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Wenjun Zhang, Junfang Chen, Xiao Hong Pan, Jiafeng Zhang, Zhihong Guo, Yan Luo, Jiezhe Yang, Yan Xia, Lin He, Yun Xu, Ke Xu, Xiaobei Ding
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the HIV-1 molecular epidemiology among young people (18 to 25 years old) in Hangzhou. METHODS: Plasma samples from 262 newly diagnosed HIV-1 infected patients were collected between 2009 and 2013 from Hangzhou of Zhejiang province. HIV-1 nucleotide sequences of pol gene regions were amplified using a nested PCR method and sequenced. Phylogenetic and recombination analyses were used to determine the HIV-1 genotypes. RESULTS: Based on all sequences generated, the subtype/circulating recombinant forms (CRF) distribution was as follows: CRF01_AE (68...
October 20, 2016: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Yihong Hu, Zhenzhou Wan, Yan-Heng Zhou, Davey M Smith, Yong-Tang Zheng, Chiyu Zhang
The on-going generation of HIV-1 inter-subtype recombination has led to new circulating recombinant forms (CRFs) and unique recombinant forms (URFs) in Asia. Here, we evaluated whether previously reported URFs were actually CRFs. All available complete or near full-length HIV-1 URFs sequences from Asia were retrieved from the HIV Los Alamos National Laboratory Sequence database, and phylogenetic, transmission cluster and bootscan analyses were performed using MEGA 6.0, Cluster Picker 1.2.1, and SimPlot3.5.1...
October 20, 2016: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
John Cairney, Scott Veldhuizen, Sara King-Dowling, Brent E Faught, John Hay
OBJECTIVES: Previous research has shown children with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) have lower cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) than typically developing (TD) children. This has been hypothesized to be due to an activity deficit, whereby poor motor functioning discourages children from participating in physical activities, but this hypothesis has not been directly tested. In this study, we use longitudinal data to measure the extent to which physical activity explains differences in CRF between children with and without motor coordination deficits...
September 29, 2016: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
Chun Yeh, Ching-Heng Ting, Ming-Luen Doong, Chin-Wen Chi, Shou-Dong Lee, Chih-Yen Chen
PURPOSE: Urocortin 3 is a key neuromodulator in the regulation of stress, anxiety, food intake, gut motility, and energy homeostasis, while ghrelin elicits feeding behavior and enhances gastric emptying, adiposity, and positive energy balance. However, the interplays between urocortin 3 and ghrelin on food intake and gastric emptying remain uninvestigated. METHODS: We examined the differential effects of central O-n-octanoylated ghrelin, des-Gln(14)-ghrelin, and urocortin 3 on food intake, as well as on charcoal nonnutrient semiliquid gastric emptying in conscious rats that were chronically implanted with intracerebroventricular (ICV) catheters...
2016: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
Scott M Weir, David E Scott, Christopher J Salice, Stacey L Lance
Chemical contamination is often suggested as an important contributing factor to amphibian population declines, but direct links are rarely reported. Population modeling provides a quantitative method to integrate toxicity data with demographic data to understand the long-term effects of contaminants on population persistence. In this study we use laboratory-derived embryo and larval toxicity data for two anuran species to investigate the potential for toxicity to contribute to population declines. We use the southern toad (Anaxyrus terrestris) and the southern leopard frog (Lithobates sphenocephalus) as model species to investigate copper (Cu) toxicity...
September 2016: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
Anna P Pilbrow, Kathy A Lewis, Marilyn H Perrin, Wendy E Sweet, Christine S Moravec, W H Wilson Tang, Mark O Huising, Richard W Troughton, Vicky A Cameron
Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) and the CRF-related peptides, urocortin (Ucn)1, Ucn2 and Ucn3 signal through receptors CRFR1 and CRFR2 to restore homeostasis in response to stress. The Ucns exert potent cardioprotective effects and may have clinical utility in heart failure. To explore the activity of this system in the heart, we measured levels of myocardial gene expression of the CRF/Ucn family of ligands/receptors and investigated genetic variation and alternative splicing of CRFR1 in 110 heart failure patients and 108 heart donors...
