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Mariusz Papp, Piotr Gruca, Magdalena Lason-Tyburkiewicz, Paul Willner
Ketamine is the prototype of a new generation of antidepressant drugs, which is reported in clinical studies to be effective in treatment-resistant patients, with an effect that appears within hours and lasts for a few days. Chronic mild stress (CMS) is a well-established and widely used animal model of depression, in which anhedonia, anxiogenesis and cognitive dysfunction can be observed reliably. Studies using acute or brief ketamine treatment following withdrawal from CMS have replicated the clinical finding of a rapid onset of antidepressant action...
October 18, 2016: Behavioural Pharmacology
Muhammad Farhan, Darakshan Jabeen Haleem
Background: Fluoxetine, a selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitor (SSRI), has been proposed to be more effective as an antidepressive drug as compared to other SSRIs. After chronic SSRI administration, the increase in synaptic levels of 5-HT leads to desensitization of somatodentritic 5-HT autoreceptors in the raphe nuclei. Chronic stress may alter behavioral, neurochemical and physiological responses to drug challenges and novel stressors. Methods: Twenty four male rats were used in this study. Animals of CMS group were exposed to CMS...
September 2016: Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal: SPJ: the Official Publication of the Saudi Pharmaceutical Society
Sudipta Saha, Vinit Raj, Amit Rai
The chemistry of heterocyclic containing, 1,3,4-thiadiazole has been an interesting field of study from ancient years. Subsequently, 1,3,4-thiadiazole nucleus constitutes a significant class of compounds for new drug development. Recently, various 1,3,4-thiadiazole derivatives have been synthesized and evaluated their biological activities including antimicrobial, antituberculosis, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticonvulsants, antidepressant and anxiolytic, antihypertensive, anticancer and antifungal activity...
October 13, 2016: Anti-cancer Agents in Medicinal Chemistry
Tyra Dark, Heather A Flynn, George Rust, Heidi Kinsell, Jeffrey S Harman
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to describe the epidemiology of anxiety-related emergency department (ED) visits in the United States and assess the care provided during those visits. METHODS: Data from the 2009-2011 National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey were used to identify all ED visits in which the patient received a primary anxiety diagnosis or declared anxiety as the reason for the visit (N=1,029). Patient characteristics, treatment provided, and dispositions of these nationally representative visits were assessed...
October 17, 2016: Psychiatric Services: a Journal of the American Psychiatric Association
Eric M Janezic, Swetha Uppalapati, Stephanie Nagl, Marco Contreras, Edward D French, Jean-Marc Fellous
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is in part due to a deficit in memory consolidation and extinction. Oxytocin (OXT) has anxiolytic effects and promotes prosocial behaviors in both rodents and humans, and evidence suggests that it plays a role in memory consolidation. We studied the effects of administered OXT and social co-housing in a rodent model of PTSD. Acute OXT yielded a short-term increase in the recall of the traumatic memory if administered immediately after trauma. Low doses of OXT delivered chronically had a cumulating anxiolytic effect that became apparent after 4 days and persisted...
October 12, 2016: Behavioural Pharmacology
Louise K Refsgaard, Darryl S Pickering, Jesper T Andreasen
Evidence suggests that N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) antagonists could be efficacious in treating depression and anxiety, but side effects constitute a challenge. This study evaluated the antidepressant-like and anxiolytic-like actions, and cognitive and motor side effects of four NMDAR antagonists. MK-801, ketamine, S-ketamine, RO 25-6981 and the positive control, citalopram, were tested for antidepressant-like and anxiolytic-like effects in mice using the forced-swim test, the elevated zero maze and the novelty-induced hypophagia test...
October 12, 2016: Behavioural Pharmacology
D Wiwatwongwana, P Vichitvejpaisal, L Thaikruea, J Klaphajone, A Tantong, A Wiwatwongwana
PurposeTo investigate the anxiolytic effects of binaural beat embedded audio in patients undergoing cataract surgery under local anesthesia.MethodsThis prospective RCT included 141 patients undergoing cataract surgery under local anesthesia. The patients were randomized into three groups; the Binaural beat music group (BB), the plain music intervention group (MI), and a control group (ear phones with no music). Blood pressure (BP) and heart rate were measured on admission, at the beginning of and 20 min after the start of the operation...
