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Treatment Resistant Depression

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432029/suppression-of-reward-induced-dopamine-release-in-the-nucleus-accumbens-in-animal-models-of-depression-differential-responses-to-drug-treatment
#1
Saki Minami, Hiroshi Satoyoshi, Soichiro Ide, Takeshi Inoue, Mitsuhiro Yoshioka, Masabumi Minami
Anhedonia, the loss of interest or pleasure in previously enjoyable activities, is a core symptom of major depressive disorder, suggesting that the brain reward system may be dysfunctional in this condition. Neurochemical changes in the mesolimbic dopamine (DA) system are not fully understood in animal models of depression. We investigated reward (30% sucrose intake)-induced DA release in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) and the effect of chronic treatment with the antidepressant escitalopram (5mg/kg, intraperitoneally twice daily for 3 weeks) in two animal models of depression...
April 18, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430672/lamotrigine-uses-in-psychiatric-practice-beyond-bipolar-prophylaxis-a-hope-or-hype
#2
Ahmed Naguy, Najah Al-Enezi
BACKGROUND: Lamotrigine (LAM), an antiepileptic, with panoply of indications and uses in neurology, is FDA approved, in psychiatry, for bipolar prophylaxis. Apart from this indication, trend of its use in psychiatry is on the rise addressing a multitude of disorders. STUDY QUESTION: LAM remains one of only few psychotropic drugs with antiglutamate activity. This might render LAM a potential therapeutic option in treatment-resistant major psychiatric disorders. We reviewed LAM pharmacology and its diverse indications while examining the extant evidence...
April 19, 2017: American Journal of Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427306/prefrontal-tdcs-and-sertraline-in-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#3
Ulrich Palm, Bianka Leitner, Beatrice Kirsch, Nora Behler, Ulrike Kumpf, Linda Wulf, Frank Padberg, Alkomiet Hasan
Obsessive-compulsive (OC) disorder is a disabling disorder resulting in tremendous individual and social burden. It has a large overlap with depression and anxiety disorders and shows treatment resistance in a relevant proportion of patients. Since a couple of years, different noninvasive brain stimulation methods have been investigated to improve OC symptoms. The application of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has shown inconsistent results which can probably be attributed to a lack in randomized controlled trials with adequate sample size...
April 21, 2017: Neurocase
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424861/s-ketamine-compared-to-etomidate-during-electroconvulsive-therapy-in-major-depression
#4
Maxim Zavorotnyy, Ina Kluge, Kathrin Ahrens, Thomas Wohltmann, Benjamin Köhnlein, Patricia Dietsche, Udo Dannlowski, Tilo Kircher, Carsten Konrad
Objective of the study was to compare two commonly used anesthetic drugs, S-ketamine and etomidate, regarding their influence on seizure characteristics, safety aspects, and outcome of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) in major depression. Treatment data of 60 patients who underwent a total number of 13 ECTs (median) because of the severe or treatment-resistant major depressive disorder (DSM-IV) were analyzed. Etomidate, mean dosage (SD) = 0.25 (0.04) mg/kg, was used for anesthesia in 29 participants; 31 patients received S-ketamine, mean dosage (SD) = 0...
April 19, 2017: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418641/classics-in-chemical-neuroscience-ketamine
#5
Marshall W Tyler, Harmony B Yourish, Dawn F Ionescu, Stephen J Haggarty
Ketamine, a molecule of many faces, has contributed immeasurably to numerous realms of clinical practice and scientific inquiry. From anesthesia and analgesia to depression and schizophrenia, it continues to shed light on the molecular underpinnings of pain, consciousness, and the pathophysiology of neuropsychiatric disorders. In particular, research on ketamine's mechanism of action is providing new hope in the search for therapies for treatment-resistant depression and affords insights into disorders of glutamatergic dysfunction...
April 21, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417559/asenapine-modulates-mood-related-behaviors-and-5-ht1a-7-receptors-mediated-neurotransmission
#6
Sarah Delcourte, Erika Abrial, Adeline Etiévant, Renaud Rovera, Jørn Arnt, Michael Didriksen, Nasser Haddjeri
AIM: Asenapine is a new atypical antipsychotic prescribed for the treatment of psychosis/bipolar disorders that presents higher affinity for serotonergic than dopaminergic receptors. The objective of this study was to investigate its antidepressant-like and antimanic-like properties on relevant animal models of depression and mania and to assess the acute and chronic effect of Asenapine on dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) 5-HT cell firing activity. METHODS: We assessed the effects of Asenapine using in vivo electrophysiological and behavioral assays in rats...
April 17, 2017: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413097/mglu2-3-receptor-antagonists-as-novel-antidepressants
#7
REVIEW
Shigeyuki Chaki
Based on the discovery of the robust antidepressant effects of ketamine in patients with depression, including those with treatment-resistant depression, agents acting on the glutamatergic system have drawn much attention as potential novel antidepressants. Among the agents acting on the glutamatergic system, preclinical data have indicated that the group II metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) receptors, mGlu2 and mGlu3, are attractive targets for the development of novel antidepressants. The antidepressant effects of mGlu2/3 receptor antagonists have been demonstrated in rodent models, and the synaptic and neural mechanisms underlying the antidepressant effects of these compounds have been investigated...
