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Mohan Paudel, Sara Javanparast, Gouranga Dasvarma, Lareen Newman
OBJECTIVE AND THE CONTEXT: This paper examines the beliefs and experiences of women and their families in remote mountain villages of Nepal about perinatal sickness and death and considers the implications of these beliefs for future healthcare provision. METHODS: Two mountain villages were chosen for this qualitative study to provide diversity of context within a highly disadvantaged region. Individual in-depth interviews were conducted with 42 women of childbearing age and their family members, 15 health service providers, and 5 stakeholders...
2018: PloS One
Yilong Hua, Wei Wang, Xiaoyue Huang, Tianhang Gu, Dexin Ding, Lan Ling, Wei-Xian Zhang
Bicarbonate, ubiquitous in natural and waste waters is an important factor regulating the rate and efficiency of pollutant separation and transformation. For example, it can form complexes with U(VI) in the aqueous phase and at the solid-water interface. In this work, we investigated the effect of bicarbonate on the aging of nanoscale zero-valent (nZVI) in the context of U(VI) reduction and removal from wastewater. For fresh nZVI, over 99% aqueous uranium was separated in less than 10 min, of which 83% was reduced from U(VI) to U(IV)...
March 6, 2018: Chemosphere
Jinyu Wang, Haitao Zhang, Mohammed Al Shibar, Belinda Willard, Alo Ray, Kurt W Runge
Telomeres, the ends of eukaryotic chromosomes, consist of repetitive DNA sequences and their bound proteins that protect the end from the DNA damage response. Short telomeres with fewer repeats are preferentially elongated by telomerase. Tel1, the yeast homolog of human ATM kinase, is preferentially recruited to short telomeres and Tel1 kinase activity is required for telomere elongation. Rif1, a telomere-binding protein, negatively regulates telomere length by forming a complex with two other telomere binding proteins, Rap1 and Rif2, to block telomerase recruitment...
March 7, 2018: DNA Repair
Pavel Šauer, Alžběta Stará, Oksana Golovko, Olga Valentová, Adam Bořík, Roman Grabic, Hana Kocour Kroupová
Vast numbers of xenobiotics are known still to be present in treated municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents. Some of these possess endocrine-disrupting potency and pose risks for exposed aquatic animals. We searched for 17 potential environmental contaminants having affinity to the progesterone receptor. Relative potency values of these progesterone receptor-active chemicals were obtained. On the basis of relative potencies and measured environmental concentrations, the contribution of progestins to measured progestagenic activities was evaluated...
March 2, 2018: Water Research
Shiyun Chi, Cuizhen Wei, Jinxiu Zheng, Jun Hu, Ming Li, Juxiang Hu
In this study, the Li River and the middle-lower reaches of the Shaying River in the Shaying River basin were selected for an investigation on the effects of floodgates on macroinvertebrate communities; additionally, the relationships among floodgates, macroinvertebrate communities and river longitudinal connectivity were explored. The Li and Shaying rivers had similar ratios of molluscs and scrapers, but their species compositions were significantly different. The water level fluctuations in the Li River were based on natural hydrological characteristics, and these were very different from the fluctuations in the reaches of the Shaying River that were divided by a serious of floodgates...
March 12, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Qianyi Zhang, Evan G R Davies, James R Bolton, Yang Liu
Monochloramine (NH2 Cl) is widely used for secondary disinfection by water utilities. However, Edmonton field stormwater sampling results have shown that NH2 Cl, because of its long-lasting property, can cause stormwater contamination through outdoor potable water uses during the summer season. To protect water sources, it is important to understand NH2 Cl dissipation mechanisms in stormwater. Natural organic matter (NOM) is the dominant species that contributes to NH2 Cl decay in stormwater. In this research, it is proposed that NOM reacted with both NH2 Cl and free chlorine through rapid and long-term reactions during NH2 Cl dissipation...
March 12, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
E M Murtagh, A T Barnes, J McMullen, P J Morgan
OBJECTIVES: The majority of adolescent girls fail to meet public health guidelines for physical activity. Engaging mothers in the promotion of physical activity for their daughters may be an important strategy to facilitate behaviour change. The aim of this study was to use the behaviour change wheel (BCW) framework to design the components of an intervention to improve adolescent girls' physical activity. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional study to inform intervention development...
