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Dinghui Yu, Ying Tan, Molee Chakraborty, Seth Tomchik, Ronald L Davis
The evolutionarily conserved Elongator Complex associates with RNA polymerase II for transcriptional elongation. Elp3 is the catalytic subunit, contains histone acetyltransferase activity, and is associated with neurodegeneration in humans. Elp1 is a scaffolding subunit and when mutated causes familial dysautonomia. Here, we show that elp3 and elp1 are required for aversive long-term olfactory memory in Drosophila RNAi knockdown of elp3 in adult mushroom bodies impairs long-term memory (LTM) without affecting earlier forms of memory...
April 2018: Learning & Memory
Jacobus H Visser, Nigel C Bennett, Bettine Jansen van Vuuren
The subterranean niche harbours animals with extreme adaptations. These adaptations decrease the vagility of taxa and, along with other behavioural adaptations, often result in isolated populations characterized by small effective population sizes, high inbreeding, population bottlenecks, genetic drift and consequently, high spatial genetic structure. Although information is available for some species, estimates of genetic diversity and whether this variation is spatially structured, is lacking for the Cape mole-rat (Georychus capensis)...
2018: PloS One
M Fujihala, T Sugimoto, T Tohyama, S Mitsuda, R A Mole, D H Yu, S Yano, Y Inagaki, H Morodomi, T Kawae, H Sagayama, R Kumai, Y Murakami, K Tomiyasu, A Matsuo, K Kindo
Fedotovite K_{2}Cu_{3}O(SO_{4})_{3} is a candidate of new quantum spin systems, in which the edge-shared tetrahedral (EST) spin clusters consisting of Cu^{2+} are connected by weak intercluster couplings forming a one-dimensional array. Comprehensive experimental studies by magnetic susceptibility, magnetization, heat capacity, and inelastic neutron scattering measurements reveal the presence of an effective S=1 Haldane state below T≅4  K. Rigorous theoretical studies provide an insight into the magnetic state of K_{2}Cu_{3}O(SO_{4})_{3}: an EST cluster makes a triplet in the ground state and a one-dimensional chain of the EST induces a cluster-based Haldane state...
February 16, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Carol Cremin, Sarah Howard, Lyly Le, Aly Karsan, David F Schaeffer, Daniel Renouf, Kasmintan A Schrader
Background: Approximately 5% to 10% of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) has a hereditary basis. In most of these defined hereditary cancer syndromes, PDAC is not the predominant cancer type. Traditional criteria for publicly funded genetic testing typically require the presence of a set combination of the predominant syndrome-associated cancer types in the family history.We report the identification of a CDKN2A pathogenic variant in a PDAC-prone family without the cutaneous features of multiple moles or melanoma that are characteristic of the Familial Atypical Multiple Mole Melanoma (FAMMM) Syndrome identified in a universal testing algorithm for inherited mutations in pancreatic cancer patients...
2018: Hereditary Cancer in Clinical Practice
Erik B Watkins, Shelli L Frey, Eva Y Chi, Kathleen D Cao, Tadeusz Pacuszka, Jaroslaw Majewski, Ka Yee C Lee
The influence of carbohydrate structure on the ordering of glycosphingolipids (GSLs) and surrounding phospholipids was investigated in monolayers at the air-water interface. Binary mixtures composed of GSLs, chosen to span a range of carbohydrate complexity, and zwitterionic dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine phospholipid, were studied. X-ray reflectivity was used to measure the out-of-plane structure of the monolayers and characterize the extension and conformation of the GSL carbohydrates. Using synchrotron grazing incidence x-ray diffraction, the in-plane packing of the lipid acyl chains and the area per molecule within ordered domains were characterized at different mole ratios of the two components...
March 13, 2018: Biophysical Journal
Catherine M Olsen, Nirmala Pandeya, Bridie S Thompson, Jean Claude Dusingize, Penelope M Webb, Adele C Green, Rachel E Neale, David C Whiteman
Background: Risk stratification can improve the efficacy and cost-efficiency of screening programs for early detection of cancer. We sought to derive a risk stratification tool for melanoma that was suitable for the general population using only self-reported information. Methods: We used melanoma risk factor information collected at baseline from QSKIN, a prospective cohort study of Queensland adults age 40 to 69 years at recruitment (n = 41 954). We examined two separate outcomes: 1) invasive melanomas and 2) all melanomas (invasive + in situ) obtained through data linkage to the cancer registry...
