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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679596/observational-studies-of-inhaled-corticosteroid-effectiveness-in-copd-lessons-learned
#1
Samy Suissa, Pierre Ernst
BACKGROUND: Randomized controlled trials at times investigate findings suggested by observational studies. For example, the TORCH trial, which did not show a mortality reduction with inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), was motivated by some observational studies that suggested considerable reductions in mortality with these drugs. Reasons for these discrepancies are unclear. METHODS: We searched the literature to identify all observational studies, including cohort and case-control studies, investigating the effectiveness of ICS on major outcomes in COPD patients, including death and hospitalization for COPD...
April 18, 2018: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679366/blood-group-and-incidence-of-asthma-and-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#2
Bożena Mroczek, Zygmunt Sitko, Agnieszka Sujewicz, Weronika Wolińska, Iwona Karpeta-Pawlak, Donata Kurpas
Chronic respiratory diseases are determined by genetic predisposition, and environmental and socioeconomic variables. One genetic factor underlying susceptibility to such diseases can be the ABO blood group system. The purpose of this study was to investigate the hypothesis that there would be a relationship between the blood group and risk of developing asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We reviewed medical history files of patients with the diagnosis of COPD or asthma, including those suffering from a cancerous disease accompanied by asthma or COPD, hospitalized from January 2016 to July 2017...
April 21, 2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678351/clinical-and-inflammatory-phenotyping-can-electronic-nose-and-nmr-based-metabolomics-work-at-the-bedside
#3
Mauro Maniscalco, Andrea Motta
Electronic nose (eNose) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabolomics seem to be able to identify metabolic and inflammatory profiles in patients with chronic obstructive diseases. The hypothesis arises from three recent studies using two different methods in patients with asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD), opening promising diagnostic perspectives. The possibility that the use of eNose and NMR-based metabolomics might provide clinical/inflammatory characteristics is intriguing...
April 17, 2018: Archives of Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677197/a-novel-statistical-method-for-assessing-effective-adherence-to-medication-and-calculating-optimal-drug-dosages
#4
Garrett Greene, Richard W Costello, Breda Cushen, Imran Sulaiman, Elaine Mac Hale, Ronan M Conroy, Frank Doyle
OBJECTIVE: We derive a novel model-based metric for effective adherence to medication, and validate it using data from the INhaler Compliance Assessment device (INCATM). This technique employs dose timing data to estimate the threshold drug concentration needed to maintain optimal health. METHODS: The parameters of the model are optimised against patient outcome data using maximum likelihood methods. The model is fitted and validated by secondary analysis of two independent datasets from two remote-monitoring studies of adherence, conducted through clinical research centres of 5 Irish hospitals...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676069/perceptions-of-severe-asthma-and-asthma-copd-overlap-syndrome-among-specialists-a-questionnaire-survey
#5
Sang Heon Kim, Ji Yong Moon, Jae Hyun Lee, Ga Young Ban, Sujeong Kim, Mi Ae Kim, Joo Hee Kim, Min Hye Kim, Chan Sun Park, So Young Park, Hyouk Soo Kwon, Jae Woo Kwon, Jae Woo Jung, Hye Ryun Kang, Jong Sook Park, Tae Bum Kim, Heung Woo Park, You Sook Cho, Kwang Ha Yoo, Yeon Mok Oh, Byung Jae Lee, An Soo Jang, Sang Heon Cho, Hae Sim Park, Choon Sik Park, Ho Joo Yoon
PURPOSE: Severe asthma and asthma-chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) overlap syndrome (ACOS) are difficult to control and are often associated with poor clinical outcomes. However, much is not understood regarding the diagnosis and treatment of severe asthma and ACOS. To evaluate the current perceptions of severe asthma and COPD among asthma and COPD specialists, we designed an e-mail and internet-based questionnaire survey. METHODS: Subjects were selected based on clinical specialty from among the members of the Korean Academy of Asthma, Allergy and Clinical Immunology and the Korean Academy of Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases...
