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Kavel Visrodia, Liam Zakko, Kenneth K Wang
The management of Barrett's esophagus and early esophageal adenocarcinoma has shifted away from esophagectomy and toward endoscopic techniques, including endoscopic resection and ablative therapies. The most commonly used ablative therapies are radiofrequency ablation and cryotherapy. Radiofrequency ablation has risen to the top of the management algorithm due to its favorable safety profile and established track record of efficacy in patients with dysplastic Barrett's. Cryotherapy offers early promise as an alternatively safe and effective ablative modality...
May 17, 2018: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
Nicole Leigh Aaronson, Johnathan Edward Castaño, Jeffrey P Simons, Noel Jabbour
OBJECTIVE: This study evaluates the quality and readability of websites on ankyloglossia, tongue tie, and frenulectomy. METHODS: Google was queried with six search terms: tongue tie, tongue tie and breastfeeding, tongue tie and frenulectomy, ankyloglossia, ankyloglossia and breastfeeding, and ankyloglossia and frenulectomy. Website quality was assessed using the DISCERN instrument. Readability was evaluated using the Flesch-Kincaid Reading Grade Level, Flesch Reading Ease Score, and Fry readability formula...
May 1, 2018: Annals of Otology, Rhinology, and Laryngology
Francisco C P Coimbra, James Dobson, Christina N Zdenek, Bianca Op den Brouw, Brett Hamilton, Jordan Debono, Paul Masci, Nathaniel Frank, Lilin Ge, Hang Fai Kwok, Bryan G Fry
Night adders (Causus species within the Viperidae family) are amphibian specialists and a common source of snakebite in Africa. Some species are unique in that they have the longest venom glands of any viper, extending approximately 10% of the body length. Despite their potential medical importance and evolutionary novelty, their venom has received almost no research attention. In this study, venoms from a short-glanded species (C. lichtensteinii) and from a long-glanded species (C. rhombeatus) were compared using a series of proteomic and bioactivity testing techniques to investigate and compare the toxin composition and functioning of the venoms of these two species...
May 11, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
Gemma L Birnie, Darren R Fry, Matthew P Best
This prospective clinical trial was designed to evaluate the safety of hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) in a population of cats and dogs with a variety of naturally occurring diseases. Seventy-eight dogs and twelve cats with various naturally occurring disease conditions, who had the potential to benefit from HBOT, were enrolled in the study. These patients were treated with HBOT in a monoplace hyperbaric oxygen chamber at 2 air pressure absolute for a treatment length of either 45 min or 60 min. There were 230 hyperbaric oxygen treatments performed during the study period...
May 14, 2018: Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association
Danny Kinsella, Margaret Fry, Alison Zecchin
Specialist postgraduate education improves patient health outcomes, and assists in meeting the emerging specialisation of nursing practice. The aim of this study was to investigate the motivational factors that influence nurses' engagement with hospital-based postgraduate education. The research design was descriptive and exploratory, using a survey method. The survey consisted of demographic details, the Participation Reasons Scale (PRS) and open-ended questions. Thirty-four participants (100%) completed the survey...
May 1, 2018: Nurse Education in Practice
L W Townsend, J H Adams, S R Blattnig, M S Clowdsley, D J Fry, I Jun, C D McLeod, J I Minow, D F Moore, J W Norbury, R B Norman, D V Reames, N A Schwadron, E J Semones, R C Singleterry, T C Slaba, C M Werneth, M A Xapsos
Protecting spacecraft crews from energetic space radiations that pose both chronic and acute health risks is a critical issue for future missions beyond low Earth orbit (LEO). Chronic health risks are possible from both galactic cosmic ray and solar energetic particle event (SPE) exposures. However, SPE exposures also can pose significant short term risks including, if dose levels are high enough, acute radiation syndrome effects that can be mission- or life-threatening. In order to address the reduction of short term risks to spaceflight crews from SPEs, we have developed recommendations to NASA for a design-standard SPE to be used as the basis for evaluating the adequacy of proposed radiation shelters for cislunar missions beyond LEO...
May 2018: Life Sciences in Space Research
Melissa M Markofski, Kristofer Jennings, Kyle L Timmerman, Jared M Dickinson, Christopher S Fry, Michael S Borack, Paul T Reidy, Rachel R Deer, Amanda Randolph, Blake B Rasmussen, Elena Volpi
Background: Essential amino acids (EAA) and aerobic exercise (AE) acutely and independently stimulate skeletal muscle protein anabolism in older adults. Objective: In this Phase 1, double blind, placebo controlled, randomized clinical trial, we determined if chronic EAA supplementation, AE training, or a combination of the two interventions could improve muscle mass and function by stimulating muscle protein synthesis. Methods: We phone screened 971, enrolled 109, and randomized 50 independent, low-active, non-frail, non-diabetic older adults (age 72±1 yrs)...
