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Lingling Si, Xinyan Yan, Wenjin Hao, Xiaoyi Ma, Huanhuan Ren, Boxue Ren, Defang Li, Zhengping Dong, Qiusheng Zheng
The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of Licochalcone D (LD) on the apoptosis and migration and invasion in human melanoma A375 cells. Cell proliferation was determined by sulforhodamine B assay. Apoptosis was assessed by Hoechst 33258 and Annexin V‑FITC/PI staining and JC‑1 assay. Total intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) was examined by DCFH‑DA. Wound healing and Transwell assays were used to detect migration and invasion of the cells. The activities of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP‑2 and MMP‑9) were assessed via gelatin zymography...
May 2018: Oncology Reports
Hee Jung Um, Anil Kumar Chauhan, Kyoung-Jin Min, Taeg Kyu Kwon
cFLIP is a key regulator of the anti‑apoptotic mechanism and its association with FAS‑mediated apoptosis has been widely studied and well documented. However, the equipoise between its two isoforms i.e. the long isoform cFLIP(L) and the short isoform cFLIP(S) during FAS‑mediated apoptosis remains to be revealed. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the regulatory effect of these isoforms on FasL‑mediated apoptosis in renal carcinoma. Our results revealed that FasL treatment to Caki cells induced the expression of cFLIP(S) and downregulated the expression of cFLIP(L) in a concentration‑ and time‑dependent manner...
May 2018: Oncology Reports
Hsien-Kuo Chin, Chi-Ting Horng, Yi-Shan Liu, Chi-Cheng Lu, Chen-Ying Su, Pei-Syuan Chen, Hong-Yi Chiu, Fuu-Jen Tsai, Po-Chuen Shieh, Jai-Sing Yang
Anti-angiogenesis is one of the most general clinical obstacles in cancer chemotherapy. Kaempferol is a flavonoid phytochemical found in many fruits and vegetables. Our previous study revealed that kaempferol triggered apoptosis in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) by ROS‑mediated p53/ATM/death receptor signaling. However, the anti‑angiogenic potential of kaempferol remains unclear and its underlying mechanism warranted further exploration in VEGF‑stimulated HUVECs. In the present study, kaempferol significantly reduced VEGF‑stimulated HUVEC viability...
May 2018: Oncology Reports
Fabio Girardi, Daniel R Barnes, Daniel Barrowdale, Debra Frost, Angela F Brady, Claire Miller, Alex Henderson, Alan Donaldson, Alex Murray, Carole Brewer, Caroline Pottinger, D Gareth Evans, Diana Eccles, Fiona Lalloo, Helen Gregory, Jackie Cook, Jacqueline Eason, Julian Adlard, Julian Barwell, Kai Ren Ong, Lisa Walker, Louise Izatt, Lucy E Side, M John Kennedy, Marc Tischkowitz, Mark T Rogers, Mary E Porteous, Patrick J Morrison, Ros Eeles, Rosemarie Davidson, Katie Snape, Douglas F Easton, Antonis C Antoniou
PurposeBRCA1/BRCA2 predictive test negatives are proven noncarriers of a BRCA1/BRCA2 mutation that is carried by their relatives. The risk of developing breast cancer (BC) or epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) in these women is uncertain. The study aimed to estimate risks of invasive BC and EOC in a large cohort of BRCA1/BRCA2 predictive test negatives.MethodsWe used cohort analysis to estimate incidences, cumulative risks, and standardized incidence ratios (SIRs).ResultsA total of 1,895 unaffected women were eligible for inclusion in the BC risk analysis and 1,736 in the EOC risk analysis...
March 22, 2018: Genetics in Medicine: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Genetics
Hongmin Hou, Hui Jia, Qin Yan, Xiping Wang
Salinity and drought are two major abiotic stresses that limit grape productivity. Responses to stress in grape are known to be regulated by several families of transcription factors. However, little is known about the role of grape Squamosa promoter binding protein (SBP)-box transcription factor genes in response to abiotic stress. To better understand the functions of the grape SBP-box genes in abiotic stress tolerance, a full-length complementary DNA (cDNA) sequence of the putative SBP-box transcription factor gene, VpSBP16 was amplified from Chinese wild grapevine Vitis pseudoreticulata clone "Baihe-35-1"...