May 2018: Allergy, Asthma & Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667303/mir-146a-regulates-pm-1-induced-inflammation-via-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling-pathway-in-beas-2b-cells
#6
Limin Liu, Chong Wan, Wei Zhang, Longfei Guan, Guoxiong Tian, Fang Zhang, Wenjun Ding
Exposure to particulate matter (PM) leads to kinds of cardiopulmonary diseases, such as asthma, COPD, arrhythmias, lung cancer, etc., which are related to PM-induced inflammation. We have found that PM2.5 (aerodynamics diameter <2.5 µm) exposure induces inflammatory response both in vivo and in vitro. Since the toxicity of PM is tightly associated with its size and components, PM1 (aerodynamics diameter <1.0 µm) is supposed to be more toxic than PM2.5 . However, the mechanism of PM1 -induced inflammation is not clear...
April 18, 2018: Environmental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29653129/delivering-drugs-to-the-lungs-the-history-of-repurposing-in-the-treatment-of-respiratory-diseases
#7
Stephen P Newman
The repurposing of drug delivery by the pulmonary route has been applied to treatment and prophylaxis of an increasingly wide range of respiratory diseases. Repurposing has been most successful for the delivery of inhaled bronchodilators and corticosteroids in patients with asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Repurposing utilizes the advantages that the pulmonary route offers in terms of more targeted delivery to the site of action, the use of smaller doses, and a lower incidence of side-effects...
April 10, 2018: Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649811/transcription-elongation-factor-p-tefb-is-involved-in-il-17f-signaling-in-airway-smooth-muscle-cells
#8
Masayuki Nakajima, Mio Kawaguchi, Masashi Matsuyama, Kyoko Ota, Junichi Fujita, Satoshi Matsukura, Shau-Ku Huang, Yuko Morishima, Yukio Ishii, Hiroaki Satoh, Tohru Sakamoto, Nobuyuki Hizawa
BACKGROUND: IL-17F is involved in the pathogenesis of several inflammatory diseases, including asthma and COPD. However, the effects of steroids on the function of IL-17F signaling mechanisms are largely unknown. One of the transcription elongation factors, positive transcription elongation factor b (P-TEFb) composed of cyclin T1 and cyclin-dependent kinase 9 (CDK9), is known as a novel checkpoint regulator of gene expression via bromodomain-containing protein 4 (Brd4). METHODS: Human airway smooth muscle cells were stimulated with IL-17F and the expression of IL-8 was evaluated by real-time PCR and ELISA...
April 12, 2018: International Archives of Allergy and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29648520/transfer-coefficients-kco-better-reflect-emphysematous-changes-than-carbon-monoxide-diffusing-capacity-dlco-in-obstructive-lung-diseases
#9
Kaoruko Shimizu, Satoshi Konno, Hironi Makita, Hirokazu Kimura, Hiroki Kimura, Masaru Suzuki, Masaharu Nishimura
The overlap between asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has attracted the interest of pulmonary physicians; thus, measurement of carbon monoxide diffusion capacity (DLco) and/or transfer coefficients (Kco, DLco/VA) may become valuable in clinical settings. How these parameters behave in chronic obstructive lung diseases is poorly understood. We predicted that Kco might more accurately reflect emphysematous changes in the lungs, than DLco. We examined DLco and Kco in non-smokers and smokers with asthma and investigated their relationships with forced expiratory volume in 1 s (%FEV1 ) by group...
April 12, 2018: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628377/lung-function-trajectories-from-pre-school-age-to-adulthood-and-their-associations-with-early-life-factors-a-retrospective-analysis-of-three-population-based-birth-cohort-studies
#10
Danielle C M Belgrave, Raquel Granell, Steve W Turner, John A Curtin, Iain E Buchan, Peter N Le Souëf, Angela Simpson, A John Henderson, Adnan Custovic
BACKGROUND: Maximal lung function in early adulthood is an important determinant of mortality and COPD. We investigated whether distinct trajectories of lung function are present during childhood and whether these extend to adulthood and infancy. METHODS: To ascertain trajectories of FEV1 , we studied two population-based birth cohorts (MAAS and ALSPAC) with repeat spirometry from childhood into early adulthood (1046 participants from 5-16 years and 1390 participants from 8-24 years)...
