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Katie Stromsland, Laura M Zimmerman
Reptilian immune systems are believed to rely more heavily on the innate response than the adaptive response. Past research on reptilian immune systems has indicated that natural antibodies (NAbs) play an important role in fighting antigens as the first responder and initiating the innate immune response. However, there is a gap in research on NAbs in reptiles as there is little data on how they may influence parasite prevalence in reptiles. Furthermore, no studies have examined NAbs at mucosal sites, which represent an important point of entry for parasites...
July 2017: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological and Integrative Physiology
Chuanling Zhang, Xueying Zhou, Tianzhuo Yao, Zhenyu Tian, Demin Zhou
Adeno-associated virus 2 (AAV2) is a common vehicle for the delivery of a variety of therapeutic genes. A better understanding of the process of infection of AAV2 will advance our knowledge of AAV2 biology and allow for the optimization of AAV2 capsids with favorable transduction profiles. However, the precise fluorescent labeling of an AAV2 vector for probing virus tracking without affecting the nature of the virus remains a challenge. In this study, we precisely displayed lab-synthesized azide-moieties on the viral capsid at modifiable sites...
January 22, 2018: Biotechnology Journal
Maria G Palacios, Anne M Bronikowski
Growing evidence suggests the existence of trade-offs between immune function and reproduction in diverse taxa. Among vertebrates, however, there is still a taxonomic bias toward studies in endotherms, particularly birds. We tested the hypothesis that reproduction entails immune-related costs in the viviparous garter snake, Thamnophis elegans, from populations that exhibit two life-history strategies, termed ecotypes, with contrasting paces of life. Between the two ecotypes, we predicted lower immune function in gravid than non-gravid females of both strategies, but with relatively larger immunity costs in the ecotype that generally invests more in current reproduction...
October 2017: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological and Integrative Physiology
Anke Schwarzenberger, Nathan R Keith, Craig E Jackson, Eric Von Elert
Copy number variation (CNV) of genes coding for certain enzymes has been shown to be responsible for adaptation of arthropods to anthropogenic toxins. Natural toxins produced by cyanobacteria in freshwater ecosystems, that is, protease inhibitors (PIs), have been demonstrated to increase in frequency over the last decades due to eutrophication and global warming. These PIs inhibit digestive proteases of Daphnia, the major herbivore of phytoplankton and cyanobacteria. The adjustment of isoforms, differences in gene expression, and activity of gut proteases determine tolerance to dietary PIs in single Daphnia genotypes...
February 2017: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological and Integrative Physiology
Grace Anne Thompson, Larry Allen Abel
Children on the autism spectrum are reported to have lower rates of social gaze as early as toddlerhood, and this pattern persists across the lifespan. Finding ways to promote more natural and spontaneous engagement in social interactions may help to boost developmental opportunities in the child's home and community settings. This proof-of-concept study hypothesized that a video of a singer would elicit more attention to the performer, particularly to her face, than a video of her reading a story, and that the child's familiarity with the material would enhance attention...
January 22, 2018: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
Janane F Rahbani, Empar Vengut-Climent, Pongphak Chidchob, Yasser Gidi, Tuan Trinh, Gonzalo Cosa, Hanadi F Sleiman
Natural systems combine different supramolecular interactions in a hierarchical manner to build structures. In contrast, DNA nanotechnology relies almost exclusively on DNA base pairing for structure generation. Introducing other supramolecular interactions can expand the structural and functional range of DNA assemblies, but this requires an understanding of the interplay between these interactions. Here, an economic strategy to build DNA nanotubes functionalized with lipid-like polymers is reported. When these polymers are linked to the nanotube using a spacer, they fold inside to create a hydrophobic environment within the nanotube; the nanotube can encapsulate small molecules and conditionally release them when specific DNA strands are added, as monitored by single-molecule fluorescence microscopy...
January 22, 2018: Advanced Healthcare Materials
Vincent Gennotte, Balagizi Akonkwa, Charles Mélard, Mathieu Denoël, Charlotte A Cornil, Carole Rougeot
In Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus, phenotypic males and females with different sexual genotypes (XX, XY, YY) have particular behavioral and physiological traits. Compared to natural XX females and XY males, XY and YY females and XX males expressed higher level of aggressiveness that could be related to higher levels of 17β-estradiol and 11-ketotestosterone, respectively. Our results suggest that the presence of a Y chromosome increases aggressiveness in females. However, since the same relationship between aggressiveness and the Y chromosome is not observed in males, we can hypothesize that the differences in aggressiveness are not directly dependent on the genotype but on the sex reversal procedures applied on young fry during their sexual differentiation to produce these breeders...