May 10, 2018: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
Tracy A Manuck, Rebecca C Fry, Barbara L McFarlin
Billions of dollars are spent yearly in perinatal medicine on studies designed to improve outcomes for mothers and their neonates. However, implementing research findings is challenging and imperfect. Strategies for implementation must be multifaceted and comprehensive. These implementation challenges extend to, and are often greater in, translational and basic science research. The purpose of this review is to discuss current challenges in the provision of quality perinatal and neonatal medical care, particularly those related to preterm birth, and provide examples of prematurity-related perinatal quality collaborative initiatives...
June 2018: Clinics in Perinatology
M C Gjessing, D H Christensen, F Manji, S Mohammad, P E Petersen, B Saure, C Skjengen, S C Weli, O B Dale
Gill diseases cause serious losses in farming of Atlantic salmon and the number of agents involved increases. Salmon gill poxvirus (SGPV) and the gill disease in causes where SGPV apparently was the only disease-causing agent were initially characterized. Recently, it was further shown that SGPV can be a common denominator in widely different multifactorial gill diseases. Here, we present the challenge of diagnosing gill disease with SGPV in salmon fry of 0,3-5 grams. Apoptosis of gill lamellar epithelial cells and hemophagocytosis was also observed in fry similar to findings in smolts and grow-out fish...
May 10, 2018: Journal of Fish Diseases
Robyn Dwyer, Anna Olsen, Carrie Fowlie, Chris Gough, Ingrid van Beek, Marianne Jauncey, Nicholas Lintzeris, Grace Oh, Jane Dicka, Craig L Fry, Jeremy Hayllar, Simon Lenton
INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: Take-home naloxone (THN) programs commenced in Australia in 2012 in the Australian Capital Territory and programs now operate in five Australian jurisdictions. The purpose of this paper is to record the progress of THN programs in Australia, to provide a resource for others wanting to start THN projects, and provide a tool for policy makers and others considering expansion of THN programs in this country and elsewhere. DESIGN AND METHODS: Key stakeholders with principal responsibility for identified THN programs operating in Australia provided descriptions of program development, implementation and characteristics...
May 2018: Drug and Alcohol Review
Katherine E Henson, Anna Fry, Georgios Lyratzopoulos, Michael Peake, Keith J Roberts, Sean McPhail
BACKGROUND: Sociodemographic inequalities in cancer treatment have been generally described, but there is little evidence regarding patients with advanced cancer. Understanding variation in the management of these patients may provide insights into likely mechanisms leading to inequalities in survival. METHODS: We identified 50,232 patients with stage IV lung, oesophageal, pancreatic and stomach cancer from the English national cancer registry. A generalised linear model with a Poisson error structure was used to explore variation in radiotherapy and chemotherapy within 6 months from diagnosis by age, sex, deprivation, ethnicity, cancer site, comorbidity and, additionally, performance status...
May 10, 2018: British Journal of Cancer
Naomi M Saville, Bhim P Shrestha, Sarah Style, Helen Harris-Fry, B James Beard, Aman Sen, Sonali Jha, Anjana Rai, Vikas Paudel, Raghbendra Sah, Puskar Paudel, Andrew Copas, Bishnu Bhandari, Rishi Neupane, Joanna Morrison, Lu Gram, Anni-Maria Pulkki-Brännström, Jolene Skordis-Worrall, Machhindra Basnet, Saskia de Pee, Andrew Hall, Jayne Harthan, Meelan Thondoo, Sonja Klingberg, Janice Messick, Dharma S Manandhar, David Osrin, Anthony Costello
BACKGROUND: Undernutrition during pregnancy leads to low birthweight, poor growth and inter-generational undernutrition. We did a non-blinded cluster-randomised controlled trial in the plains districts of Dhanusha and Mahottari, Nepal to assess the impact on birthweight and weight-for-age z-scores among children aged 0-16 months of community-based participatory learning and action (PLA) women's groups, with and without food or cash transfers to pregnant women. METHODS: We randomly allocated 20 clusters per arm to four arms (average population/cluster = 6150)...
2018: PloS One
Yuguang Zhao, Jingshan Ren, Elizabeth Evelyn Fry, Julia Xiao, Alain R Townsend, David I Stuart
A large number of Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved drugs have been found to inhibit cell entry of Ebola virus (EBOV). However, since these drugs have various primary pharmacological targets their mechanisms of action against EBOV remain largely unknown. We have previously shown that six FDA approved drugs inhibit EBOV infection by interacting with and destabilizing the viral glycoprotein (GP). Here we show that the antidepressants imipramine and clomipramine, and antipsychotic drug thioridazine also directly interact with EBOV GP, and determine the mode of interaction by crystallographic analysis of the complexes...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Charlotte Brookes, Irene Freire-Martin, Breeze Cavell, Frances Alexander, Stephen Taylor, Ruby Persaud, Norman Fry, Andrew Preston, Dimitri Diavatopoulos, Andrew Gorringe
Whooping cough is a re-emerging respiratory tract infection. It has become clear that there is a need for better understanding of protective immune responses and variation between Bordetella pertussis strains to aid the development of improved vaccines. In order to survive in the host, B. pertussis has evolved mechanisms to evade complement-mediated killing, including the ability to bind complement-regulatory proteins. Here we evaluate the variation in interactions with the complement system among recently isolated strains...
