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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454137/mechanisms-and-management-of-refractory-ventricular-arrhythmias-in-the-age-of-autonomic-modulation
#1
Jason S Bradfield, Olujimi A Ajijola, Marmar Vaseghi, Kalyanam Shivkumar
Ventricular arrhythmias are responsible for hundreds of thousands of deaths every year. Catheter ablation of ventricular tachycardia (VT) is an essential component of the management of these life-threatening arrhythmias. However, in many patients, despite medical and interventional therapy, VT recurs. Further, some VT substrates (mid-myocardial, left ventricular summit, intra-septal) are not easily targeted, due to limitations of currently available technology. In certain clinical settings, ventricular fibrillation (VF) episodes that have premature ventricular contraction (PVC) triggers can also be targeted with catheter ablation...
February 14, 2018: Heart Rhythm: the Official Journal of the Heart Rhythm Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453669/physical-training-and-cardiac-rehabilitation-in-heart-failure-patients
#2
Cesare de Gregorio
Regardless of advances in medical and interventional treatment of cardiovascular disease (CVD), a limited number of patients attend a cardiac rehabilitation (CR) programme on a regular basis. Due to modern therapies more individuals will be surviving an acute cardiovascular event, but the expected burden of chronic heart failure will be increasing worldwide.However, both in high- and low-income countries, secondary prevention after an acute myocardial infarction or stroke has been implemented in less than a half of eligible patients...
February 17, 2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452403/mechanisms-controlling-nucleic-acid-sensing-toll-like-receptors
#3
Kensuke Miyake, Takuma Shibata, Umeharu Ohto, Toshiyuki Shimizu, Shin-Ichiroh Saitoh, Ryutaro Fukui, Yusuke Murakami
Nucleic acid (NA)-sensing Toll-like receptors (TLRs) respond to DNA/RNA derived from pathogens and dead cells. Structural studies have revealed a variety of molecular mechanisms by which TLRs sense NAs. Double-stranded RNA and single-stranded DNA directly bind to TLR3 and TLR9, respectively, whereas TLR7 and 8 bind to nucleosides and oligoribonucleotides derived from RNAs. Activation of ligand-bound TLRs is influenced by the functional status of TLRs. Proteolytic cleavage of NA-sensing TLRs enables ligand-dependent TLR dimerization...
February 14, 2018: International Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452273/3d-bioprinted-functional-and-contractile-cardiac-tissue-constructs
#4
Zhan Wang, Sang Jin Lee, Heng-Jie Cheng, James J Yoo, Anthony Atala
Bioengineering of a functional cardiac tissue composed of primary cardiomyocytes has great potential for myocardial regeneration and in vitro tissue modeling. However, its applications remain limited because the cardiac tissue is a highly organized structure with unique physiologic, biomechanical, and electrical properties. In this study, we undertook a proof-of-concept study to develop a contractile cardiac tissue with cellular organization, uniformity, and scalability by using three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting strategy...
February 13, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450695/a-clinical-approach-to-arrhythmias-revisited-in-2018-from-ecg-over-noninvasive-and-invasive-electrophysiology-to-advanced-imaging
#5
REVIEW
L Jordaens
Understanding arrhythmias and their treatment is not always easy. The current straightforward approach with catheter ablation and device therapy is an amazing achievement, but does not make management of underlying or other cardiac disease and pharmacological therapy unnecessary. The goal of this paper is to describe how much of the knowledge of the 1980s and early 1990s can and should still be applied in the modern treatment of patients with arrhythmias. After an introduction, this review will focus on paroxysmal atrial fibrillation and a prototype of 'idiopathic' ventricular arrhythmias, two diseases with a striking similarity, and will discuss the arrhythmogenesis...
February 15, 2018: Netherlands Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449830/screening-for-ppar-non-agonist-ligands-followed-by-characterization-of-a-hit-am-879-with-additional-no-adipogenic-and-cdk5-mediated-phosphorylation-inhibition-properties
#6
Helder Veras Ribeiro Filho, Natália Bernardi Videira, Aline Villanova Bridi, Thais Helena Tittanegro, Fernanda Aparecida Helena Batista, José Geraldo de Carvalho Pereira, Paulo Sérgio Lopes de Oliveira, Marcio Chaim Bajgelman, Albane Le Maire, Ana Carolina Migliorini Figueira
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) is a member of a nuclear receptor superfamily and acts as a ligand-dependent transcription factor, playing key roles in maintenance of adipose tissue and in regulation of glucose and lipid homeostasis. This receptor is the target of thiazolidinediones, a class of antidiabetic drugs, which improve insulin sensitization and regulate glycemia in type 2 diabetes. Despite the beneficial effects of drugs, such as rosiglitazone and pioglitazone, their use is associated with several side effects, including weight gain, heart failure, and liver disease, since these drugs induce full activation of the receptor...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447958/serelaxin-as-a-novel-therapeutic-opposing-fibrosis-and-contraction-in-lung-diseases
#7
REVIEW
Maggie Lam, Simon G Royce, Chrishan S Samuel, Jane E Bourke
The most common therapies for asthma and other chronic lung diseases are anti-inflammatory agents and bronchodilators. While these drugs oppose disease symptoms, they do not reverse established structural changes in the airways and their therapeutic efficacy is reduced with increasing disease severity. The peptide hormone, relaxin, is a Relaxin Family Peptide Receptor 1 (RXFP1) receptor agonist with unique combined effects in the lung that differentiates it from these existing therapies. Relaxin has previously been reported to have cardioprotective effects in acute heart failure as well anti-fibrotic actions in several organs...