April 2017: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological and Integrative Physiology
Yanjun Zan, Örjan Carlborg
The adaptation to a new habitat often results in a confounding between genome-wide genotype and beneficial alleles. When the confounding is strong, or the allelic effects weak, it is a major statistical challenge to detect the adaptive polymorphisms. We describe a novel approach to dissect polygenic traits in natural populations. First, candidate adaptive loci are identified by screening for loci directly associated with the adaptive trait or the expression of genes known to affect it. Then, a multi-locus genetic architecture is inferred using a backward elimination association analysis across all candidate loci with an adaptive false discovery rate based threshold...
January 22, 2018: Molecular Ecology Resources
Alexis Platek, Andy J Turko, Andrew Donini, Scott Kelly, Patricia A Wright
Some cyprindid and cyprinidontiform fishes undergo gill remodeling via the proliferation or regression of an interlamellar cell mass (ILCM), resulting in the modification of gill surface area in response to environmental hypoxia or ion levels. We hypothesized that ion-related gill remodeling is regulated by water hardness through the interactions of Ca2+ with tight junctions, predicting that gills will exhibit a lower ILCM and more surface area in a high Ca2+ environment than in a low Ca2+ environment. To test this hypothesis, we acclimated euryhaline mangrove rivulus (Kryptolebias marmoratus) to natural hard water ([Ca2+] = 2...
February 2017: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological and Integrative Physiology
Lorin A Neuman-Lee, Patricia A Terletzky, Todd C Atwood, Eric M Gese, Geoffrey D Smith, Sydney Greenfield, John Pettit, Susannah S French
Assessing the health and condition of animals in their natural environment can be problematic. Many physiological metrics, including immunity, are highly influenced by specific context and recent events to which researchers may be unaware. Thus, using a multifaceted physiological approach and a context-specific analysis encompassing multiple time scales can be highly informative. Ecoimmunological tools in particular can provide important indications to the health of animals in the wild. We collected blood and hair samples from free-ranging polar bears (Ursus maritimus) in the southern Beaufort Sea and examined the influence of sex, age, and reproductive status on metrics of immunity, stress, and body condition during 2013-2015...
June 2017: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological and Integrative Physiology
Ruchit G Shah, Dale DeVore, Frederick H Silver
Measurement of the mechanical properties of skin in vivo has been complicated by the lack of methods that can accurately measure the viscoelastic properties without assuming values of Poisson's ratio and tissue density. In this paper, we present the results of preliminary studies comparing the mechanical properties of skin and scar tissue measured using a technique involving OCT and vibrational analysis. This technique has been reported to give values of the modulus that correlate with those obtained from tensile measurements made on decellularized dermis [1, 2]...
January 22, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
Shir Reen Chia, Kit Wayne Chew, Pau Loke Show, Yee Jiun Yap, Hwai Chyuan Ong, Tau Chuan Ling, Jo-Shu Chang
Microalgae are considered promising feedstock for the production of biofuels and other bioactive compounds, yet there are still challenges on commercial applications of microalgae-based products. This review focuses on the economic analysis, environmental impact and industrial potential of biofuels production from microalgae. The cost of biofuels production remains higher compared to conventional fuel sources. However, integration of biorefinery pathways with biofuels production for the recovery of value-added products (such as antioxidants, natural dyes, cosmetics, nutritional supplements, polyunsaturated fatty acids and so forth) could substantially reduce the production costs...
January 22, 2018: Biotechnology Journal
Daniel A Warner, Timothy S Mitchell, Brooke L Bodensteiner, Fredric J Janzen
Exogenous application of steroids and related substances to eggs affects offspring sex ratios in species with temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD). Laboratory studies demonstrate that this effect is most pronounced near the constant temperature that produces 1:1 sex ratios (i.e., pivotal temperature). However, the impact of such chemicals on sex determination under natural nest temperatures (which fluctuate daily) is unknown, but could provide insight into the relative contributions of these two factors under natural conditions...