April 13, 2017: Trends in Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412933/beyond-quality-of-life-a-cross-sectional-study-on-the-mental-health-of-patients-with-chronic-kidney-disease-undergoing-dialysis-and-their-caregivers
#8
Beatriz Dos Santos Pereira, Neimar da Silva Fernandes, Nayara Pires de Melo, Renata Abrita, Fabiane Rossi Dos Santos Grincenkov, Natália Maria da Silva Fernandes
BACKGROUND: Patients with terminal chronic kidney disease (CKDT) requiring renal replacement therapies (RRT) undergo important changes in living habits and frequently need caregiving. These patients and their caregivers are risk groups for the development of physical and psychological symptoms. This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of anxiety, depression, stress, fatigue, social support, and quality of life in patients with CKD and their caregivers. METHOD: This cross sectional study was conducted with 21 patients and their caregivers, from January to September 2015...
April 17, 2017: Health and Quality of Life Outcomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412922/abnormalities-in-kynurenine-pathway-metabolism-in-treatment-resistant-depression-and-suicidality-a-systematic-review
#9
Gianluca Serafini, Giulia Adavastro, Giovanna Canepa, Laura Capobianco, Claudia Conigliaro, Federica Pittaluga, Martino Belvederi Murri, Alessandro Valchera, Domenico De Berardis, Maurizio Pompili, Daniel Lindqvist, Lena Brundin, Mario Amore
Treatment resistant depression (TRD) and suicidal behavior are among the most important public health problems and are commonly associated with significant disability and psychosocial impairment. Although there have been recent advances in identifying neurobiological correlates of these complex conditions, their pathophysiology still remains unclear. Although the recent advances concerning the neurobiological determinants underlying these complex conditions, their pathophysiology still remains unclear. Compared to non-suicidal subjects, higher mean concentrations of inflammatory mediators have been found in both the periphery and brain of individuals at risk for suicide...
April 13, 2017: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407553/high-frequency-repetitive-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-treatment-for-major-depression-dissociated-effects-on-psychopathology-and-neurocognition
#10
Santiago Tovar-Perdomo, Alexander McGirr, Frederique Van den Eynde, Nicole Rodrigues Dos Santos, Marcelo T Berlim
OBJECTIVES: This open-label pilot study explored the effects of a course of accelerated high-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (HF-rTMS) on two neurocognitive domains (decision-making and impulse control) in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). METHODS: Participants with MDD and a treatment resistant major depressive episode (n=24) underwent twice-daily HF-rTMS targeted at the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (lDLPFC) over two weeks...
April 6, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406327/key-updates-in-the-clinical-application-of-electroconvulsive-therapy
#11
Richard D Weiner, Irving M Reti
ECT is the oldest and most effective therapy available for the treatment of severe major depression. It is highly effective in individuals with treatment resistance and when a rapid response is required. However, ECT is associated with memory impairment that is the most concerning side-effect of the treatment, substantially contributing to the controversy and stigmatization surrounding this highly effective treatment. There is overwhelming evidence for the efficacy and safety of an acute course of ECT for the treatment of a severe major depressive episode, as reflected by the recent FDA advisory panel recommendation to reclassify ECT devices from Class III to the lower risk category Class II...
April 13, 2017: International Review of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405849/hypomethylation-agent-decitabine-restores-drug-sensitivity-by-depressing-p-glycoprotein-activity-through-mapk-signaling-pathway
#12
Huihan Wang, Xiaobin Wang, Aijun Liao, Zhuogang Liu
The multidrug resistance (MDR) continues to be an obstacle in the treatment of both hematological and solid tumors. Hypomethylation agent, decitabine (5-Aza-dC), is an experimental agent in MDR therapy, while the mechanism is not very clear. In the present study, we demonstrated 5-Aza-dC may reverse MDR induced by P-glycoprotein (P-gp) coded by mdr1 gene in both hematologic K562/ADR cells and solid tumor MCF-7/ADR cells with time and dose-dependent manner. 5-Aza-dC significantly increased drug sensitivity in patients' leukemic cells which had higher expression of mdr1 gene...
April 12, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403623/lithium-a-classic-drug-frequently-discussed-but-sadly-seldom-prescribed
#13
Olga Zivanovic
OBJECTIVE: Distinguished authors in the field have repeatedly alerted psychiatrists of the alarming trends in the treatment of bipolar disorders: decline of lithium use, paralleled by the increase of prescribing anticonvulsants and second-generation antipsychotic drugs. Research has been conducted in order to explore the factors that led to this development and to provide arguments for the need to reverse this trend. METHOD: This paper represents a narrative review of the literature containing retrieved research articles focusing on the efficacy of lithium...
