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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816644/cyp2b6-haplotype-predicts-efavirenz-plasma-concentration-in-black-south-african-hiv-1-infected-children-a-longitudinal-pediatric-pharmacogenomic-study
#1
Riaan Reay, Collet Dandara, Michelle Viljoen, Malie Rheeders
South Africa has the highest burden of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection globally. Efavirenz (EFV), a frequently used drug against HIV infection, displays a relationship between drug concentration and pharmacodynamics effects clinically. However, haplotype-based genetic variation in drug metabolism in a pediatric sample has been little considered in a longitudinal long-term context. CYP2B6 plays a key role in variation of EFV plasma concentration through altered drug metabolism. We report here on a prospective clinical pharmacogenomics/pharmacokinetic study of Bantu-speaking children, importantly, over a period of 24 months post-initiation of EFV-based treatment in South Africa...
August 2017: Omics: a Journal of Integrative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816643/pharmacometabolomics-informs-quantitative-radiomics-for-glioblastoma-diagnostic-innovation
#2
Theodora Katsila, Minos-Timotheos Matsoukas, George P Patrinos, Dimitrios Kardamakis
Applications of omics systems biology technologies have enormous promise for radiology and diagnostics in surgical fields. In this context, the emerging fields of radiomics (a systems scale approach to radiology using a host of technologies, including omics) and pharmacometabolomics (use of metabolomics for patient and disease stratification and guiding precision medicine) offer much synergy for diagnostic innovation in surgery, particularly in neurosurgery. This synthesis of omics fields and applications is timely because diagnostic accuracy in central nervous system tumors still challenges decision-making...
August 2017: Omics: a Journal of Integrative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815136/design-recommendations-for-pharmacogenomics-clinical-decision-support-systems
#3
Maher Khelifi, Peter Tarczy-Hornoch, Emily B Devine, Wanda Pratt
The use of pharmacogenomics (PGx) in clinical practice still faces challenges to fully adopt genetic information in targeting drug therapy. To incorporate genetics into clinical practice, many support the use of Pharmacogenomics Clinical Decision Support Systems (PGx-CDS) for medication prescriptions. This support was fueled by new guidelines to incorporate genetics for optimizing drug dosage and reducing adverse events. In addition, the complexity of PGx led to exploring CDS outside the paradigm of the basic CDS tools embedded in commercial electronic health records...
2017: AMIA Summits on Translational Science Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815128/a-comparative-study-of-different-methods-for-automatic-identification-of-clopidogrel-induced-bleedings-in-electronic-health-records
#4
Hee-Jin Lee, Min Jiang, Yonghui Wu, Christian M Shaffer, John H Cleator, Eitan A Friedman, Joshua P Lewis, Dan M Roden, Josh Denny, Hua Xu
Electronic health records (EHRs) linked with biobanks have been recognized as valuable data sources for pharmacogenomic studies, which require identification of patients with certain adverse drug reactions (ADRs) from a large population. Since manual chart review is costly and time-consuming, automatic methods to accurately identify patients with ADRs have been called for. In this study, we developed and compared different informatics approaches to identify ADRs from EHRs, using clopidogrel-induced bleeding as our case study...
2017: AMIA Summits on Translational Science Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815127/a-knowledge-based-system-for-intelligent-support-in-pharmacogenomics-evidence-assessment-ontology-driven-evidence-representation-and-retrieval
#5
Chia-Ju Lee, Beth Devine, Peter Tarczy-Hornoch
Pharmacogenomics holds promise as a critical component of precision medicine. Yet, the use of pharmacogenomics in routine clinical care is minimal, partly due to the lack of efficient and effective use of existing evidence. This paper describes the design, development, implementation and evaluation of a knowledge-based system that fulfills three critical features: a) providing clinically relevant evidence, b) applying an evidence-based approach, and c) using semantically computable formalism, to facilitate efficient evidence assessment to support timely decisions on adoption of pharmacogenomics in clinical care...
2017: AMIA Summits on Translational Science Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815101/characterizing-the-strength-of-evidence-in-fda-labels-for-pharmacogenomic-biomarker-guided-medication-use
#6
Lauren Chin, Beth Devine, Sarah Baradaran, Katelyn Keyloun, William Canestaro, Jonathan Pham
There is great heterogeneity in drug treatment response that is thought to be due to individual-level allelic variation in pharmacogenomic biomarkers. FDA Drug Labels provide information to guide pharmacogenomic biomarker use. Yet, the strength of evidence for clinical validity and clinical utility is lacking. We characterized the strength of evidence and treatment recommendations contained in FDA Drug Labels as of December 2015. Pharmacogenomic biomarker information was provided for 137 drugs, involving 49 pharmacogenomic biomarkers, constituting 166 drug-biomarker pairs...
