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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527426/malvidin-and-cyanidin-derivatives-from-a%C3%A3-ai-fruit-euterpe-oleracea-mart-counteract-uv-a-induced-oxidative-stress-in-immortalized-fibroblasts
#1
Ganna Petruk, Anna Illiano, Rita Del Giudice, Assunta Raiola, Angela Amoresano, Maria Manuela Rigano, Renata Piccoli, Daria Maria Monti
UV-A radiations are known to induce cellular oxidative stress, leading to premature skin aging. Consumption of açai fruit (Euterpe oleracea Martius) is known to have many health benefits due to its high level of antioxidants. Herein, we analyzed the ability of phenolic compounds extracted from this fruit to attenuate UV-A-induced oxidative stress in immortalized fibroblast. A methanol/water açai extract was fractionated by HPLC and each fraction tested for anti-oxidant stress activity. Immortalized fibroblasts were pre-incubated with açai fractions and then exposed to UV-A radiations...
May 12, 2017: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527379/diagnosing-water-security-in-the-rural-north-with-an-environmental-security-framework
#2
Henry J F Penn, Philip A Loring, William E Schnabel
This study explores the nature of water security challenges in rural Alaska, using a framework for environmental security that entails four interrelated concepts: availability, access, utility, and stability of water resources. Many researchers and professionals agree that water insecurity is a problem in rural Alaska, although the scale and nature of the problem is contested. Some academics have argued that the problem is systemic, and rooted in an approach to water security by the state that prioritizes economic concerns over public health concerns...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527377/fishing-for-leadership-the-role-diversification-plays-in-facilitating-change-agents
#3
Joshua S Stoll
Leadership is often viewed as being critical to successful natural resource management. This research focuses on a set of leaders identified through a social network analysis of fishers in a rural coastal region. Leaders' connections to different fisheries are evaluated, and these actors are found to be significantly more diversified than other fishers in the area. Drawing on theory related to institutional entrepreneurship and a series of in-depth interviews with these actors, this paper puts forward several hypotheses to explain how diverse social-ecological connections facilitate leadership...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527357/functionalization-of-electrospun-polymeric-wound-dressings-with-antimicrobial-peptides
#4
REVIEW
Helena P Felgueiras, M Teresa P Amorim
Wound dressings have evolved considerably since ancient times. Modern dressings are now important systems that combine the physical and biochemical properties of natural and synthetic polymers with active compounds that are beneficial to wound healing. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are the most recent addition to these systems. These aim to control the microbial proliferation and colonization of pathogens and to modulate the host's immune response. In the last decade, electrospun wound dressings have been extensively studied and the electrospinning technique recognized as an efficient approach for the production of nanoscale fibrous mats...
May 10, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527344/harnessing-plant-metabolic-diversity
#5
REVIEW
Charlie Owen, Nicola J Patron, Ancheng Huang, Anne Osbourn
Advances in DNA sequencing and synthesis technologies in the twenty-first century are now making it possible to build large-scale pipelines for engineering plant natural product pathways into heterologous production species using synthetic biology approaches. The ability to decode the chemical potential of plants by sequencing their transcriptomes and/or genomes and to then use this information as an instruction manual to make drugs and other high-value chemicals is opening up new routes to harness the vast chemical diversity of the Plant Kingdom...
May 17, 2017: Current Opinion in Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527337/improved-stress-tolerance-and-productivity-in-transgenic-rice-plants-constitutively-expressing-the-oryza-sativa-glutathione-synthetase-osgs-under-paddy-field-conditions
#6
Seong-Im Park, Young-Saeng Kim, Jin-Ju Kim, Ji-Eun Mok, Yul-Ho Kim, Hyang-Mi Park, Il-Sup Kim, Ho-Sung Yoon
Reactive oxygen species, which increase under various environmental stresses, have deleterious effects on plants. An important antioxidant, glutathione, is used to detoxify reactive oxygen species in plant cells and is mainly produced by two enzymes: gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase (γ-ECS) and glutathione synthetase (GS). To evaluate the functional roles of the glutathione synthetase gene (OsGS) in rice, we generated four independent transgenic rice plants (TG1-TG4) that overexpressed OsGS under the control of the constitutively expressed OsCc1 promoter...
