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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217600/primary-care-hypnotic-and-anxiolytic-prescription-reviewing-prescribing-practice-over-8-years
#1
Lloyd D Hughes, Neil Raitt, Muhammed Awais Riaz, Sarah-Jane Baldwin, Kay Erskine, Gail Graham
INTRODUCTION: Over the last few years, hypnotic and anxiolytic medications have had their clinical efficacy questioned in the context of concerns regarding dependence, tolerance alongside other adverse effects. It remains unclear how these concerns have impacted clinical prescribing practice. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is a study reviewing community-dispensed prescribing data for patients on the East Practice Medical Center list in Arbroath, Scotland, in 2007, 2011 and 2015...
July 2016: Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213105/anxiolytic-and-antidepressant-like-effects-of-an-aqueous-extract-of-tanacetum-parthenium-l-schultz-bip-asteraceae-in-mice
#2
Jorge Cárdenas, Valeria Reyes-Pérez, María Dolores Hernández-Navarro, Ana María Dorantes-Barrón, Salvador Almazán, Rosa Estrada-Reyes
AIM: Tanacetum parthenium L. Schultz-Bip (Asteraceae) is widely used worldwide in traditional medicine for the treatment of convulsions and culture-bound syndromes such as susto (fear). The aim of this work was to evaluate the anxiolytic- and antidepressant-like effects of an aqueous extract of T. parthenium in behavioral paradigms in mice. The effects of T. parthenium were compared with those produced by anxiolytic and antidepressant drugs. We carried out the chemical characterization of the main constituents of T...
February 14, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211248/anesthetic-considerations-for-pediatric-electroconvulsive-therapy
#3
REVIEW
Andrew D Franklin, Jenna H Sobey, Eric T Stickles
Electroconvulsive therapy is being used more frequently in the treatment of many chronic and acute psychiatric illnesses in children. The most common psychiatric indications for pediatric electroconvulsive therapy are refractory depression, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, catatonia, and autism. In addition, a relatively new indication is the treatment of pediatric refractory status epilepticus. The anesthesiologist may be called upon to assist in the care of this challenging and vulnerable patient population...
February 17, 2017: Paediatric Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210931/serotonin-syndrome-from-5-hydroxytryptophan-supplement-ingestion-in-a-9-month-old-labrador-retriever
#4
Hopkins Jennifer, Pardo Mariana, Bischoff Karyn
INTRODUCTION: 5-Hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP) supplements are available over the counter and labeled as sleeping aids and anxiolytics for human use. 5-HTP is a serotonin precursor and overdose can lead to serotonin syndrome. CASE REPORT: A 9-month-old female Labrador retriever was evaluated after ingestion of a 5-HTP supplement. Signs of agitation developed within 1 h of ingestion, and emesis was attempted by the owner with  3% hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) orally. On presentation, the dog was obtunded, bilaterally mydriatic and salivating...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Medical Toxicology: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209549/factors-affecting-consultation-length-in-a-japanese-diabetes-practice
#5
Yusuke Kabeya, Junko Uchida, Masao Toyoda, Takeshi Katsuki, Yoichi Oikawa, Kiyoe Kato, Toshihide Kawai, Akira Shimada, Yoshihito Atsumi, Megumu Higaki
AIMS: Sufficient consultation time is important for establishing good doctor-patient relationship. We examined the factors that affect consultation length in Japanese diabetes practice. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study performed at a diabetes clinic in central Tokyo, Japan. Regular diabetes consultations of 1197 patients with 22 physicians were analyzed. Consultation time and clinical characteristics were obtained from the electronic records. A negative binomial model, which included patient and physician characteristics, was constructed to examine the association of the variables with consultation length...