February 12, 2018: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447743/a-hybrid-model-for-advanced-structural-heart-disease-training-programs-the-attending-fellow-in-training-model
#8
EDITORIAL
Abdul Moiz Hafiz, Marie-France Poulin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 20, 2018: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444631/accumulation-of-laforin-and-other-related-proteins-in-canine-lafora-disease-with-epm2b-repeat-expansion
#9
James K Chambers, Atigan Thongtharb, Takanori Shiga, Daigo Azakami, Miyoko Saito, Masumi Sato, Motoji Morozumi, Hiroyuki Nakayama, Kazuyuki Uchida
Canine Lafora disease (LD) is an autosomal recessive genetic disorder causing nonfatal structural epilepsy, mainly affecting miniature wirehaired dachshunds. Repeat expansion in the EPM2B gene causes a functional impairment of the ubiquitin ligase malin which regulates glycogen metabolism. Abnormally structured glycogen accumulates and develop polyglucosan bodies predominantly in the central nervous system. The authors performed a comprehensive clinical, genetic, and pathological study of 4 LD cases affecting miniature wirehaired dachshund dogs with EPM2B repeat expansions, with systemic distribution of polyglucosan bodies and accumulation of laforin and other functionally associated proteins in the polyglucosan bodies...
January 1, 2018: Veterinary Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441963/do-patients-with-diabetes-type-2-or-chronic-heart-failure-understand-a-medication-plan
#10
L Botermann, A Wachter, K Monzel, K Krueger, S Ewen, F Mahfoud, N Griese-Mammen, M Schulz, U Laufs
A standardized medication plan (MP) was recently enacted into German law (§ 31a SGB V). The purpose of our study was to assess if patients with chronic diseases requiring polymedication understand the standardized MP and can transfer the given information into practice. 100 patients who took at least five medicines regularly were prospectively included in a cross-sectional study: 50 patients with the primary diagnosis chronic heart failure (CHF), and 50 with diabetes mellitus type 2 (DMT2). We performed a structured test-scenario studying the handling of a provided MP then evaluated the execution of the information on the MP by filling pill boxes and requested patients' opinion...
December 1, 2017: Die Pharmazie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441747/the-complexity-of-pediatric-multifocal-atrial-tachycardia-and-its-prognostic-factors
#11
Seung Min Baek, Hyun Chung, Mi Kyoung Song, Eun Jung Bae, Gi Beom Kim, Chung Il Noh
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Multifocal atrial tachycardia (MAT), in general, has a favorable outcome. However, there are insufficient data regarding MAT in a pediatric population. This study sought to determine the clinical course of MAT and identify potential prognostic factors. METHODS: The medical records of MAT patients from 1997-2015 were reviewed. The arrhythmia control rate and factors for unfavorable outcomes were assessed and compared to those in the literature...
February 2018: Korean Circulation Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29440374/mechanisms-in-endocrinology-diabetic-cardiomyopathy-pathophysiology-and-potential-metabolic-interventions
#12
Eylem Levelt, Gaurav S Gulsin, Stefan Neubauer, Gerry P McCann
Heart failure is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in type 2 diabetes. Type 2 diabetes contributes to the development of heart failure through a variety of mechanisms, including disease specific myocardial structural, functional and metabolic changes. This review will focus on the contemporary contributions of state of the art non-invasive technologies to our understanding of diabetic cardiomyopathy, including data on cardiac disease phenotype, cardiac energy metabolism and energetic deficiency, ectopic and visceral adiposity, diabetic liver disease, metabolic modulation strategies, and cardiovascular outcomes with new classes of glucose lowering therapies...
February 12, 2018: European Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29440116/improving-interpretation-of-cardiac-phenotypes-and-enhancing-discovery-with-expanded-knowledge-in-the-gene-ontology
#13
Ruth C Lovering, Paola Roncaglia, Douglas G Howe, Stanley J F Laulederkind, Varsha K Khodiyar, Tanya Z Berardini, Susan Tweedie, Rebecca E Foulger, David Osumi-Sutherland, Nancy H Campbell, Rachael P Huntley, Philippa J Talmud, Judith A Blake, Ross Breckenridge, Paul R Riley, Pier D Lambiase, Perry M Elliott, Lucie Clapp, Andrew Tinker, David P Hill
BACKGROUND: A systems biology approach to cardiac physiology requires a comprehensive representation of how coordinated processes operate in the heart, as well as the ability to interpret relevant transcriptomic and proteomic experiments. The Gene Ontology (GO) Consortium provides structured, controlled vocabularies of biological terms that can be used to summarize and analyze functional knowledge for gene products. METHODS AND RESULTS: In this study, we created a computational resource to facilitate genetic studies of cardiac physiology by integrating literature curation with attention to an improved and expanded ontological representation of heart processes in the Gene Ontology...