May 10, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527313/afm-reconstruction-of-complex-shaped-chiral-plasmonic-nanostructures
#7
A V Kondratov, O Y Rogov, R V Gainutdinov
A significant part of the optical metamaterial phenomena has the plasmonic nature and their investigation requires very accurate knowledge of the fabricated structures shape with a focus on the periodical features. We describe a consistent approach to the shape reconstruction of the plasmonic nanostructures. This includes vertical and tilted spike AFM probes fabrication, AFM imaging and specific post-processing. We studied a complex-shaped chiral metamaterial and conclude that the described post-processing routine extends possibilities of the existing deconvolution algorithms in the case of periodical structures with known rotational symmetry, by providing valuable information about periodical features...
May 11, 2017: Ultramicroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527292/-triatoma-dimidiata-in-colombia-distribution-ecology-and-epidemiological-importance
#8
Óscar Quirós-Gómez, Nicolás Jaramillo, Víctor Angulo, Gabriel Parra-Henao
Triatoma dimidiata is an important vector of Chagas disease in Central America and countries of northern South America. In Colombia, it has a wide geographical distribution with reported presence in 14 departments in the Andean, Caribbean, Eastern plains and Upper Magdalena regions, where it occupies different natural and artificial ecotopes. The species is considered a secondary vector in the transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi. Its presence in wild, peridomestic and intradomiciliary habitats in the Andean region, coupled with its ability to move between them, has allowed it to escape the control based on pyrethroids spraying, highlighting its importance in maintaining transmission of the parasite through the potential reinfestation of homes...
June 1, 2017: Biomédica: Revista del Instituto Nacional de Salud
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527291/haplotypes-in-ccr5-ccr2-ccl3-and-ccl5-are-associated-with-natural-resistance-to-hiv-1-infection-in-a-colombian-cohort
#9
Jorge A Vega, Simón Villegas-Ospina, Wbeimar Aguilar-Jiménez, María T Rugeles, Gabriel Bedoya, Wildeman Zapata
INTRODUCTION: Variants in genes encoding for HIV-1 co-receptors and their natural ligands have been individually associated to natural resistance to HIV-1 infection. However, the simultaneous presence of these variants has been poorly studied. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association of single and multilocus haplotypes in genes coding for the viral co-receptors CCR5 and CCR2, and their ligands CCL3 and CCL5, with resistance or susceptibility to HIV-1 infection. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Nine variants in CCR5-CCR2, two SNPs in CCL3 and two in CCL5 were genotyped by PCR-RFLP in 35 seropositive (cases) and 49 HIV-1-exposed seronegative Colombian individuals (controls)...
June 1, 2017: Biomédica: Revista del Instituto Nacional de Salud
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527250/-risk-of-transmission-of-chagas-disease-by-intrusion-of-triatomines-and-wild-mammals-in-bucaramanga-santander-colombia
#10
Marlene Reyes, Ángela Torres, Lyda Esteban, Mónica Flórez, Víctor Manuel Angulo
INTRODUCTION: Notice of triatomines in dwellings of some neighborhoods in Bucaramanga motivated the realization of this study.Objetive: To evaluate the intrusion of triatomines and mammals, as well as some risk factors in urban dwellings. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Triatomines were collected in a neighborhood in Bucaramanga, Santander, on a monthly basis during one year with participation of the community. Collection included manual search in lamp posts, use of light traps, animal bait, and chemical attractants in nearby forests...