April 1, 2017: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400547/anemia-in-thyroid-diseases
#14
Ewelina Szczepanek-Parulska, Aleksandra Hernik, Marek Ruchała
Anemia is a frequent, although often underestimated, clinical condition accompanying thyroid diseases. In spite of the fact that anemia and thyroid dysfunction often occur simultaneously, the causative relationship between these two disorders remains ambiguous. Thyroid hormones stimulate erythrocytes precursors proliferation directly, as well as via erythropoietin production enhancement, whereas iron-deficient anemia negatively influences thyroid hormonal status. Thus, different forms of anemia might emerge in the course of thyroid dysfunction...
March 28, 2017: Polish Archives of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397839/a-connectomic-approach-for-subcallosal-cingulate-deep-brain-stimulation-surgery-prospective-targeting-in-treatment-resistant-depression
#15
P Riva-Posse, K S Choi, P E Holtzheimer, A L Crowell, S J Garlow, J K Rajendra, C C McIntyre, R E Gross, H S Mayberg
Target identification and contact selection are known contributors to variability in efficacy across different clinical indications of deep brain stimulation surgery. A retrospective analysis of responders to subcallosal cingulate deep brain stimulation (SCC DBS) for depression demonstrated the common impact of the electrical stimulation on a stereotypic connectome of converging white matter bundles (forceps minor, uncinate fasciculus, cingulum and fronto-striatal fibers). To test the utility of a prospective connectomic approach for SCC DBS surgery, this pilot study used the four-bundle tractography 'connectome blueprint' to plan surgical targeting in 11 participants with treatment-resistant depression...
April 11, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395988/ketamine-treatment-for-depression-opportunities-for-clinical-innovation-and-ethical-foresight
#16
REVIEW
Ilina Singh, Celia Morgan, Valerie Curran, David Nutt, Anne Schlag, Rupert McShane
We present a review and analysis of the ethical considerations in off-label ketamine use for severe, treatment-resistant depression. The analysis of ethical considerations is contextualised in an overview of the evidence for ketamine use in depression, and a review of the drug's safety profile. We find that, based on current evidence, ketamine use for severe, treatment-resistant depression does not violate ethical principles; however, clinicians and professional bodies must take steps to ensure that guidelines for good practice are enacted, that all experimental and trial data are made available through national registries, and that the risk potential of ketamine treatment continues to be monitored and modelled...
April 5, 2017: Lancet Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395208/increased-dopamine-receptor-expression-and-anti-depressant-response-following-deep-brain-stimulation-of-the-medial-forebrain-bundle
#17
Manoj P Dandekar, Dustin Luse, Carson Hoffmann, Patrick Cotton, Travis Peery, Christian Ruiz, Caroline Hussey, Vijayasree V Giridharan, Jair C Soares, Joao Quevedo, Albert J Fenoy
BACKGROUND: Among several potential neuroanatomical targets pursued for deep brain stimulation (DBS) for treating those with treatment-resistant depression (TRD), the superolateral-branch of the medial forebrain bundle (MFB) is emerging as a privileged location. We investigated the antidepressant-like phenotypic and chemical changes associated with reward-processing dopaminergic systems in rat brains after MFB-DBS. METHODS: Male Wistar rats were divided into three groups: sham-operated, DBS-Off, and DBS-On...
April 5, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388464/transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-for-treatment-resistant-depression-naturalistic-treatment-outcomes-for-younger-versus-older-patients
#18
Christine A Conelea, Noah S Philip, Agustin G Yip, Jennifer L Barnes, Matthew J Niedzwiecki, Benjamin D Greenberg, Audrey R Tyrka, Linda L Carpenter
BACKGROUND: Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) has been shown to be safe and effective for treatment-resistant depression (TRD) in the general adult population. Efficacy among older (≥60 years) patients, who have a greater burden of cognitive, physical, and functional impairment compared to their younger counterparts, remains unclear. The current study aimed to characterize antidepressant response to an acute course of TMS therapy among patients aged ≥60 years compared to those <60 years in naturalistic clinical practice settings...
March 29, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386522/ketamine-therapy-for-treatment-resistant-depression-in-a-patient-with-multiple-sclerosis-a-case-report
#19
Michael M Messer, Irina V Haller
Objective: Depression is a common condition among patients with multiple sclerosis and often becomes resistant to oral antidepressants. We report a patient with multiple sclerosis who developed severe treatment-resistant depression and who was successfully treated with intravenous ketamine over the period of two years. Methods: Ketamine treatment protocol included an initial series of six treatments administered every other day, followed by a maintenance schedule. Ketamine was administered intravenously at 0...
January 2017: Innovations in Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385173/novel-augmentation-strategies-in-major-depression
#20
Klaus Martiny
Hypothesis The hypotheses of all the four included studies share the common idea that it is possible to augment the effect of antidepressant drug treatment by applying different interventions and with each intervention attain a clinically meaningful better effect compared to a control condition, and with minor side effects, thus improving the short- and medium-term outcome in major depression. Procedures Study design The basic study design has been the double blind randomised controlled trial (RCT). In the light therapy study, all patients were treated with sertraline for the whole of the study duration...
April 2017: Danish Medical Journal
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