2017: AMIA Summits on Translational Science Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809398/precision-medicine-for-suicidality-from-universality-to-subtypes-and-personalization
#7
A B Niculescu, H Le-Niculescu, D F Levey, P L Phalen, H L Dainton, K Roseberry, E M Niculescu, J O Niezer, A Williams, D L Graham, T J Jones, V Venugopal, A Ballew, M Yard, T Gelbart, S M Kurian, A Shekhar, N J Schork, G E Sandusky, D R Salomon
Suicide remains a clear, present and increasing public health problem, despite being a potentially preventable tragedy. Its incidence is particularly high in people with overt or un(der)diagnosed psychiatric disorders. Objective and precise identification of individuals at risk, ways of monitoring response to treatments and novel preventive therapeutics need to be discovered, employed and widely deployed. We sought to investigate whether blood gene expression biomarkers for suicide (that is, a 'liquid biopsy' approach) can be identified that are more universal in nature, working across psychiatric diagnoses and genders, using larger cohorts than in previous studies...
August 15, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806023/pharmacogenomics-and-mental-illness
#8
EDITORIAL
Keith Hansen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2017: South Dakota Medicine: the Journal of the South Dakota State Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798474/cyp2c19-2-and-cyp2c19-17-variants-and-effect-of-tamoxifen-on-breast-cancer-recurrence-analysis-of-the-international-tamoxifen-pharmacogenomics-consortium-dataset
#9
Per Damkier, Anders Kjærsgaard, Kimberly A Barker, Deidre Cronin-Fenton, Anatasha Crawford, Ylva Hellberg, Emilius A M Janssen, Carl Langefeld, Thomas P Ahern, Timothy L Lash
The role of cytochrome P450 drug metabolizing enzymes in the efficacy of tamoxifen treatment of breast cancer is subject to substantial interest and controversy. CYP2D6 have been intensively studied, but the role of CYP2C19 is less elucidated, and we studied the association of CYPC19 genotype and recurrence of breast cancer. We used outcome and genotyping data from the large publicly available International Tamoxifen Pharmacogenomics Consortium (ITPC) dataset. Cox regression was used to compute the hazard ratios (HRs) for recurrence...
August 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795399/new-pharmacogenomics-research-network-an-open-community-catalyzing-research-and-translation-in-precision-medicine
#10
M V Relling, R M Krauss, D M Roden, T E Klein, D M Fowler, N Terada, L Lin, M Riel-Mehan, T P Do, M Kubo, S W Yee, G T Johnson, K M Giacomini
The goal of pharmacogenomics research is to discover genetic polymorphisms that underlie variation in drug response. Increasingly, pharmacogenomics research involves large numbers of patients and the application of new technologies and methodologies to enable discovery. The Pharmacogenomics Research Network (PGRN) has become a community-driven network of investigators spanning scientific and clinical disciplines. Here, we highlight the activities and types of resources that enable PGRN members to enhance and drive basic and translational research in pharmacogenomics...
August 10, 2017: Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792790/recent-developments-and-future-directions-for-the-use-of-pharmacogenomics-in-cardiovascular-disease-treatments
#11
Andrew Levy, Elliot Berinstein
Cardiovascular disease is still the leading cause of death worldwide. There are many environmental and genetic factors that play a role in the development of cardiovascular disease. The treatment of cardiovascular disease is beginning to move in the direction of personalized medicine by using biomarkers from patient's genome to design more effective treatment plans. Pharmacogenomics have already uncovered many links between genetic variation and response of many different drugs. Areas covered: This article will focus on the main polymorphisms that impact the risk of adverse effects and response efficacy of statins, clopidogrel, aspirin, β-blockers, warfarin dalcetrapib and vitamin E...
August 9, 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790862/hyperbilirubinemia-in-atazanavir-treated-hiv-infected-patients-the-impact-of-the-ugt1a1-28-allele
#12
REVIEW
Periklis Panagopoulos, Efstathios Maltezos, Angelos Hatzakis, Dimitrios Paraskevis
Combination antiretroviral treatment (cART) has significantly improved the life expectancy of people living with HIV. The life-long nature of cART increases the risk of side effects, which in some cases may have been caused by specific genetic characteristics. Patients treated with atazanavir (ATV) boosted with ritonavir (rit), which is a protease inhibitor used for the treatment of HIV, present with elevated bilirubin levels, at high proportions. ATV/rit-related hyperbilirubinemia has been previously associated with genetic characteristics in uridine diphosphate glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) enzyme...
2017: Pharmacogenomics and Personalized Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790500/personomics-and-precision-medicine
#13
Roy C Ziegelstein
The importance of knowing patients as individuals has been highlighted throughout the history of medicine. However, shorter visits, electronic documentation, reliance on technology, and increasing linguistic and cultural differences between patients and physicians create more challenges to effective communication than ever before. Perhaps more concerning is the greater emphasis on aspects of care considered more precisely measurable and quantifiable, the sum of which is sometimes felt to represent the patient better than knowledge of the patient himself...