March 12, 2018: Public Health
V Moreno, J Bach, M Zarroca, Ll Font, C Roqué, R Linares
Radon levels in the soil and groundwater in the North Maladeta Fault area (located in the Aran Valley sector, Central Pyrenees) are analysed from both geological and radiation protection perspectives. This area is characterized by the presence of two important normal faults: the North Maladeta fault (NMF) and the Tredós Fault (TF). Two primary aspects make this study interesting: (i) the NMF shows geomorphic evidence of neotectonic activity and (ii) the presence of a thermal spa, Banhs de Tredós, which exploits one of the several natural springs of the area and needs to be evaluated for radiation dosing from radon according to the European regulation on basic safety standards for protection against ionizing radiation...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Mariana Avalos, Gilles P van Wezel, Jos M Raaijmakers, Paolina Garbeva
Microorganisms represent a large and still resourceful pool for the discovery of novel compounds to combat antibiotic resistance in human and animal pathogens. The ability of microorganisms to produce structurally diverse volatile compounds has been known for decades, yet their biological functions and antimicrobial activities have only recently attracted attention. Various studies revealed that microbial volatiles can act as infochemicals in long-distance cross-kingdom communication as well as antimicrobials in competition and predation...
March 12, 2018: Current Opinion in Microbiology
Pouyan Ebrahimi, Javier Vilcáez
This research aimed to elucidate the effect of brine salinity and guar gum on the sorption and transport of Ba in dolomite rocks collected from the Arbuckle formation in Oklahoma, USA. Guar gum represents the most important organic additive used in viscosified fracturing fluids, and Ba constitutes the most common and abundant heavy metal found in unconventional oil and gas (UOG) wastewater. Batch experiments conducted using powdered dolomite rocks (500-600 μm particle size) revealed that at brine salinities of UOG wastewater, chloro-complexation reactions between Ba and Cl ions and pH changes that results from dolomite dissolution are the controlling factors of Ba sorption on dolomite...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Rodrigo de Abreu Domingos, Fabiana Valéria da Fonseca
The oil refinery industry seeks solutions to reduce its water uptake and consumption by encouraging the reuse of internal streams and wastewater from treatment systems. After conventional treatment the petroleum refinery wastewater still contains a considerable quantity of recalcitrant organics and the adsorption on activated carbon is currently used in Brazilian refineries, although it is still expensive due to the difficulty of its regeneration. This study evaluated the use of adsorbent and ion exchange resins for the removal of organic matter from refinery wastewater after conventional treatment in order to verify its feasibility, applying successive resin regenerations and comparing the results with those obtained for activated carbon process...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Urmi Bajpai, Abhishek Kumar Mehta, Kandasamy Eniyan, Avni Sinha, Ankita Ray, Simran Virdi, Shazeb Ahmad, Aridni Shah, Deepanksha Arora, Devyani Marwaha, Gunjan Chauhan, Prarthna Saraswat, Punita Bathla, Ruchi Singh
Bacteriophages are being considered as a promising natural resource for the development of alternative strategies against mycobacterial diseases, especially in the context of the wide spread occurrence of drug-resistance amongst the clinical isolates of M. tuberculosis. However, there isn't much information documented on mycobacteriophages from India. Here, we report the isolation of 17 mycobacteriophages using M. smegmatis as the bacterial host where 9 phages also lyse M. tuberculosis H37Rv. We present detailed analysis of one of these mycobacteriophage (PDRPv)...
March 15, 2018: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
Pavel Gushchin, Valentina A Lyubimenko, Evgenii V Ivanov, Sergey I Kolesnikov, Daria A Petrova, Vladimir A Vinokurov, Ivan M Kolesnikov
The thermodynamic calculation of the optimal composition of the oxide catalysts with different natures is performed based on the theory of catalysis by polyhedra. The obtained compositions of the active catalysts are in keeping with the experimental data. The electrostatic potential generated by polyhedrons of metal oxide catalysts in a variety of directions is calculated. The dependence of the sign and magnitude of the potential on the distance from the central metal ion towards the vertex of the polyhedron, the middle of its edge or the centre of the face is estimated...