April 2017: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological and Integrative Physiology
Gianluca Corno, Cristiana Callieri
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 22, 2018: Cytometry. Part A: the Journal of the International Society for Analytical Cytology
Hong Wang, Shutu Xu, Yaming Fan, Nannan Liu, Wei Zhan, Haijun Liu, Yingjie Xiao, Kun Li, Qingchun Pan, Wenqiang Li, Min Deng, Jie Liu, Min Jin, Xiaohong Yang, Jiansheng Li, Qing Li, Jianbing Yan
Although tocopherols play an important role in plants and animals, the genetic architecture of tocopherol content in maize kernels has remained largely unknown. In this study, linkage and association analyses were conducted to examine the genetic architecture of tocopherol content in maize kernels. Forty-one unique quantitative trait loci (QTLs) were identified by linkage mapping in six populations of recombinant inbred lines (RILs). In addition, 32 significant loci were detected via genome-wide association study (GWAS), 18 of which co-localized with the QTLs identified by linkage mapping...
January 21, 2018: Plant Biotechnology Journal
Marina Pančić, Thomas Kiørboe
In aquatic ecosystems, unicellular algae form the basis of the food webs. Theoretical and experimental studies have demonstrated that one of the mechanisms that maintain high diversity of phytoplankton is through predation and the consequent evolution of defence mechanisms. Proposed defence mechanisms in phytoplankton are diverse and include physiological (e.g. toxicity, bioluminescence), morphological (e.g. silica shell, colony formation), and behavioural (e.g. escape response) traits. However, the function of many of the proposed defence mechanisms remains elusive, and the costs and benefits (trade-offs) are often unquantified or undocumented...
January 21, 2018: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
Jürgen Popp, Fisseha Bekele Legesse, Jan Rüger, Tobias Meyer, Michael Schmitt, Christoph Krafft
The yield of high-value products such as pigments that could be extracted from microalgae is affected by various nutritional and physical factors. Consequently, there is a need for fast visualization techniques that investigate the responses of individual microalgal cells to changing environmental conditions without introducing perturbations. Here we apply CARS microscopy to map the distribution of pigments in the diatoms Ditylum brightwellii and Stephanopyxis turris and report their relative change in response to varying light cycles using a marker based watershed analysis of the acquired images...
January 22, 2018: Chemphyschem: a European Journal of Chemical Physics and Physical Chemistry
Wang Xu-Jing, Zhang Xin, Yang Jiang-Tao, Wang Zhi-Xing
Gene stacking is a developing trend in agricultural biotechnology. Unintended effects in stacked transgenic plants are safety issues considered by the public and researchers. Omics techniques provide useful tools to assess unintended effects. In this paper, stacked transgenic maize 12-5×IE034 that contained insecticidal cry and glyphosate tolerance G10-epsps genes was obtained by crossing of transgenic maize varieties 12-5 and IE034. Transcriptome and metabolome analyses were performed for different maize varieties, including 12-5×IE034, 12-5, IE034, and conventional varieties collected from different province in China...
January 21, 2018: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Syed Hidayathulla, Abdelaaty A Shahat, Syed Rizwan Ahamad, Abdul Azeez N Al Moqbil, Mansour S Alsaid, Darshan Devang Divakar
AIMS: We evaluated the in vitro antioxidant and antimicrobial potential of Schimpera arabica extract and fractions (2-Hexadecen-1-ol and beta sitosterol). METHODS AND RESULTS: Free radical scavenging activity was estimated by using ABTS and DPPH methods, reducing power and iron chelation was studied to investigate antioxidant potential of the extracts. Well, diffusion method was utilized to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of the extracts. Gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) analysis of the extract revealed the presence of 27 compounds...
January 21, 2018: Journal of Applied Microbiology
Yong Feng, Jie Feng, Qinglong Shu
AIMS: We sought to isolate novel heterotrophic nitrifying and aerobic denitrifying Klebsiella pneumoniae (K. pneumoniae) and Klebsiella variicola (K. variicola) strains from various natural environments and characterize their nitrogen removal processes. METHODS AND RESULTS: Ten novel Klebsiella strains with heterotrophic nitrification and aerobic denitrification abilities, including seven K. pneumoniae and three K. variicola, were successfully isolated from feces, sewage, plant surfaces and sludge...
January 21, 2018: Journal of Applied Microbiology
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