October 18, 2016: Endocrinology
Pablo Franquelo-Morales, Mairena Sánchez-López, Blanca Notario-Pacheco, José Miota-Ibarra, Noelia Lahoz-García, Manuel Ángel Gómez-Marcos, Vicente Martínez-Vizcaíno
OBJECTIVE: The objectives of this study were to examine in university students: (a) the mean differences in the HRQoL among fat mass percentage, cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and sleep quality categories; and (b) the independent associations among fat mass percentage, CRF, and sleep quality with HRQoL. PARTICIPANTS: 376 students, 18-30 years old, from the University of Castilla-La Mancha in Cuenca, Spain (during 2009-2010). METHOD: Cross-sectional study measuring % fat mass (DXA), CRF (20-m shuttle run test), sleep quality (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index), and HRQoL (SF-12 questionnaire)...
October 18, 2016: Behavioral Sleep Medicine
Peter Kokkinos
A plethora of evidence exists supporting that structured aerobic exercise or activities that increase cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) lower resting blood pressure (BP) in patients with hypertension (HTN). Relatively few studies have assessed the effects of anaerobic or resistance exercise on BP. Thus, its role in managing HTN is not defined. Also, possible risks related with exercise in hypertensive patients have not been adequately addressed.In addition to lowering BP, CRF attenuates the incidence of HTN. A substantial part of the age-related progression to HTN is not an inevitable outcome of aging as once thought, but a consequence of lifestyle characterized by high-fat/salt diets and physical inactivity...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Sae Young Jae, Sudhir Kurl, Barry A Franklin, Jari A Laukkanen
OBJECTIVES: We investigated whether long-term changes in cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) predict the risk of incident hypertension, independent of risk factors, in initially normotensive men. METHODS: This prospective study from the Kuopio Ischemic Heart Disease Study included 431 male participants without hypertension who underwent symptom-limited maximal cardiopulmonary exercise testing at baseline and during a second examination, 11-years later, who were re-evaluated for hypertension at 20-year follow-up...
October 18, 2016: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
D A Bangasser, H Dong, J Carroll, Z Plona, H Ding, L Rodriguez, C McKennan, J G Csernansky, S H Seeholzer, R J Valentino
Several neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders share stress as a risk factor and are more prevalent in women than in men. Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) orchestrates the stress response, and excessive CRF is thought to contribute to the pathophysiology of these diseases. We previously found that the CRF1 receptor (CRF1) is sex biased whereby coupling to its GTP-binding protein, Gs, is greater in females, whereas β-arrestin-2 coupling is greater in males. This study used a phosphoproteomic approach in CRF-overexpressing (CRF-OE) mice to test the proof of principle that when CRF is in excess, sex-biased CRF1 coupling translates into divergent cell signaling that is expressed as different brain phosphoprotein profiles...
October 18, 2016: Molecular Psychiatry
Laura F DeFina, David Leonard, Benjamin L Willis, Carolyn E Barlow, Carrie E Finley, Marjorie R Jenkins, Barbara C Pence, Yan Zhang, Ming-Chien Chyu, E Michael Lewiecki, Chwan-Li Shen
PURPOSE: The goal of this study was to determine the association between cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and bone mineral density (BMD) of the femoral neck (FN) in postmenopausal women using existing Cooper Center Longitudinal Study data. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cohort of 1,720 predominantly healthy Caucasian women (57.1 ± 6.9 years) underwent preventive medical examinations that included CRF assessment by maximal Balke treadmill testing and measurement of BMD by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry...
October 2016: Journal of Women's Health
Ugo Corrà
Cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) is a specialized subtype of exercise testing that provides a more accurate and objective measure of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF). CPET relies on measurement of ventilatory gases during exercise, i.e., a non-invasive procedure that involves the acquisition of expired ventilation and concentrations of oxygen (O2) and carbon dioxide (CO2) during progressive exercise. The non-invasive measurement of ventilation and expired gases permits the most accurate and reproducible quantification of CRF, a grading of the etiology and severity of impairment, and an objective assessment of the response to an intervention...
October 14, 2016: Monaldi Archives for Chest Disease, Archivio Monaldi Per le Malattie del Torace
Bhagya Ranjan Jena, Anil Paswan, Yashpal Singh, Sandeep Loha, Anil Prasad Singh, Virendra Rastogi
BACKGROUND: Radiofrequency (RF) is a minimally invasive target-selective technique that has been used with success for many years in the treatment of different pathologies, such as low back pain, trigeminal neuralgia, and others. AIM: The aim of this study is to compare different mode of RF - continuous RF (CRF) versus pulsed RF (PRF) along with steroid in the management of low back pain of discogenic origin. SETTING AND DESIGN: Prospective, randomized, double-blind trial...