April 5, 2018: Lancet Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628376/childhood-predictors-of-lung-function-trajectories-and-future-copd-risk-a-prospective-cohort-study-from-the-first-to-the-sixth-decade-of-life
#11
Dinh S Bui, Caroline J Lodge, John A Burgess, Adrian J Lowe, Jennifer Perret, Minh Q Bui, Gayan Bowatte, Lyle Gurrin, David P Johns, Bruce R Thompson, Garun S Hamilton, Peter A Frith, Alan L James, Paul S Thomas, Deborah Jarvis, Cecilie Svanes, Melissa Russell, Stephen C Morrison, Iain Feather, Katrina J Allen, Richard Wood-Baker, John Hopper, Graham G Giles, Michael J Abramson, Eugene H Walters, Melanie C Matheson, Shyamali C Dharmage
BACKGROUND: Lifetime lung function is related to quality of life and longevity. Over the lifespan, individuals follow different lung function trajectories. Identification of these trajectories, their determinants, and outcomes is important, but no study has done this beyond the fourth decade. METHODS: We used six waves of the Tasmanian Longitudinal Health Study (TAHS) to model lung function trajectories measured at 7, 13, 18, 45, 50, and 53 years. We analysed pre-bronchodilator FEV1 z-scores at the six timepoints using group-based trajectory modelling to identify distinct subgroups of individuals whose measurements followed a similar pattern over time...
April 5, 2018: Lancet Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627118/alveolar-and-bronchial-nitric-oxide-in-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-and-asthma-copd-overlap
#12
Bernardino Alcázar-Navarrete, Francisca Castellano Miñán, Pablo Santiago Díaz, Oliveiro Ruiz Rodríguez, Pedro J Romero Palacios
INTRODUCTION: Exhaled nitric oxide (FENO ) measurements differentiate COPD phenotypes from asthma-COPD overlap (ACO). To date, no study has been conducted to determine whether alveolar and bronchial components differ in this group of patients. METHODS: This was an observational cross-sectional study recruiting ambulatory COPD patients. FENO was measured, differentiating alveolar (CANO ) from bronchial (JawNO ) components using a multiple-flow technique. CANO and JawNO values were compared between eosinophilic COPD patients (defined as ≥ 300 eosinophils/μL in peripheral blood test, or ≥ 2% eosinophils or ≥ 3% eosinophils), and a linear regression analysis was performed to determine clinical and biological variables related to these measurements...
April 4, 2018: Archivos de Bronconeumología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626211/targeting-cytokines-to-treat-asthma-and-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#13
REVIEW
Peter J Barnes
Cytokines play a key role in orchestrating and perpetuating the chronic airway inflammation in asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), making them attractive targets for treating these disorders. Asthma and some cases of COPD are mainly driven by type 2 immune responses, which comprise increased airway eosinophils, T helper 2 (TH 2) cells and group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) and the secretion of IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13. Clinical trials of antibodies that block these interleukins have shown reduced acute exacerbations and oral corticosteroid use and improvements in lung function and symptoms in selected patients...
April 6, 2018: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29620545/endobronchial-biopsy-in-the-final-diagnosis-of-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-and-asthma-a-clinicopathological-study
#14
Maria Abdulrahim Arafah, Emad Raddaoui, Faisal Al Kassimi, Esam H Alhamad, Ahmed Amer Alboukai, Ahlam Abdullah Alshedoukhy, Abderrahman Ouban
BACKGROUND: Asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are chronic conditions with an increasing prevalence in developing countries. The evaluation of endobronchial biopsies has emerged as a tool to differentiate between both conditions via the measurement of the reticular basement membrane (RBM) thickness with various conclusions drawn from different studies. OBJECTIVES: Compare the thickness of the RBM between asthma and COPD and evaluate other histomorphological features in both groups...
March 2018: Annals of Saudi Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29617436/correction-clinical-and-inflammatory-characteristics-of-asthma-copd-overlap-in-workers-with-occupational-asthma
#15
Iñigo Ojanguren, Gregory Moullec, Jad Hobeika, Marc Miravitlles, Catherine Lemiere
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0193144.].