March 22, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Vania Mattoso Ribeiro, Teresa Palmisciano Bede, Gabrielle S Rocha, Sergio Barroso, Samuel Valença, Vilma Blondet de Azeredo
BACKGROUND: High fat diets have been implicated in the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Polyphenols from grapes may reduce ROS and restore oxidative balance. The aim of this study is to investigate the antioxidant properties of high polyphenols beverages associated with a high fat diet in enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant activity. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Fifty female rats were divided into five groups: a) control group (CG) - control diet (4% fat); b) high fat diet group (HFD) - high fat diet (20% fat); c) grape juice group (GJ) - grape juice (15 ml/day) + high fat diet; d) red wine group (RW) - red wine (10 ml/day) + high fat diet; and e) resveratrol solution group (RS) - resveratrol solution (15 ml/day) + high fat diet...
November 24, 2017: Nutrición Hospitalaria: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Nutrición Parenteral y Enteral
Guangbao Yang, Ligeng Xu, Jun Xu, Rui Zhang, Guosheng Song, Yu Chao, Liangzhu Feng, Fengxuan Han, Ziliang Dong, Bin Li, Zhuang Liu
Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is an oxygen-dependent light-triggered non-invasive therapeutic method showing many promising aspects in cancer treatment. For effective PDT, nanoscale carriers are often needed to realize tumor-targeted delivery of photosensitizers, which ideally should further target specific cell organelles that are most vulnerable to reactive oxygen species (ROS). Secondly, as oxygen is critical for PDT-induced cancer destruction, overcoming hypoxia existing in majority of solid tumors is important for optimizing PDT efficacy...
March 22, 2018: Nano Letters
Shazia Shah, Arshia, Nida Siraj Kazmi, Almas Jabeen, Aisha Faheem, Nida Dastagir, Tariq Ahmed, Khalid Mohammed Khan, Shakil Ahmed, Abeer Raza, Shahnaz Perveen
BACKGROUND: Inflammation is defined as the response of immune system cells to damaged or injured tissues The major symptoms of inflammation include increased blood flow, cellular influx, edema, elevated cellular metabolism, reactive oxygen species (ROS) nitric oxide (NO) and vasodilation. This normally protective mechanism against harmful agents when this normal mechanism becomes dysregulated that can cause serious illnesses including ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease, rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, sepsis, and chronic pulmonary inflammation ...
March 21, 2018: Medicinal Chemistry
Xiaoyan Yang, Dongya Wang, Yunhao Shi, Jianhua Zou, Qisen Zhao, Qi Zhang, Wei Huang, Jinjun Shao, Xiaoji Xie, Xiaochen Dong
In preclinical and clinical research, to destroy cancers, particularly those located in deep tissues is still a great challenge. Photodynamic therapy and photothermal therapy are promising alternative approaches for tissue cancer curing. Black phosphorus (BP) based nanomaterials, with broad UV-vis near-infrared (NIR) absorbance and excellent photothermal effect, have shown great potential in biomedical applications. Herein, a biocompatible therapeutic platform, Chlorin e6 (Ce6) decorated BP nanosheets (NSs), has been developed for fluorescence and thermal imaging guided photothermal and photodynamic synergistic cancer treatment...