January 29, 2017: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207863/identification-of-age-dependent-motor-and-neuropsychological-behavioural-abnormalities-in-a-mouse-model-of-mucopolysaccharidosis-type-ii
#6
Hélène F E Gleitz, Claire O'Leary, Rebecca J Holley, Brian W Bigger
Severe mucopolysaccharidosis type II (MPS II) is a progressive lysosomal storage disease caused by mutations in the IDS gene, leading to a deficiency in the iduronate-2-sulfatase enzyme that is involved in heparan sulphate and dermatan sulphate catabolism. In constitutive form, MPS II is a multi-system disease characterised by progressive neurocognitive decline, severe skeletal abnormalities and hepatosplenomegaly. Although enzyme replacement therapy has been approved for treatment of peripheral organs, no therapy effectively treats the cognitive symptoms of the disease and novel therapies are in development to remediate this...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195571/electrical-stimulation-of-the-bed-nucleus-of-the-stria-terminalis-reduces-anxiety-in-a-rat-model
#7
K Luyck, T Tambuyzer, M Deprez, J Rangarajan, B Nuttin, L Luyten
We recently showed that deep brain stimulation (DBS) in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BST) reduces obsessions, compulsions and associated anxiety in patients suffering from severe, treatment-refractory obsessive-compulsive disorder. Here, we investigated the anxiolytic effects of electrical BST stimulation in a rat model of conditioned anxiety, unrelated to obsessions or compulsions. Two sets of stimulation parameters were evaluated. Using fixed settings at 100 Hz, 40 μs and 300 μA (Set A), we observed elevated freezing and startle levels, whereas stimulation at 130 Hz, 220 μs and individually tailored amplitudes (Set B) appeared to reduce freezing...
February 14, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193181/persistent-use-of-psychotropic-drugs-in-nursing-home-residents-in-norway
#8
Anne-Sofie Helvik, Jūratė Šaltytė Benth, Bei Wu, Knut Engedal, Geir Selbæk
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of psychotropic drug (PTD) use in NH residents is high, but few have explored prevalence and persistency in PTD in NH residents and factors associated with persistency. This at the same time as we know that risk of side events may be higher with long- term use in older adults. Thus, the aim of this study was to describe the prevalence and persistence in use of PTD and to explore factors associated with persistence in use of PTD at two consecutive time points in nursing home (NH) residents...
February 13, 2017: BMC Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192273/gabaa-receptor-subtypes-in-the-mouse-brain-regional-mapping-and-diazepam-receptor-occupancy-by-in-vivo-18-f-flumazenil-pet
#9
Adrienne Müller Herde, Dietmar Benke, William T Ralvenius, Linjing Mu, Roger Schibli, Hanns Ulrich Zeilhofer, Stefanie D Krämer
Classical benzodiazepines, which are widely used as sedatives, anxiolytics and anticonvulsants, exert their therapeutic effects through interactions with heteropentameric GABAA receptors composed of two α, two β and one γ2 subunit. Their high affinity binding site is located at the interface between the γ2 and the adjacent α subunit. The α-subunit gene family consists of six members and receptors can be homomeric or mixed with respect to the α-subunits. Previous work has suggested that benzodiazepine binding site ligands with selectivity for individual GABAA receptor subtypes, as defined by the benzodiazepine-binding α subunit, may have fewer side effects and may even be effective in diseases, such as schizophrenia, autism or chronic pain, that do not respond well to classical benzodiazepines...
February 10, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190395/gabaergic-system-in-action-connection-to-gastrointestinal-stress-related-disorders
#10
Maja Jazvinšćak Jembrek, Michelangelo Auteri, Rosa Serio, Josipa Vlainić
BACKGROUND: Currently, treatment of stress-related gastrointestinal disorders, such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), is mainly symptomatic since there is no drug on the market that solves effectively diverse disease symptoms and comorbid states. Thus, recently GABA receptors have been identified within gastrointestinal system and it has been recognized that among various GABAergic drugs some of them influence gastrointestinal stress-related diseases...
February 9, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188737/genetic-variation-in-the-behavioral-effects-of-buprenorphine-in-female-mice-derived-from-a-murine-model-of-the-oprm1-a118g-polymorphism
#11
Caroline A Browne, Rebecca L Erickson, Julie A Blendy, Irwin Lucki
Pharmacogenetic studies have identified the non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphism (A118G) in the human mu opioid receptor (MOR) gene (OPRM1) as a critical genetic variant capable of altering the efficacy of opioid therapeutics. To date few studies have explored the potential impact of the OPRM1 A118G polymorphism on the pharmacological effects of buprenorphine (BPN), a potent MOR partial agonist and kappa opioid receptor antagonist, which is approved by the FDA for the treatment of opioid addiction and chronic pain...