May 9, 2018: Emerging Microbes & Infections
Thomas N Kakuda, Matthew W McClure, Christopher Westland, Jennifer Vuong, Marie-Claude Homery, Gwendoline Poizat, Laure Viguerie, Caroline Denot, Alain Patat, Qingling Zhang, James Hui, David Apelian, David B Smith, Sushmita M Chanda, John Fry
This Phase I, open-label, two-group, fixed-sequence study evaluated the pharmacokinetics and safety of AL-335, odalasvir, and simeprevir in healthy subjects. Group 1 (n   =   16) received AL-335 800 mg once daily (QD) (days 1-3, 11-13, and 21-23), simeprevir 150 mg QD (days 4-23), and odalasvir 150 mg (day 14) followed by 50 mg QD (days 15-23). Group 2 (n   =   16) received the same AL-335 regimen as in Group 1 plus odalasvir 150 mg (day 4) followed by 50 mg QD (days 5-23) and simeprevir 150 mg QD (days 14-23)...
June 2018: Pharmacology Research & Perspectives
Frida Felicia Fry Vennerød, Sophie Nicklaus, Nanna Lien, Valérie L Almli
This study aims at understanding how preference and sensitivity to the basic tastes develop in the preschool years, and how the two relate to each other. To expand on the existing literature regarding taste preferences conducted in cross-sectional studies, a longitudinal design was applied with children from age four to six years old. During the springs of 2015, 2016, and 2017, 131 children born in 2011 were tested in their kindergartens. To investigate preferences for sweet, sour and bitter tastes, the children performed ranking-by-elimination procedures on fruit-flavored beverages and chocolates with three taste intensity levels...
May 3, 2018: Appetite
Nevien K Abdelkhalek, Mohamed A El-Adl, Mohamed F Salama, Bassem Elmishmishy, Mayar O Ali, Ahmed El-Ashram, Mohamed F Hamed, Moustafa A Al-Araby
Trichodinids are peritrichous ciliated protozoa that affect both wild and cultured fishes. Several Trichodina species have low host specificity and are morphologically distinct, facilitating their identification based primarily on the presence of adhesive discs and the number of attached denticles. A trichodinid species named Trichodina compacta was first reported by Van As and Basson (1989) (Protozoa: Ciliophora: Peritrichia). However, in trichodinid infestations, morphological characteristics are insufficient for identifying the infesting species...
May 1, 2018: Parasitology Research
Christian Kjeldsen, Sofie Slott, Pernille L Elverdal, Carmen L Sheppard, Georgia Kapatai, Norman K Fry, Ian C Skovsted, Jens Ø Duus
Streptococcus pneumoniae is characterised into 92 serotypes based on antigenic reactions of commercial rabbit sera to the capsular polysaccharides. During development of a bioinformatic serotyping tool (PneumoCaT), an isolate exhibited a novel codon at residue 385 of the glycosyltransferase gene wcwK encoding a distinct amino acid, which differentiates genogroup 7. Investigation by repeat serotyping and Quellung reaction revealed a novel pattern of factor sera with the isolate reacting very strongly with 7f, but also with 7e factor sera...
April 23, 2018: Carbohydrate Research
Lik-Ming Lau, Kishio Hatai, Hanako Fukano, Osamu Kurata
In September 2014, a freshwater oomycete was first isolated from Asian Seabass Lates calcarifer fry that were reared in freshwater at a fish hatchery in Sabah, Malaysia. A fungal strain was isolated from infected fry by using glucose yeast extract (GY) agar. From morphological identification, the strain belonged to the genus Achlya based on the mode of zoospore release. Molecular phylogenetic analysis of the internal transcribed spacer region sequences from the strain showed high similarity (99-100%) to Achlya oblongata...
April 30, 2018: Journal of Aquatic Animal Health
Mita Munshi, Khairun Nafiz Tumu, Md Nazmul Hasan, Md Ziaul Amin
This study assesses the biochemical effects of commercially available fish feedstuffs on the fry of climbing perch ( Anabas testudineus ). Subsequently, its impact on experimental animal, Swiss albino mice, is also examined. In order to access the impact of commercial fish feed and feed consumption fish on the experimental animal, the proximate, biochemical and histopathological analyses were done using standard methods. The proximate composition as well as the concentrations of Pb, Ni, Mn, As, Zn, and Cd in the fish feed, different parts of the A...
2018: Toxicology Reports
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