March 22, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Fernanda Silva Ferreira, Helena Biasibetti-Brendler, Paula Pierozan, Felipe Schmitz, Carolina Gessinger Bertó, Caroline Acauan Prezzi, Vanusa Manfredini, Angela T S Wyse
Kynurenic acid (KYNA) and quinolinic acid (QUIN) are metabolites produced in the degradation of tryptophan and have important neurological activities. KYNA/QUIN ratio changes are known to be associated with central nervous system disorders, such Alzheimer, Parkinson, and Huntington diseases. In the present study, we investigate the ability of KYNA in prevent the first events preceding QUIN-induced neurodegeneration in striatal slices of rat. We evaluated the protective effect of KYNA on oxidative status (reactive oxygen species production, antioxidant enzymes activities, lipid peroxidation, nitrite levels, protein and DNA damage, and iNOS immunocontent), mitochondrial function (mitochondrial mass, membrane potential, and respiratory chain enzymes), and Na+ ,K+ -ATPase in striatal slices of rats treated with QUIN...
March 21, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
Clint L Makino, Teresa Duda, Alexandre Pertzev, Rameshwar K Sharma
Our ability to see is based on the activity of retinal rod and cone photoreceptors. Rods function when there is very little light, while cones operate at higher light levels. Photon absorption by rhodopsin activates a biochemical cascade that converts photic energy into a change in the membrane potential of the cell by decreasing the levels of a second messenger, cGMP, that control the gating of cation channels. But just as important as the activation of the cascade are the shut-off and recovery processes. The timing of shutoff and recovery ultimately affects sensitivity, temporal resolution and even the capacity for counting single photons...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Yu-Ling Zou, Wen-Bin Luo, Lin Xie, Xin-Bang Mao, Chao Wu, Zhi-Peng You
PURPOSE: Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a major vision threatening disease mainly induced by high glucose. Despite great efforts were made to explore the etiology of DR, the exact mechanism responsible for its pathogenesis remains elusive. METHODS: In our study, we constructed diabetic rats via Streptozotocin (STZ) injection. TUNEL assay was employed to examine retinal cell apoptosis. The levels of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) were analyzed via flow cytometry...
March 21, 2018: Endocrine
Alena Rajnochová Svobodová, Eva Gabrielová, Loizos Michaelides, Pavel Kosina, Alena Ryšavá, Jitka Ulrichová, Bohumil Zálešák, Jitka Vostálová
Exposure to solar radiation is a major cause of environmental human skin damage. The main constituent of solar UV light is UVA radiation (320-400 nm); however, the need for protection against UVA has been marginalized for a long time. As a result, there is still a lack of useful agents for UVA protection. In this study, the effect of silymarin (SM) and its main constituent silybin (SB) pre-treatment on UVA-stimulated damage to primary human dermal fibroblasts were carried out. The cells were pre-treated for 1 h with SB or SM and then were exposed to UVA light, using a solar simulator...
March 21, 2018: Archives of Dermatological Research
Johana Madroñero, Silas P Rodrigues, Tathiana F S Antunes, Paolla M V Abreu, José A Ventura, A Alberto R Fernandes, Patricia Machado Bueno Fernandes
Global gene expression analysis indicates host stress responses, mainly those mediated by SA, associated to the tolerance to sticky disease symptoms at pre-flowering stage in Carica papaya. Carica papaya plants develop the papaya sticky disease (PSD) as a result of the combined infection of papaya meleira virus (PMeV) and papaya meleira virus 2 (PMeV2), or PMeV complex. PSD symptoms appear only after C. papaya flowers. To understand the mechanisms involved in this phenomenon, the global gene expression patterns of PMeV complex-infected C...
March 21, 2018: Plant Cell Reports
Pau B Esparza-Moltó, José M Cuezva
Cancer cells reprogram energy metabolism by boosting aerobic glycolysis as a main pathway for the provision of metabolic energy and of precursors for anabolic purposes. Accordingly, the relative expression of the catalytic subunit of the mitochondrial H+ -ATP synthase-the core hub of oxidative phosphorylation-is downregulated in human carcinomas when compared with its expression in normal tissues. Moreover, some prevalent carcinomas also upregulate the ATPase inhibitory factor 1 (IF1), which is the physiological inhibitor of the H+ -ATP synthase...