February 7, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28184265/effects-of-preanesthetic-dexmedetomidine-on-hemodynamic-responses-to-endotracheal-intubation-in-elderly-patients-undergoing-treatment-for-hypertension-a-randomized-double-blinded-trial
#12
Chan Woo Lee, Miwoon Kim
BACKGROUND: Dexmedetomidine is an alpha-2 adrenergic agonist with sedative, anxiolytic, and analgesic properties. This study was designed to evaluate the inhibitory effects of preoperative administration of 0.5 µg/kg dexmedetomidine on hemodynamic responses caused by endotracheal intubation in elderly patients undergoing treatment for hypertension. METHODS: Forty elderly (≥ 65 years old) patients who had been receiving hypertension treatment, had American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status II, and were scheduled to undergo elective noncardiac surgery were randomly selected and assigned to 2 groups...
February 2017: Korean Journal of Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28184190/long-term-effects-of-chronic-buspirone-during-adolescence-reduce-the-adverse-influences-of-neonatal-inflammatory-pain-and-stress-on-adaptive-behavior-in-adult-male-rats
#13
Irina P Butkevich, Viktor A Mikhailenko, Elena A Vershinina, Anna M Aloisi, Gordon A Barr
Neonatal pain and stress induce long-term changes in pain sensitivity and behavior. Previously we found alterations in pain sensitivity in adolescent rats exposed to early-life adverse events. We tested whether these alterations have long-lasting effects and if those effects can be improved by the 5-hydroxytryptamine 1A (5-HT1A) receptor agonist buspirone injected chronically during the adolescent period. This study investigates: (1) effects of inflammatory pain (the injection of formalin into the pad of a hind paw) or stress (short maternal deprivation-isolation, MI), or their combination in 1-2-day-old rats on the adult basal pain, formalin-induced pain, anxiety and depression; (2) effects of adolescent buspirone in adult rats that experienced similar early-life insults...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183048/potential-impurities-of-anxiolytic-drug-clobazam-identification-synthesis-and-characterization-using-hplc-lc-esi-ms-n-and-nmr
#14
Neeraj Kumar, Subba Rao Devineni, Shailendra Kumar Dubey, Pramod Kumar
During the optimization of process, eight impurities (CLB Imp-A to CLB Imp-H) were detected in few of the laboratory batches of clobazam, used as anxiolytic agent, in the range of 0.02-0.12% using gradient HPLC method with UV detection. On the basis of co-spiking analysis, six impurities (CLB Imp-A to -F) enumerated by European Pharmacopoeia, however, not reported in the earlier literature, have been harmonized and found to be two impurities are completely unknown (CLB Imp-G and -H). These two new impurities structures were presumed based on LC-ESI/MS(n) study as 8-chloro-1-methyl-5-phenyl-1,5-dihydro-3H-1,5-benzodiazepine-2,4-dione (CLB Imp-G) and 5-chloro-1-methyl-3-phenyl-1H-benzo[d]imidazol-2(3H)-one (CLB Imp-H)...
January 29, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182127/impact-of-metoprolol-treatment-on-mental-status-of-chronic-heart-failure-patients-with-neuropsychiatric-disorders
#15
Xuelu Liu, Xueming Lou, Xianliang Cheng, Yong Meng
BACKGROUND: Metoprolol treatment is well established for chronic heart failure (CHF) patients, but the central nervous system side effects are often a potential drawback. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the impact of metoprolol treatment on change in mental status of CHF patients with clinical psychological disorders (such as depression, anxiety, and burnout syndrome). METHODS: From February 2013 to April 2016, CHF patients with clinical mental disorders received metoprolol (23...
2017: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181385/hemodynamic-profile-and-behavioral-characteristics-during-induction-of-anesthesia-in-pediatric-patients-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#16
Richard S Cartabuke, Joseph D Tobias, Julie Rice, Dmitry Tumin
AIM: There is no consensus regarding the administration of stimulant drugs preoperatively, particularly in pediatric patients diagnosed with ADHD. The primary objective of the current study was to assess differences in blood pressure and heart rate before and after induction of anesthesia between patients on chronic amphetamine or methylphenidate therapy who receive their normal dose preoperatively compared to patients in whom the prescribed medication was withheld. Secondary objectives were to assess the anxiety level during the induction of anesthesia and the effect of premedication with midazolam...