2017: Transactions of the American Clinical and Climatological Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782463/in-this-issue-of-pharmacogenomics
#14
Sarah Jones
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2017: Pharmacogenomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782406/severe-sunitinib-induced-myelosuppression-in-a-patient-with-a-cyp-3a4-polymorphism
#15
Nirav D Patel, Kanishka Chakrabory, Garrett Messmer, Koyamangalath Krishnan, John B Bossaer
Sunitinib, an oral vascular endothelial growth factor receptor, is a first-line option for metastatic renal cell carcinoma and widely used in clinical practice. Despite the proven benefit of sunitnib in metastatic renal cell carcinoma, patients may suffer from a variety of adverse events including hypertension, fatigue, hypothyroidism, hand-foot skin reactions, rash, depigmentation, and myelosuppression. Myelosuppression is usually mild, transient and resolves during the two weeks at the end of each cycle where no drug is taken...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Oncology Pharmacy Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776467/pharmacogenetics-and-the-treatment-of-asthma
#16
María Isidoro-García, Almudena Sánchez-Martín, Asunción García-Sánchez, Catalina Sanz, Belén García-Berrocal, Ignacio Dávila
Heterogeneity defines both the natural history of asthma as well as patient's response to treatment. Pharmacogenomics contribute to understand the genetic basis of drug response and thus to define new therapeutic targets or molecular biomarkers to evaluate treatment effectiveness. This review is initially focused on different genes so far involved in the pharmacological response to asthma treatment. Specific considerations regarding allergic asthma, the pharmacogenetics aspects of polypharmacy and the application of pharmacogenomics in new drugs in asthma will also be addressed...
August 4, 2017: Pharmacogenomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771511/exploring-public-genomics-data-for-population-pharmacogenomics
#17
Kleanthi Lakiotaki, Alexandros Kanterakis, Evgenia Kartsaki, Theodora Katsila, George P Patrinos, George Potamias
Racial and ethnic differences in drug responses are now well studied and documented. Pharmacogenomics research seeks to unravel the genetic underpinnings of inter-individual variability with the aim of tailored-made theranostics and therapeutics. Taking into account the differential expression of pharmacogenes coding for key metabolic enzymes and transporters that affect drug pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, we advise that data interpretation and analysis need to occur in light of geographical ancestry, if implications for drug development and global health are to be considered...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769070/il6r-haplotype-rs4845625-t-rs4537545-c-is-a-risk-factor-for-simultaneously-high-crp-ldl-and-apob-levels
#18
A A Arguinano, E Naderi, N C Ndiaye, M Stathopoulou, S Dadé, B Alizadeh, S Visvikis-Siest
Interleukin 6 receptor (IL-6R), mediating IL-6's biological functions, plays an important role in different diseases such as diabetes, obesity and cardio-vascular diseases. In this study, we investigated the effects of two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), within the IL-6R loci, previously associated with C-reactive protein (CRP) and coronary heart diseases risk, and with controversial effects on lipids traits: SNP rs4845625 and SNP rs4537545. The results showed that both investigated SNPs were antagonistically related with CRP levels; the minor rs4845625*T allele was associated with increased CRP levels (P-value=0...
August 3, 2017: Genes and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768489/improved-anticancer-drug-response-prediction-in-cell-lines-using-matrix-factorization-with-similarity-regularization
#19
Lin Wang, Xiaozhong Li, Louxin Zhang, Qiang Gao
BACKGROUND: Human cancer cell lines are used in research to study the biology of cancer and to test cancer treatments. Recently there are already some large panels of several hundred human cancer cell lines which are characterized with genomic and pharmacological data. The ability to predict drug responses using these pharmacogenomics data can facilitate the development of precision cancer medicines. Although several methods have been developed to address the drug response prediction, there are many challenges in obtaining accurate prediction...
August 2, 2017: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766962/clarifying-busulfan-metabolism-and-drug-interactions-to-support-new-therapeutic-drug-monitoring-strategies-a-comprehensive-review
#20
Alan L Myers, Jitesh D Kawedia, Richard E Champlin, Mark A Kramer, Yago Nieto, Romi Ghose, Borje S Andersson
Busulfan (Bu) is an alkylating agent with a limited therapeutic margin and exhibits inter-patient variability in pharmacokinetics (PK). Despite decades of use, mechanisms of Bu PK-based drug-drug interactions (DDIs), as well as the negative downstream effects of these DDIs, have not been fully characterized. Areas covered: This article provides an overview of Bu PK, with a primary focus on how known and potentially unknown drug metabolism pathways influence Bu-associated DDIs. In addition, pharmacogenomics of Bu chemotherapy and Bu-related DDIs observed in the stem cell transplant clinic (SCT) are summarized...
August 2, 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism & Toxicology
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