October 14, 2016: Eye
Michael Burdick, Richard Mamelok, Michele Hurliman, Mariève Dupuis, Yuli Xie, Julie Grenier, Curtis Sheldon, Michael Gartner, Peter Noymer
Ketorolac tromethamine is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) that exhibits analgesic activity with no sedative or anxiolytic properties. Twelve (12) healthy male subjects were enrolled in a study to receive either one of two treatments over two periods in an open-label, randomized, two-way crossover design: (A) 120 mg of ketorolac tromethamine administered as a continuous subcutaneous (SC) infusion over a 24-hour period; or (B) an identical total daily dose administered as 4 intramuscular (IM) bolus injections of 30 mg each given every 6 hours (current labeled treatment regimen)...
October 14, 2016: Clinical Pharmacology in Drug Development
H M Le, G Carbutti, D Ilisei, E Bouccin, X Vandemergel
Pseudopheochromocytoma has a clinical presentation that is similar to pheochromocytoma. It manifests itself with paroxysmal hypertension crises, associated with various symptoms such as headaches, chest pain, nausea, palpitations, and dizziness. Patients are usually asymptomatic in between the crises. Unlike pheochromocytoma, there is no catecholamines overproduction in this pathology: hypertensive peaks are caused by a hyperactivation of the sympathetic nervous system, which is often triggered by a psychological trauma in the past...
2016: Case Reports in Cardiology
Robert M Nevels, Samuel T Gontkovsky, Bryman E Williams
Paroxetine, also known by the trade names Aropax, Paxil, Pexeva, Seroxat, Sereupin and Brisdelle, was first marketed in the U.S. in 1992. Effective for major depression and various anxiety disorders, it quickly gained a sizable share of the antidepressant prescription market. By the late 1990s, paroxetine frequently was being associated with serious drug interactions and medication side effects. Most significantly, in a major Canadian epidemiological study examining the relationship between antidepressants and diseases, paroxetine was associated with a 620 percent increase in the rate of breast cancer in women who had taken it over a four-year period...
March 1, 2016: Psychopharmacology Bulletin
Jyoti Dahiya, Jitender Singh, Ashwani Kumar, Anupam Sharma
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Leaves of M. koenigii Linn. Spreng (Rutaceae) have been used as traditional medicine for anxiety disorders. Aim of the study was to isolate antianxiety principle(s) from the leaves of M. koenigii using bioactivity guided approach. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Hydroalcoholic extract of M. koenigii leaves was prepared using soxhlet apparatus, and the same was evaluated for antianxiety activity at 250, 500 and 750mg/kg, po, using Elevated plus-maze (EPM)...
October 10, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Joseph C Dort, D Gregory Farwell, Merran Findlay, Gerhard F Huber, Paul Kerr, Melissa A Shea-Budgell, Christian Simon, Jeffrey Uppington, David Zygun, Olle Ljungqvist, Jeffrey Harris
Importance: Head and neck cancers often require complex, labor-intensive surgeries, especially when free flap reconstruction is required. Enhanced recovery is important in this patient population but evidence-based protocols on perioperative care for this population are lacking. Objective: To provide a consensus-based protocol for optimal perioperative care of patients undergoing head and neck cancer surgery with free flap reconstruction. Evidence Review: Following endorsement by the Enhanced Recovery After Surgery (ERAS) Society to develop this protocol, a systematic review was conducted for each topic...
October 13, 2016: JAMA Otolaryngology—Head & Neck Surgery
Fernanda F Peres, Raquel Levin, Mayra A Suiama, Mariana C Diana, Douglas A Gouvêa, Valéria Almeida, Camila M Santos, Lisandro Lungato, Antônio W Zuardi, Jaime E C Hallak, José A Crippa, D'Almeida Vânia, Regina H Silva, Vanessa C Abílio
Cannabidiol (CBD) is a non-psychotomimetic compound from Cannabis sativa that presents antipsychotic, anxiolytic, anti-inflammatory, and neuroprotective effects. In Parkinson's disease patients, CBD is able to attenuate the psychotic symptoms induced by L-DOPA and to improve quality of life. Repeated administration of reserpine in rodents induces motor impairments that are accompanied by cognitive deficits, and has been applied to model both tardive dyskinesia and Parkinson's disease. The present study investigated whether CBD administration would attenuate reserpine-induced motor and cognitive impairments in rats...