March 15, 2018: Chemphyschem: a European Journal of Chemical Physics and Physical Chemistry
Qingzhong Li, Hui-Li Xu, Steve Scheiner
HOX (X = Cl, Br, I, and At) can engage in either a H-bond (HB) or halogen bond (XB) with a base like HCN, NH3, and imidazole. While the former is energetically preferred for X=Cl and Br, it is the XB that is more stable for At, with I showing little preference. MgY2 forms a Mg-bond with the O atom of HOX, which grows stronger in the order X= Cl < Br < I < At and Y= F< Cl < Br. When all three molecules are combined together, both the Mg and the H/X bonds are cooperatively strengthened to a large degree...
March 15, 2018: Chemphyschem: a European Journal of Chemical Physics and Physical Chemistry
Ileana-Andreea Ratiu, Hossam Al-Suod, Magdalena Ligor, Tomasz Ligor, Viorica Railean-Plugaru, Bogusław Buszewski
Cyclitols are phytochemicals naturally occurring in plant material which attracted an increasing interest due to multiple medicinal attributes, amongst the most important are the anti-diabetic, antioxidant and anti-cancer properties. Due to their valuable properties, sugars are used in food industry as sweeteners, preservatives, texture modifiers, fermentation substrates, flavoring and coloring agents. In this study we report for the first time the quantitative analysis of sugars and cyclitols isolated from Solidago virgaurea L...
March 15, 2018: Electrophoresis
Pascale Satour, Chvan Youssef, Emilie Châtelain, Benoit Ly Vu, Béatrice Teulat, Claudette Job, Dominique Job, Françoise Montrichard
Seeds mainly acquire their physiological quality during maturation while oxidative conditions reign within cells triggering protein carbonylation. To better understand the role of this protein modification in legume seeds, we compared by proteomics patterns of carbonylated proteins in maturing seeds of Medicago truncatula naturally desiccated or prematurely dried, a treatment known to impair seed quality acquisition. In both cases, protein carbonylation increased in these seeds, accompanying water removal. We identified several proteins whose extent of carbonylation varied when comparing natural desiccation and premature drying and that could therefore be responsible for the impairment of seed quality acquisition or expression...
March 15, 2018: Plant, Cell & Environment
Barry M Trost, Chris Kalnmals
Herein, we report a valuable umpolung strategy that highlights the ambiphilic nature of the bis(phenylsulfonyl)methyl synthon and demonstrates its utility as a synthetic linchpin. While the bis(phenylsulfonyl)methyl group is typically introduced as an sp3 carbon nucleophile, we demonstrate that it can also function as an effective sp2 carbon electrophile in the presence of organolithium nucleophiles. Akyl- and aryllithiums couple with the central carbon of the bis(phenylsulfonyl)methyl unit to ultimately generate trisubstituted alkenes, comprising a formal sp3-sp2 and sp2-sp2 cross-coupling between organolithiums and bis(sulfones)...
March 15, 2018: Chemistry: a European Journal
Thanyaporn Kangwannaronkul, Keskanya Subbalekha, Philaiporn Vivatbutsiri, Jaijam Suwanwela
PURPOSE: Bio-Oss and demineralized freeze-dried bone allograft (DFDBA) are two commercial bone grafts that have been associated with clinical success for many years. However, there are few in vivo studies regarding their healing mechanism. The purpose of this study was to investigate the level of bone formation using microcomputed tomography (micro-CT) and gene expression in mouse calvaria at 1 and 3 months after bone grafting with deproteinized bovine bone and freeze-dried human bone, and compare them to natural bone healing...
March 15, 2018: International Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Implants
Agnieszka Nobis, Arkadiusz Nowak, Kaja Rola
Riparian zones are very rich in species but subjected to strong anthropogenic changes and extremely prone to alien plant invasions, which are considered to be a serious threat to biodiversity. Our aim was to determine the spatial distribution of Chenopodium ficifolium, a species demonstrating strong confinement to large river valleys in Central Europe and an indicator of annual pioneer nitrophilous vegetation developing on river banks, which are considered to be of importance to the European Community. Additionally, the habitat preferences of the species were analysed...
2018: PloS One
Jacobus H Visser, Nigel C Bennett, Bettine Jansen van Vuuren
The subterranean niche harbours animals with extreme adaptations. These adaptations decrease the vagility of taxa and, along with other behavioural adaptations, often result in isolated populations characterized by small effective population sizes, high inbreeding, population bottlenecks, genetic drift and consequently, high spatial genetic structure. Although information is available for some species, estimates of genetic diversity and whether this variation is spatially structured, is lacking for the Cape mole-rat (Georychus capensis)...
2018: PloS One
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