending
#12
Ming-Li Hsieh, Zachary Hamilton, Kristen M Zgoba
Given that sex offenders have been found to serve longer prison terms compared with other types of violent criminals, it has been suggested that the influence of imprisonment may impact subsequent reoffending. However, institutional factors are often overlooked in risk assessment studies and very few risk assessment instruments include institutional items within their models. The current study explores prison experience explanations for recidivism among convicted sex offenders and indicates that, with respect to time served, both institutional treatment and institutional infractions demonstrate a significant impact...
December 1, 2016: Sexual Abuse: a Journal of Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936826/pcl-r-field-validity-in-prison-and-hospital-settings
#13
Inge Jeandarme, John F Edens, Petra Habets, Liesbeth Bruckers, Karel Oei, Stefan Bogaerts
Recent field studies have questioned the interrater reliability (IRR) and predictive validity regarding (violent) recidivism of the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R). Using a forensic psychiatric sample, the current study investigated discrepancies in scoring between hospital and prison settings, as well as differences in predictive validity across these two settings. PCL-R information was collected from prison and hospital files, resulting in 224 PCL-R total scores and 74 double scores. When examining repeated measurements, large individual differences were found together with an intraclass correlation coefficient (ICCA,1) of ...
December 12, 2016: Law and Human Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907235/the-2d-4d-ratio-as-a-predictor-of-the-risk-of-recidivism-after-court-mandated-intervention-program-for-intimate-partner-violence-perpetrators
#14
Angel Romero-Martínez, Marisol Lila, Luis Moya-Albiol
Differences in aggressive behavior could be partially explained by differential prenatal exposure to testosterone (T). A peripheral marker of prenatal T exposure is the 2D:4D ratio, which has shown a negative correlation with self-reported aggression in violent men. This study tested the direct association of the 2D:4D ratio with anger expression and the risk of recidivism in intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetrators after psychotherapeutic intervention program. The sample consisted of IPV perpetrators, whose 2D:4D ratio was measured before the intervention...
May 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27806416/-treatment-and-recidivism-of-patients-convicted-for-homicide-after-release-from-a-forensic-psychiatry-for-addiction-treatment
#15
C Maaß, A Wettermann, D Schläfke
The forensic clinic for addiction treatment in Rostock is a forensic institution for patients who committed crimes under the influence of psychotropic substances. Regardless of the severity of the offence, patients receive different kinds of treatment depending on the therapy program. Criminal recidivism can be seen as one of the most important factors to validate success in treatment. Due to this purpose, an extensive recidivism study including all former patients from 2001 to 2012 was conducted at our clinic...
October 2016: Fortschritte der Neurologie-Psychiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27754939/the-utility-of-post-conviction-polygraph-testing-among-sexual-offenders
#16
Elizabeth Elliott, Birgit Vollm
It is often difficult to ascertain the true extent and nature of sexually deviant behavior, as much relies on self-report or historic information. The polygraph has been proposed as a useful tool in the treatment and supervision of sex offenders. The current review aims to provide a coherent, objective, and recent synthesis of evaluation studies exploring the utility of the post-conviction polygraph (PCSOT) in the treatment and management of sexual offenders. This was assessed based on offense recidivism rates and disclosure; self-reported utility was also considered...
October 17, 2016: Sexual Abuse: a Journal of Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27747920/post-incarceration-recidivism-of-lone-versus-group-juvenile-homicide-offenders
#17
Norair Khachatryan, Kathleen M Heide, Jordyn Rad, Erich V Hummel
Killings by juvenile homicide offenders (JHOs) who use accomplices have been increasing since the 1980s and currently represent approximately half of juvenile arrests for murder in the United States. Nevertheless, prior research has not compared JHOs who kill alone with JHOs who kill in groups. The present research followed up 30 years later on a sample of 59 male murderers and attempted murderers sentenced to adult prison. This study was designed to analyze whether lone and group JHOs differed on pre-incarceration, incarceration, and post-incarceration variables...
November 2016: Behavioral Sciences & the Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27745884/a-3-year-follow-up-study-of-swedish-youths-committed-to-juvenile-institutions-frequent-occurrence-of-criminality-and-health-care-use-regardless-of-drug-abuse
#18
Ola Ståhlberg, Sofia Boman, Christina Robertsson, Nóra Kerekes, Henrik Anckarsäter, Thomas Nilsson
This 3-year follow-up study compares background variables, extent of criminality and criminal recidivism in the form of all court convictions, the use of inpatient care, and number of early deaths in Swedish institutionalized adolescents (N=100) with comorbid substance use disorders (SUD) and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) (n=25) versus those with SUD but no ADHD (n=30), and those without SUD (n=45). In addition it aims to identify whether potential risk factors related to these groups are associated with persistence in violent criminality...
October 13, 2016: International Journal of Law and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27706372/cessation-of-dangerousness-status-an-analysis-of-224-reports-from-the-instituto-de-per%C3%A3-cias-heitor-carrilho-rio-de-janeiro-brazil
#19
Gustavo C Oliveira, Alexandre M Valença, Talvane M de Moraes, Mauro V Mendlowicz, Miles C Forrest, Fred F Batista, Gabriella A Mendes, Tiago N Lima, Vinicius R Gonçalves, Kátia Mecler
Objectives: To evaluate factors related to dangerousness cessation at the end of involuntary commitment based on an analysis of expert reports. In light of the current legal requirement of dangerousness cessation as a pre-requisite for prison or internment release of individuals subjected to the safety measure, we sought elements to reflect on the practice of expert examiners in charge of making this decision. Methods: The authors revised 224 expert psychiatric dangerousness cessation reports released 2011 through 2014 and collected data for a statistical analysis...
January 2017: Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27701993/mentally-disordered-offenders-in-sweden-differentiating-recidivists-from-non-recidivists-in-a-10-year-follow-up-study
#20
Hedvig Krona, Marielle Nyman, Helena Andreasson, Nicolas Vicencio, Henrik Anckarsäter, Märta Wallinius, Thomas Nilsson, Björn Hofvander
BACKGROUND: Forensic psychiatric patients present a challenge as they manifest severe mental disorders together with criminal behaviour. There are well-known risk factors for criminal behaviour in the general population, yet knowledge of what predicts reconviction in the Swedish forensic population in the long-term perspective is still insufficient. AIMS: The study aims to (1) describe background and clinical characteristics of forensic psychiatric patients in a 10-year follow-up, (2) analyse risk factors associated with recidivism, and (3) test the predictive validity of risk factors for general and violent criminality...
February 2017: Nordic Journal of Psychiatry
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