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29617009/correction-differentiation-of-quantitative-ct-imaging-phenotypes-in-asthma-versus-copd
#16
(no author information available yet)
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1136/bmjresp-2017-000252.].
2018: BMJ Open Respiratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615204/effect-of-air-quality-alerts-on-human-health-a-regression-discontinuity-analysis-in-toronto-canada
#17
Hong Chen, Qiongsi Li, Jay S Kaufman, Jun Wang, Ray Copes, Yushan Su, Tarik Benmarhnia
BACKGROUND: Ambient air pollution is a major health risk globally. To reduce adverse health effects on days when air pollution is high, government agencies worldwide have implemented air quality alert programmes. Despite their widespread use, little is known about whether these programmes produce any observable public-health benefits. We assessed the effectiveness of such programmes using a quasi-experimental approach. METHODS: We assembled a population-based cohort comprising all individuals who resided in the city of Toronto (Ontario, Canada) from 2003 to 2012 (about 2·6 million people)...
January 2018: Lancet. Planetary Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29611609/prevalence-of-chronic-obstructive-respiratory-diseases-amongst-fishermen
#18
Omar Laraqui, Reda Hammouda, Salwa Laraqui, Nadia Manar, Tarik Ghailan, Jaouda Ben Amor, Frédéric Deschamps, Chakib El Houssine Laraqui
BACKGROUND: The objective was to screen and evaluate the prevalence of respiratory diseases and obstructive ventilatory defects among fishermen in Morocco. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This observational and cross-sectional epidemiological study involved 924 men over 20 years old and with at least two years of seniority. It included a questionnaire and a spirometry. The questionnaire is composed of four sections: sociodemographic and occupational characteristics, toxic habits, medical history and respiratory clinical symptoms...
2018: International Maritime Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29608582/asthma-and-copd-overlap-aco-is-related-to-a-high-burden-of-sleep-disturbance-and-respiratory-symptoms-results-from-the-rhine-and-swedish-ga2len-surveys
#19
Stephanie Mindus, Andrei Malinovschi, Linda Ekerljung, Bertil Forsberg, Thórarinn Gíslason, Rain Jõgi, Karl A Franklin, Mathias Holm, Ane Johannessen, Roelinde Middelveld, Vivi Schlünssen, Cecilie Svanes, Kjell Torén, Eva Lindberg, Christer Janson
BACKGROUND: The term Asthma and COPD Overlap (ACO) describes a condition where asthma and COPD overlap. We aimed to investigate associations between ACO and insomnia and respiratory symptoms, and to investigate the prevalence of ACO and the characteristics of subjects with ACO in two Northern European population studies. METHODS: The study comprised 25 429 subjects aged ≥ 40 years who participated in one of two Northern European general population surveys. Both surveys included questions on asthma, COPD, respiratory and sleep-related symptoms, including difficulty initiating sleep, difficulty maintaining sleep, early-morning awakening, and excessive daytime sleepiness...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29605212/prevalence-and-risk-factors-of-asthma-in-mainland-china-the-care-study
#20
Jiangtao Lin, Wenya Wang, Ping Chen, Xin Zhou, Huanying Wan, Kaisheng Yin, Lijun Ma, Changgui Wu, Jing Li, Chuntao Liu, Nan Su, Guoliang Liu, Hua Xie, Wei Tang, Mao Huang, Yan Chen, Yuanhua Liu, Liqiang Song, Xianliang Chen, Yongming Zhang, Wen Li, Lichao Sun
BACKGROUND: There are limited population based data on the prevalence of asthma in China. The China Asthma and Risk factors Epidemiologic (CARE) survey was designed to understand the prevalence and risk factors for asthma in mainland China. OBJECTIVES: The CARE survey aims to demonstrate the prevalence and risk factors of asthma in mainland China among adolescents (age >14 years) and adults. METHODS: The survey was performed between February 2010 and August 2012 in eight provinces/cities of seven areas in mainland China...
April 2018: Respiratory Medicine
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