February 2018: Circ Genom Precis Med
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439446/the-t2238c-human-atrial-natriuretic-peptide-molecular-variant-and-the-risk-of-cardiovascular-diseases
#14
REVIEW
Speranza Rubattu, Sebastiano Sciarretta, Simona Marchitti, Franca Bianchi, Maurizio Forte, Massimo Volpe
Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) is a cardiac hormone which plays important functions to maintain cardio-renal homeostasis. The peptide structure is highly conserved among species. However, a few gene variants are known to fall within the human ANP gene. The variant rs5065 (T2238C) exerts the most substantial effects. The T to C transition at the 2238 position of the gene (13-23% allele frequency in the general population) leads to the production of a 30-, instead of 28-, amino-acid-long α-carboxy-terminal peptide...
February 11, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435919/the-microrna
#15
Shao-Yao Ying, Donald C Chang, Shi-Lung Lin
MicroRNAs (miRNAs), widely distributed, small regulatory RNA genes, target both messenger RNA (mRNA) degradation and suppression of protein translation based on sequence complementarity between the miRNA and its targeted mRNA. Different names have been used to describe various types of miRNA. During evolution, RNA retroviruses or transgenes invaded the eukaryotic genome and were inserted itself in the noncoding regions of DNA, conceivably acting as transposon-like jumping genes, providing defense from viral invasion and fine-tuning of gene expression as a secondary level of gene modulation in eukaryotes...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435772/heart-failure-interventions-targeting-impaired-left-ventricles-in-structural-heart-disease
#16
REVIEW
Mitsunobu Kitamura, Tobias Schmidt, Karl-Heinz Kuck, Christian Frerker
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Interventional techniques have been developed for a wide spectrum of mechanisms of heart failure (HF), especially in valvular heart disease and cardiomyopathies (ischaemic cardiomyopathy and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy). In this article, we review recent reports on catheter interventions to treat patients with HF. RECENT FINDINGS: Direct modification using the Parachute device and the REVIVENT-TC device for patients with impaired left ventricle with large infarct scars improves geometry and haemodynamic efficiency, resulting in a reduction of HF symptoms...
February 12, 2018: Current Cardiology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435741/the-pivotal-role-of-imaging-in-tavr-procedures
#17
REVIEW
Caroline Bleakley, Mark J Monaghan
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) is underpinned by an array of imaging techniques designed to not only select an appropriately sized implant but also to identify potential obstacles to procedural success. This review presents currently important aspects of TAVR imaging, describing the salient features of each modality as well as recent developments in the field. RECENT FINDINGS: The latest data on TAVR outcomes reflects the increasing experience of operators and the significant role of pre-procedural imaging...
February 12, 2018: Current Cardiology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434738/jnk-and-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling-pathways-are-involved-in-cytokine-changes-in-patients-with-congenital-heart-disease-prior-to-and-after-transcatheter-closure
#18
Shunyang Fan, Kefang Li, Deyin Zhang, Fuyun Liu
Congenital heart disease (CHD) is a problem in the structure of the heart that is present at birth. Due to advances in interventional cardiology, CHD may currently be without surgery. The present study aimed to explore the molecular mechanism underlying CHD. A total of 200 cases of CHD treated by transcatheter closure as well as 200 controls were retrospectively assessed. Serum cytokines prior to and after treatment were assessed by reverse-transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis. Furthermore, the levels of proteins associated with c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and nuclear factor (NF)-κB were assessed by western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry...
February 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433797/higher-transaminase-levels-in-the-postoperative-period-after-orthotopic-heart-transplantation-are-associated-with-worse-survival
#19
Eniko Holndonner-Kirst, Adam Nagy, Nikoletta Rahel Czobor, Levente Fazekas, Daniel Janos Lex, Balazs Sax, Istvan Hartyanszky, Bela Merkely, Janos Gal, Andrea Szekely
OBJECTIVE: Preoperative liver function in heart failure patients is associated with extensive functional, structural, and hemodynamic abnormalities. The authors hypothesized that perioperative liver dysfunction is associated with worse 2-year survival after orthotopic heart transplantation. DESIGN: Retrospective study. SETTING: Single-center, university hospital. PARTICIPANTS: The study comprised 209 consecutive patients undergoing heart transplantation...
January 5, 2018: Journal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432947/recent-progress-in-the-structural-modification-and-pharmacological-activities-of-ligustrazine-derivatives
#20
REVIEW
Jinmi Zou, Ping Gao, Xia Hao, Haoran Xu, Peng Zhan, Xinyong Liu
Ligustrazine is a main active fraction of the traditional medicine known as Ligusticum chuanxiong hort, which has been used as clinical medication for cerebral thrombosis, coronary heart disease and stenocardia recently. The rapid metabolism and short half-life of ligustrazine seriously limits its application in clinical practice. Therefore, derivatives of ligustrazine are designed and synthesized in our and other labs, including piperazine, cinnamic acid, styrene, acylguanidine, amides, curcumin and triterpenes derivatives of ligustrazine...
February 5, 2018: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
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