March 11, 2018: Journal of the National Cancer Institute
A G Vasil'ev, V N Bol'shakov, I A Vasil'eva, N G Evdokimov, N V Sineva
Geometric morphometry has been used to reveal transformations of mandible morphogenesis in the offspring of mole voles resettled to the northern part of the species range from a southern population. The transformations were new compared to both the original (southern) and the aboriginal (northern) populations. A significant increase in the intragroup morphological disparity estimated by the mean nearest neighbor distance (MNND) in the resettled animals compared to both aboriginal populations is an indirect indication of an increased developmental instability in the resettled animals exposed to new climatic conditions...
January 2018: Doklady Biological Sciences: Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Biological Sciences Sections
Val A Fajardo, John S Mikhaeil, Cameron F Leveille, A Russell Tupling, Paul J LeBlanc
BACKGROUND: An increase in phosphatidylcholine:phosphatidylethanolamine (PC:PE) and a decrease in fatty acyl chain length, monounsaturated:polyunsaturated (MUFA:PUFA) fatty acyl ratio reduces SERCA activity in liposomes and in mouse models of obesity and muscular dystrophy. We have previously shown that maximal SERCA activity is significantly reduced in mechanically overloaded (OVL) plantaris, however, whether changes in PC:PE ratio or fatty acyl composition may contribute to the alterations in maximal SERCA activity remain unknown...
March 13, 2018: Lipids in Health and Disease
Alessandro Cucchi, Federica Molè, Lucia Rinaldi, Claudio Marchetti, Giuseppe Corinaldesi
PURPOSE: The primary prevention of peri-implantitis onset is a key factor in long-term implant success, and the evaluation of the antibacterial efficacy of different implant surfaces is fundamental in this way. The aim of this study was to assess if implants with collars coated with anatase were less subjected to bacterial colonization than implants with noncoated collars, and to investigate how implant bacterial colonization varies over time. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eighteen patients in need of implant-supported rehabilitation were selected to have two adjacent implants placed, one with an anatase-coated collar and one with the collar uncoated...
March 2018: International Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Implants
Walter W Chen, Elizaveta Freinkman, David M Sabatini
Mitochondria carry out numerous metabolic reactions that are critical to cellular homeostasis. Here we present a protocol for interrogating mitochondrial metabolites and measuring their matrix concentrations. Our workflow uses high-affinity magnetic immunocapture to rapidly purify HA-tagged mitochondria from homogenized mammalian cells in ∼12 min. These mitochondria are extracted with methanol and water. Liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry (LC/MS) is used to determine the identities and mole quantities of mitochondrial metabolites using authentic metabolite standards and isotopically labeled internal standards, whereas the corresponding mitochondrial matrix volume is determined via immunoblotting, confocal microscopy of intact cells, and volumetric analysis...
October 2017: Nature Protocols
Rebekah J Moles
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2018: Canadian Journal of Hospital Pharmacy
Rebekah J Moles
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2018: Canadian Journal of Hospital Pharmacy
Yoshiyuki Henning, Nella Mladěnková, Hynek Burda, Karol Szafranski, Sabine Begall
Mammals usually possess a majority of medium-wavelength sensitive (M-) and a minority of short-wavelength sensitive (S-) opsins in the retina, enabling dichromatic vision. Unexpectedly, subterranean rodents from the genus Fukomys exhibit an S-opsin majority, which is exceptional among mammals, albeit with no apparent adaptive value. Because thyroid hormones (THs) are pivotal for M-opsin expression and metabolic rate regulation, we have, for the first time, manipulated TH levels in the Ansell's mole-rat (Fukomys anselli) using osmotic pumps...
March 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
Katia Pane, Mariavittoria Verrillo, Angela Avitabile, Elio Pizzo, Mario Varcamonti, Anna Zanfardino, Antimo Di Maro, Camilla Rega, Angela Amoresano, Viviana Izzo, Alberto Di Donato, Valeria Cafaro, Eugenio Notomista
Peptides with an N-terminal cysteine residue allow site-specific modification of proteins and peptides and chemical synthesis of proteins. They have been widely used to develop new strategies for imaging, drug discovery, diagnostics and chip technologies. Here we present a method to produce recombinant peptides with an N-terminal cysteine residue as a convenient alternative to chemical synthesis. The method is based on the release of the desired peptide from a recombinant fusion protein by mild acid hydrolysis of an Asp-Cys sequence...