2018: Frontiers in Oncology
Guang-Dao Chen, Jun-Liang Zhang, Yi-Ting Chen, Ju-Xing Zhang, Tao Wang, Qi-Yi Zeng
The aim of the present study was to explore the effects and mechanisms of insulin on mitochondrial oxidative stress in septic acute kidney injury (AKI). Male Sprague Dawley rats were divided randomly into four groups: Control group, sham surgery group, cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) group, and CLP plus insulin group. Blood specimens and kidney tissues were obtained at 12 and 24 h after surgery as separate experiments. Analyses of histology and indicators of renal injury [blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and serum creatinine (CRE) and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL)], mitochondrial function [adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP)], oxidative stress [inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO)], endogenous antioxidant systems [superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione (GSH)] as well as the expression of uncoupling protein (UCP), PINK1 protein (a major mediator of mitophagy), PGC1α protein (a major regulator of mitochondrial biogenesis) were performed...
April 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Maria K Paulmann, Grit Kunert, Matthias R Zimmermann, Nina Theis, Anatoli Ludwig, Doreen Meichsner, Ralf Oelmüller, Jonathan Gershenzon, Antje Habekuss, Frank Ordon, Alexandra C U Furch, Torsten Will
Barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV) is a phloem limited virus that is persistently transmitted by aphids. Due to huge yield losses in agriculture, the virus is of high economic relevance. Since the control of the virus itself is not possible, tolerant barley genotypes are considered as the most effective approach to avoid yield losses. Although several genes and quantitative trait loci are known and used in barley breeding for virus tolerance, little is known about molecular and physiological backgrounds of this trait...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Gilda Varricchi, Pietro Ameri, Christian Cadeddu, Alessandra Ghigo, Rosalinda Madonna, Giancarlo Marone, Valentina Mercurio, Ines Monte, Giuseppina Novo, Paolo Parrella, Flora Pirozzi, Antonio Pecoraro, Paolo Spallarossa, Concetta Zito, Giuseppe Mercuro, Pasquale Pagliaro, Carlo G Tocchetti
Antineoplastic drugs can be associated with several side effects, including cardiovascular toxicity (CTX). Biochemical studies have identified multiple mechanisms of CTX. Chemoterapeutic agents can alter redox homeostasis by increasing the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species RNS. Cellular sources of ROS/RNS are cardiomyocytes, endothelial cells, stromal and inflammatory cells in the heart. Mitochondria, peroxisomes and other subcellular components are central hubs that control redox homeostasis...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Lissette C Sánchez-Aranguren, Cindy T Espinosa-González, Laura M González-Ortiz, Sandra M Sanabria-Barrera, Carlos E Riaño-Medina, Andrés F Nuñez, Asif Ahmed, Jeannette Vasquez-Vivar, Marcos López
Preeclampsia is a maternal hypertensive disorder that affects up to 1 out of 12 pregnancies worldwide. It is characterized by proteinuria, endothelial dysfunction, and elevated levels of the soluble form of the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-1 (VEGFR-1, known as sFlt-1). sFlt-1 effects are mediated in part by decreasing VEGF signaling. The direct effects of sFlt-1 on cellular metabolism and bioenergetics in preeclampsia, have not been established. The goal of this study was to evaluate whether sFlt-1 causes mitochondrial dysfunction leading to disruption of normal functioning in endothelial and placental cells in preeclampsia...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Jiulong Li, Bing Tian, Tao Li, Shang Dai, Yulan Weng, Jianjiang Lu, Xiaolin Xu, Ye Jin, Renjiang Pang, Yuejin Hua
Background: Biosynthesis of noble metallic nanoparticles (NPs) has attracted significant interest due to their environmental friendly and biocompatible properties. Methods: In this study, we investigated syntheses of Au, Ag and Au-Ag bimetallic NPs using protein extracts of Deinococcus radiodurans , which demonstrated powerful metal-reducing ability. The obtained NPs were characterized and analyzed by various spectroscopy techniques. Results: The D...
2018: International Journal of Nanomedicine
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