September 2016: Anesthesia, Essays and Researches
Ryota Tokunaga, Rie Shimoju, Hideshi Shibata, Mieko Kurosawa
Noxious cutaneous stimulation increases, whereas innocuous cutaneous stimulation decreases serotonin (5-HT) release in the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) in anesthetized rats. In the present study, we investigated the contribution of corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) receptors and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptors in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) to those responses. Release of 5-HT in the CeA was monitored by microdialysis before and after 10-min stimulation by pinching or stroking. Increased 5-HT release in the CeA in response to pinching was abolished by CRF2 receptor antagonism in the DRN...
October 15, 2016: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
Cinthia García-Luna, Paulina Soberanes-Chavez, Patricia de Gortari
Feeding patterns are important factors in obesity evolvement. Time-restricted feeding schedules (tRF) during resting phase change energy homeostasis regulation, disrupting the circadian release of metabolism-regulating hormones, such as leptin, insulin and corticosterone and promoting body weight gain. Thyroid (HPT) and adrenal (HPA) axes exhibit a circadian regulation and are involved in energy expenditure, thus studying their parameters in tRF paradigms will elucidate their role in energy homeostasis impairments under such conditions...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Endocrinology
Jeff Sanders, Charles Nemeroff
The major neuropsychiatric disorders are devastating illnesses that are only modestly responsive to treatment. Improving the treatment of these conditions will require innovative new strategies that depart from previously focused-on pharmacological mechanisms. Considerable preclinical and clinical data indicate corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) signaling as a target for new psychotropic drug development. Here we review alterations in the CRF system reported in several psychiatric conditions. We also examine the preclinical work that has dissected the distinctive roles of CRF receptors in specific circuits relevant to these disorders...
October 4, 2016: Trends in Pharmacological Sciences
C C A Santana, L B Azevedo, M T Cattuzzo, J O Hill, L P Andrade, W L Prado
Physical fitness (PF) is a construct of health- and skill-related attributes which have been associated with academic performance (AP) in youth. This study aimed to review the scientific evidence on the association among components of PF and AP in children and adolescents. A systematic review of articles using databases PubMed/Medline, ERIC, LILACS, SciELO, and Web of Science was undertaken. Cross-sectional and longitudinal studies examining the association between at least one component of PF and AP in children and adolescents, published between 1990 and June 2016, were included...
October 7, 2016: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
Marzieh Sadat Minooei, Zohreh Ghazavi, Zahra Abdeyazdan, Alaleh Gheissari, Zeinab Hemati
BACKGROUND: Chronic renal failure (CRF) causes a gradual decline in kidney function to the extent that CRF patients need long-term clinical care, which affects the patients' family function and quality of life (QoL). OBJECTIVES: The present study was conducted to study the effects of the family-centered empowerment model on QoL in children with CRF during 2012-2013. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In this quasi-experimental study, 68 children with CRF and their parents were randomly assigned to two groups, intervention and control, via a random numbers table...
July 2016: Nephro-urology Monthly
Davy Vancampfort, James Mugisha, Simon Rosenbaum, Joseph Firth, Marc De Hert, Michel Probst, Brendon Stubbs
Cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) is a modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular disease and premature mortality. CRF levels and moderators among people living with HIV (PLWH) are unknown. The aim of the current meta-analysis was to (1) determine mean CRF in PLWH and compare levels with age- and gender-matched healthy controls (HCs), (2) explore moderators of CRF, (3) and (4) explore moderators of CRF outcomes following physical activity (PA) interventions. Major electronic databases were searched systematically for articles reporting CRF expressed as maximum or peak oxygen uptake (ml/min/kg) in PLWH...
October 3, 2016: Preventive Medicine
Mehtap Caglayan, Ozge Sarac, Pinar Kosekahya, Sukran Erten, Berna Ayan, Nurullah Cagil
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the corneal biomechanical parameters in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and to compare them with the healthy subjects. METHODS: Sixty patients with AS (study group) and 60 healthy subjects (control group) were enrolled in this prospective study. The study group was further classified as active (n:30) and inactive (n:30). After detailed ophthalmological examination including intraocular pressure (IOP) measurement with Goldmann applanation tonometer (IOPGAT), corneal hysteresis (CH), corneal resistance factor (CRF), corneal-compensated IOP (IOPcc), and Goldmann-correlated IOP (IOPg) were measured with the Reichert Ocular Response Analyzer (ORA)...
October 5, 2016: International Ophthalmology
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