January 24, 2017: Biomédica: Revista del Instituto Nacional de Salud
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527218/the-mechanisms-of-action-of-curcumin-in%C3%A2-alzheimer-s-disease
#11
Mengxi Tang, Changiz Taghibiglou
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder of the elderly. As the prevalence of AD rises in the 21st century, there is an urgent need for the development of effective pharmacotherapies. Currently, drug treatments target the symptoms of the disease and do not modify or halt the disease progress. Thus, natural compounds have been investigated for their ability to treat AD. This review examines the efficacy of curcumin, a polyphenol derived from turmeric herb, to treat AD. We summarize the in vivo and in vitro research describing the mechanisms of action in which curcumin modifies AD pathology: curcumin inhibits the formation and promotes the disaggregation of amyloid-β plaques, attenuates the hyperphosphorylation of tau and enhances its clearance, binds copper, lowers cholesterol, modifies microglial activity, inhibits acetylcholinesterase, mediates the insulin signaling pathway, and is an antioxidant...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527183/analytical-methods-in-tracing-honey-authenticity
#12
Jelena Trifković, Filip Andrić, Petar Ristivojević, Etil Guzelmeric, Erdem Yesilada
Honey is a precious natural product that is marketed with a wide range of nutritional and medicinal properties. However, it is also a product subjected to frequent adulteration through mislabeling and mixing with cheaper and lower-quality honeys and various sugar syrups. In that sense, honey authentication regarding its genuine botanical and geographical origins, as well as the detection of any adulteration, is essential in order to protect consumer health and to avoid competition that could create a destabilized market...
May 19, 2017: Journal of AOAC International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527138/application-of-hyper-branched-rolling-circle-amplification-hrca-and-hrca-based-strip-test-for-the-detection-of-chattonella-marina
#13
Xiaoli Nie, Chunyun Zhang, Yuanyuan Wang, Changlu Guo, Jin Zhou, Guofu Chen
Harmful algal blooms (HABs) are global threats to marine ecosystems, fisheries, and human health. Therefore, developing effective and accurate methods for identifying causative algae and monitoring seawater quality is urgent. However, traditional, microscopy-based methods are complex, inaccurate, and time-consuming. Here, we present a novel method for effective and sensitive detection of Chattonella marina using hyper-branched rolling circle amplification (HRCA) and HRCA-based strip test (HBST). The large subunit (LSU) ribosomal DNA (rDNA) D1-D2 region of C...
May 19, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527126/polycaprolactone-based-nanoparticles-loaded-with-indomethacin-for-anti-inflammatory-therapy-from-preparation-to-ex-vivo-study
#14
Waisudin Badri, Karim Miladi, Sophie Robin, Céline Viennet, Qand Agha Nazari, Géraldine Agusti, Hatem Fessi, Abdelhamid Elaissari
PURPOSE: This work focused on the preparation of polycaprolactone based nanoparticles containing indomethacin to provide topical analgesic and anti-inflammatory effect for symptomatic treatment of inflammatory diseases. Indomethacin loaded nanoparticles are prepared for topical application to decrease indomethacin side effects and administration frequency. Oppositely to already reported works, in this research non-invasive method has been used for the enhancement of indomethacin dermal drug penetration...
May 19, 2017: Pharmaceutical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527099/molecular-diversity-among-viroids-infecting-chrysanthemum-in-india
#15
C R Adkar-Purushothama, G Chennappa, K Poornachandra Rao, M Y Sreenivasa, P K Maheshwar, M N Nagendra Prasad, T Sano
Association of Chrysanthemum stunt viroid (CSVd) and Chrysanthemum chlorotic mottle viroid (CChMVd) with the Chrysanthemum plants exhibiting severe stunting, distinct yellow leaf mottling, and chlorosis was detected in the main chrysanthemum-growing regions of India. Sequence analysis of 90 cDNA clones obtained for CSVd and CChMVd, representing the chrysanthemum-growing regions of India, revealed the high degree of sequence variation throughout the genome under natural conditions. Additionally, all the analyzed CChMVd clones revealed the presence of UUUC in the tetraloop, a signature of symptomatic variants in susceptible cultivars...