2016: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Humera Ishaq
Present study was planned to search for neuropharmacological properties of methanolic extracts of different parts of Melia azedarach Linn. because conventional medicine shows adverse effects. Recently natural products are studied worldwide, as safer alternatives, which are not duly supported with scientifically proved data. Melia azedarach (Bakayan, China berry tree) is medium sized tree belonging to family Meliaceae. Traditional use of plant is as anthelmintic, antilithic and diuretic. Topical application of oil for cramps and rheumatism is beneficial...
September 2016: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Shi-Xun Ma, Seung-Hwan Kwon, Jee-Yeon Seo, Ji-Young Hwang, Sa-Ik Hong, Hyoung-Chun Kim, Seok-Yong Lee, Choon-Gon Jang
Transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1), the archetypal member of the vanilloid TRP family, was initially identified as the receptor for capsaicin, the pungent ingredient in hot chili peppers. We previously demonstrated that TRPV1 in the dorsal striatum significantly contributes to morphine reward by using the conditioned place preference paradigm in mice; however, it is unknown whether TRPV1 has the same effect in other reward models. In this study, we investigated the role of TRPV1 in morphine reward by using a self-administration paradigm in rats...
October 11, 2016: Addiction Biology
Charles Khouri, Marion Lepelley, Céline Villier, Thierry Bougerol, Michel Mallaret
PURPOSE: Cyamemazine (Tercian(®)) is currently the most widely prescribed neuroleptic in France. This widespread use is due to its anxiolytics properties and to a claimed good safety profile. Although, prescription of cyamemazine is not devoid of the risks associated with the use of neuroleptics: extrapyramidal syndromes. This study aims at describing extrapyramidal syndromes induced by cyamemazine registered in the French pharmacovigilance database. METHODS: All spontaneous reports of extrapyramidal syndromes in the French pharmacovigilance database between 1st January 1985 and 31th December 2015 were described and analyzed...
September 15, 2016: Thérapie
Patrícia Santos, Ana P Herrmann, Radharani Benvenutti, Guilherme Noetzold, Franciele Giongo, Clarissa S Gama, Angelo L Piato, Elaine Elisabetsky
Anxiety disorders are highly prevalent and often result in poor quality of life. Available anxiolytics show significant adverse effects as well as partial efficacy in a sizable part of patients. Innovative treatments with more favorable risk-benefit ratio are sorely needed. A growing body of clinical data indicates the benefits of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) in psychiatric conditions. NAC modulates antioxidant, glutamatergic, inflammatory and neurotrophic pathways in the central nervous system, all of which are relevant to anxiety pathology...
October 7, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
Lamiece Hassan, Jane Senior, Roger T Webb, Martin Frisher, Mary P Tully, David While, Jenny J Shaw
BACKGROUND: Mental illness is highly prevalent among prisoners. Although psychotropic medicines can ameliorate symptoms of mental illness, prescribers in prisons must balance clinical needs against risks to safety and security. Concerns have been raised at the large number of prisoners reportedly receiving psychotropic medicines in England. Nonetheless, unlike for the wider community, robust prescribing data are not routinely available for prisons. We investigated gender-specific patterns in the prevalence and appropriateness of psychotropic prescribing in English prisons...
October 10, 2016: BMC Psychiatry
Adrian L Lopresti, Peter D Drummond
BACKGROUND: Several studies have supported the antidepressant effects of curcumin (from the spice turmeric) and saffron for people with major depressive disorder. However, these studies have been hampered by poor designs, small sample sizes, short treatment duration, and similar intervention dosages. Furthermore, the antidepressant effects of combined curcumin and saffron administration are unknown. METHODS: In a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, 123 individuals with major depressive disorder were allocated to one of four treatment conditions, comprising placebo, low-dose curcumin extract (250mg b...
October 1, 2016: Journal of Affective Disorders
Gayaprasad Upadhyay, Sarvesh Khoshla, Ramoji Kosuru, Sanjay Singh
OBJECTIVE: The current study was designed to explore anxiolytic, antidepressant, and antistress actions of Cinnamomum tamala (CT) leaves (aqueous extract) in rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Behavioral procedures of anxiety, depression, and stress were assessed in rats. CT (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg) was given once a daily for 7 days via oral route and the efficacy was matched by those elicited by lorazepam (1 mg/kg, p.o.), imipramine (10 mg/kg, p.o.), and Withania somnifera (100 mg/kg, p...
September 2016: Indian Journal of Pharmacology
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