March 12, 2018: Bioconjugate Chemistry
Nirmala Pandeya, Marina Kvaskoff, Catherine M Olsen, Adèle C Green, Susan Perry, Catherine Baxter, Marcia B Davis, Rohan Mortimore, Lorraine Westacott, Dominic Wood, Joe Triscott, Richard Williamson, David C Whiteman
A proportion of cutaneous melanomas display neval remnants on histologic examination. Converging lines of epidemiologic and molecular evidence suggest that melanomas arising from nevus precursors differ from melanomas arising de novo. In a large, population-based study comprising 636 cutaneous melanomas subjected to dermatopathology review, we explored the molecular, host and environmental factors associated with the presence of neval remnants. We found nevus-associated melanomas were significantly associated with younger age at presentation, non-brown eye color, trunk site, thickness <0...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
Tagnon D Missihoun, Simeon O Kotchoni
Aldehyde dehydrogenase enzymes (ALDHs) catalyse the oxidation of a broad range of aliphatic and aromatic aldehydes to their corresponding carboxylic acids using NAD+ or NADP+ as cofactors. In our article published in Scientific Reports, we demonstrated that mutations in Arabidopsis ALDH3I1 and ALDH7B4 genes altered the cellular contents of NAD(P)H, the total as well as the reduction state of glutathione; and decreased the efficiency of photosynthesis, thus placing ALDH activity as an important source of reducing power for cellular redox homeostasis...
March 9, 2018: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Małgorzata Jurak, Robert Mroczka, Rafał Łopucki
Lauryl gallate (LG) is an antioxidant agent. However, it exhibits poor solubility in water. Its interactions with the membrane result in structure evolution thus affecting the membrane functionality. In this paper the Brewster angle microscope coupled with the Langmuir trough was applied to determine the morphology, phase behaviour, thickness and miscibility of ternary Langmuir monolayers with equal mole fractions of 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC); 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DOPC) and an increasing mole fraction of LG...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Membrane Biology
Tatyana Danyukova, Khandsuren Ariunbat, Melanie Thelen, Nahal Brocke-Ahmadinejad, Sara E Mole, Stephan Storch
Defects in the MFSD8 gene encoding the lysosomal membrane protein CLN7 lead to CLN7 disease, a neurodegenerative lysosomal storage disorder belonging to the group of neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses (NCLs). Here we have performed a SILAC-based quantitative analysis of the lysosomal proteome using Cln7-deficient mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) from a Cln7 knockout (ko) mouse model. From 3335 different proteins identified, we detected 56 soluble lysosomal proteins and 29 highly abundant lysosomal membrane proteins...
March 5, 2018: Human Molecular Genetics
Elliott Ferris, Lisa M Abegglen, Joshua D Schiffman, Christopher Gregg
The identity of most functional elements in the mammalian genome and the phenotypes they impact are unclear. Here, we perform a genome-wide comparative analysis of patterns of accelerated evolution in species with highly distinctive traits to discover candidate functional elements for clinically important phenotypes. We identify accelerated regions (ARs) in the elephant, hibernating bat, orca, dolphin, naked mole rat, and thirteen-lined ground squirrel lineages in mammalian conserved regions, uncovering ∼33,000 elements that bind hundreds of different regulatory proteins in humans and mice...
March 6, 2018: Cell Reports
Logan E Mitchell, John C Lin, David R Bowling, Diane E Pataki, Courtenay Strong, Andrew J Schauer, Ryan Bares, Susan E Bush, Britton B Stephens, Daniel Mendoza, Derek Mallia, Lacey Holland, Kevin R Gurney, James R Ehleringer
Cities are concentrated areas of CO2 emissions and have become the foci of policies for mitigation actions. However, atmospheric measurement networks suitable for evaluating urban emissions over time are scarce. Here we present a unique long-term (decadal) record of CO2 mole fractions from five sites across Utah's metropolitan Salt Lake Valley. We examine "excess" CO2 above background conditions resulting from local emissions and meteorological conditions. We ascribe CO2 trends to changes in emissions, since we did not find long-term trends in atmospheric mixing proxies...
March 5, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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