May 19, 2017: Virus Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527095/-putting-on-my-best-normal-social-camouflaging-in-adults-with-autism-spectrum-conditions
#16
Laura Hull, K V Petrides, Carrie Allison, Paula Smith, Simon Baron-Cohen, Meng-Chuan Lai, William Mandy
Camouflaging of autistic characteristics in social situations is hypothesised as a common social coping strategy for adults with autism spectrum conditions (ASC). Camouflaging may impact diagnosis, quality of life, and long-term outcomes, but little is known about it. This qualitative study examined camouflaging experiences in 92 adults with ASC, with questions focusing on the nature, motivations, and consequences of camouflaging. Thematic analysis was used to identify key elements of camouflaging, which informed development of a three-stage model of the camouflaging process...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527066/community-pharmacies-as-epidemiological-sentinels-of-headache-first-experience-in-italy
#17
Paola Brusa, Marco Parente, Gianni Allais, Sara Rolando, Giuseppe Costa, Roberto Gnavi, Teresa Spadea, Mario Giaccone, Andrea Mandelli, Massimo Mana, Francesca Baratta, Chiara Benedetto, Gennaro Bussone
Migraine is a disabling neurovascular syndrome which affects 12-15% of the global population and it represents the third cause in years lived with disability in both males and females aged 15-49 years. Among migraineurs, the symptomatic drug abuse may be a risk factor in the development of medication overuse headache (MOH). Detecting cases of MOH is not straightforward; community pharmacists may, therefore, be in a strategic position to identify individuals who self-medicate, particularly with respect to prevent the development of MOH...
May 2017: Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527044/endocytic-vesicle-rupture-is-a-conserved-mechanism-of-cellular-invasion-by-amyloid-proteins
#18
William P Flavin, Luc Bousset, Zachary C Green, Yaping Chu, Stratos Skarpathiotis, Michael J Chaney, Jeffrey H Kordower, Ronald Melki, Edward M Campbell
Numerous pathological amyloid proteins spread from cell to cell during neurodegenerative disease, facilitating the propagation of cellular pathology and disease progression. Understanding the mechanism by which disease-associated amyloid protein assemblies enter target cells and induce cellular dysfunction is, therefore, key to understanding the progressive nature of such neurodegenerative diseases. In this study, we utilized an imaging-based assay to monitor the ability of disease-associated amyloid assemblies to rupture intracellular vesicles following endocytosis...
May 19, 2017: Acta Neuropathologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526951/pyrocincholic-acid-3%C3%AE-o-%C3%AE-d-quinovopyranosyl-28-o-%C3%AE-d-glucopyranoside-suppresses-adipogenesis-and-regulates-lipid-metabolism-in-3t3-l1-adipocytes
#19
Li Peng, Yanting Lu, Yuhui Xu, Jing Hu, Fang Wang, Yumei Zhang, Wenyong Xiong
Obesity is crucially involved in many metabolic diseases, such as type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease and cancer. Regulating the number or size of adipocytes has been suggested to be a potential treatment for obesity. In this study, we investigated the effect of pyrocincholic acid 3β-O-β-D-quinovopyranosyl-28-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (PAQG), a 27-nor-oleanolic acid saponin extracted from Metadina trichotoma, on adipogenesis and lipid metabolism in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. The 3T3-L1 pre-adipocytes were incubated with vehicle or PAQG for 6 days in differentiation process...
May 19, 2017: Natural Products and Bioprospecting
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526946/evolutionary-ecology-of-multitrophic-interactions-between-plants-insect-herbivores-and-entomopathogens
#20
Ikkei Shikano
Plants play an important role in the interactions between insect herbivores and their pathogens. Since the seminal review by Cory and Hoover (2006) on plant-mediated effects on insect-pathogen interactions, considerable progress has been made in understanding the complexity of these tritrophic interactions. Increasing interest in the areas of nutritional and ecological immunology over the last decade have revealed that plant primary and secondary metabolites can influence the outcomes of insect-pathogen interactions by altering insect immune functioning and physical barriers to pathogen entry...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Chemical Ecology
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