February 8, 2017: Paediatric Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178625/vaccinium-virgatum-fruit-extract-as-an-important-adjuvant-in-biochemical-and-behavioral-alterations-observed-in-animal-model-of-metabolic-syndrome
#17
Pathise Souto Oliveira, Marta Gazal, Natália Porto Flores, Aline Rigon Zimmer, Vitor Clasen Chaves, Flávio Henrique Reginatto, Manuella Pinto Kaster, Rejane Giacomelli Tavares, Roselia Maria Spanevello, Claiton Leoneti Lencina, Francieli Moro Stefanello
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of blueberry (Vaccinium virgatum) fruit extract on metabolic, behavioral and oxidative stress parameters in the hippocampus and cerebral cortex of mice submitted to an experimental model of metabolic syndrome induced by a highly palatable diet (HPD). Mice C57BL/6 were divided into 4 experimental groups: (1) received standard chow and saline orally, (2) received standard chow and blueberry hydroalcoholic extract, (3) received HPD and saline orally, (4) received HPD and blueberry hydroalcoholic extract...
February 5, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177062/critical-neuropsychobiological-analysis-of-panic-attack-and-anticipatory-anxiety-like-behaviors-in-rodents-confronted-with-snakes-in-polygonal-arenas-and-complex-labyrinths-a-comparison-to-the-elevated-plus-and-t-maze-behavioral-tests
#18
Norberto C Coimbra, Tatiana Paschoalin-Maurin, Gabriel S Bassi, Alexandre Kanashiro, Audrey F Biagioni, Tatiana T Felippotti, Daoud H Elias-Filho, Joyce Mendes-Gomes, Jade P Cysne-Coimbra, Rafael C Almada, Bruno Lobão-Soares
Objective: To compare prey and snake paradigms performed in complex environments to the elevated plus-maze (EPM) and T-maze (ETM) tests for the study of panic attack- and anticipatory anxiety-like behaviors in rodents. Methods: PubMed was reviewed in search of articles focusing on the plus maze test, EPM, and ETM, as well as on defensive behaviors displayed by threatened rodents. In addition, the authors' research with polygonal arenas and complex labyrinth (designed by the first author for confrontation between snakes and small rodents) was examined...
February 6, 2017: Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176051/piracetam-attenuates-lps-induced-neuroinflammation-and-cognitive-impairment-in-rats
#19
Alok Tripathi, Pankaj Paliwal, Sairam Krishnamurthy
The present study was performed to investigate the effect of piracetam on neuroinflammation induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and resulting changes in cognitive behavior. Neuroinflammation was induced by a single dose of LPS solution infused into each of the lateral cerebral ventricles in concentrations of 1 μg/μl, at a rate of 1 μl/min over a 5-min period, with a 5-min waiting period between the two infusions. Piracetam in doses of 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg i.p. was administered 30 min before LPS infusion and continued for 9 days...
February 7, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174136/p-p-methoxyl-diphenyl-diselenide-elicits-an-antidepressant-like-effect-in-mice-without-discontinuation-anxiety-phenotype
#20
Carla Elena Sartori Oliveira, Marcel Henrique Marcondes Sari, Vanessa Angonesi Zborowski, Paulo Cesar Oliveira Araujo, Cristina Wayne Nogueira, Gilson Zeni
Major depressive disorder is the most severe and debilitating disease among psychiatric illnesses. The abrupt interruption of antidepressant treatment may lead to a complex physiological and neuropsychiatric syndrome. The organoselenium compound (MeOPhSe)2 has been reported to have neuroprotective properties in animal models. The study aimed to investigate the effects of single or repeated administration of (MeOPhSe)2 on depressive-like behavior and if the compound administration, and its discontinuation, may affect the anxiolytic-like phenotype in Swiss mice...
February 5, 2017: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
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