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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922751/new-therapies-for-asthma-and-copd
#1
Nicholas J Gross, Peter J Barnes
Asthma and COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) are two common diseases for which current treatments are less than optimal and for which new drugs are greatly needed. Better understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms of these diseases has identified new targets for therapy and several new drugs are in development. Although most new treatments on the market are improvements in existing classes of drug or new combination of treatments, the clinicaltrials.gov website indicates 50 and 100 new medications for both asthma and COPD and many of these are entirely new...
December 6, 2016: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920974/a-case-report-of-malignant-obesity-hypoventilation-syndrome-a-weighty-problem-in-our-icus
#2
Michael Tatusov, Joshua J Joseph, Brian M Cuneo
INTRODUCTION: The obesity epidemic is reflected by increasing numbers of morbidly obese patients being admitted to intensive care units (ICUs). These are complicated patients whose care involves many diagnostic and treatment challenges. We are presenting a fatal case of super obesity, hypoventilation, and multi-organ failure known as malignant obesity hypoventilation syndrome (MOHS). CASE PRESENTATION: 35 year old African American gentleman with a body mass index (BMI) of 115 kg/m(2) presented to the hospital with respiratory distress...
2017: Respiratory Medicine Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917014/contextual-ecological-and-organizational-variations-in-risk-adjusted-copd-and-asthma-hospitalization-rates-of-rural-medicare-beneficiaries
#3
Thomas T H Wan, Yi-Ling Lin, Judith Ortiz
The purpose of this study is to examine what factors contributing to the variability in chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder (COPD) and asthma hospitalization rates when the influence of patient characteristics is being simultaneously considered by applying a risk adjustment method. A longitudinal analysis of COPD and asthma hospitalization of rural Medicare beneficiaries in 427 rural health clinics (RHCs) was conducted utilizing administrative data and inpatient and outpatient claims from Region 4. The repeated measures of risk-adjusted COPD and asthma admission rate were analyzed by growth curve modeling...
2016: Research in the Sociology of Health Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908909/dtb-select-12-december-2016
#4
(no author information available yet)
Azithromycin of no benefit for asthma attacks ● Risk of heart failure with NSAIDs ● Bisphosphonates and steroid-induced osteoporosis ● Triple therapy for moderate-to-severe COPD: marginal benefits ● Much data on adverse events remains unpublished ● Rising placebo response rates in antidepressant trials a 'myth' ● Prenatal fetal RhD testing recommended.
December 1, 2016: Drug and Therapeutics Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903208/early-experience-of-a-new-extracorporeal-carbon-dioxide-removal-device-for-acute-hypercapnic-respiratory-failure
#5
Ravindranath Tiruvoipati, Hergen Buscher, James Winearls, Jeff Breeding, Debasish Ghosh, Shimonti Chaterjee, Gary Braun, Eldho Paul, John F Fraser, John Botha
BACKGROUND: Recent advances in the technology of extracorporeal respiratory assist systems have led to a renewed interest in extracorporeal carbon dioxide removal (ECCOR). The Hemolung is a new, low-flow, venovenous, minimally invasive, partial ECCOR device that has recently been introduced to clinical practice to aid in avoiding invasive ventilation or to facilitate lung-protective ventilation. OBJECTIVE: We report our early experience on use, efficacy and safety of the Hemolung in three Australian intensive care units...
December 2016: Critical Care and Resuscitation: Journal of the Australasian Academy of Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890989/the-burden-of-segregated-respiratory-diseases-in-india-and-the-quality-of-care-in-these-patients-results-from-the-asia-pacific-burden-of-respiratory-diseases-study
#6
Aloke Gopal Ghoshal, G D Ravindran, Paras Gangwal, Girish Rajadhyaksha, Sang-Heon Cho, Abdul Razak Bin Abdul Muttalif, Horng-Chyuan Lin, Sanguansak Thanaviratananich, Shalini Bagga, Rab Faruqi, Shiva Sajjan, Pradeep Shetty, Raeesuddin Syed, Kim K Hamrosi, De Yun Wang
BACKGROUND: Chronic respiratory diseases such as asthma, allergic rhinitis (AR), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and rhinosinusitis are becoming increasingly prevalent in the Asia-Pacific region. The Asia-Pacific Burden of Respiratory Diseases study examined the disease and economic burden of AR, asthma, COPD, and rhinosinusitis across the Asia-Pacific and more specifically India. OBJECTIVES: To estimate the proportion of adults receiving care for asthma, AR, COPD, and rhinosinusitis and assess the economic burden, both direct and indirect of these chronic respiratory disease...
November 2016: Lung India: Official Organ of Indian Chest Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889330/use-of-biologics-to-treat-acute-exacerbations-and-manage-disease-in-asthma-copd-and-ipf
#7
REVIEW
Lynne A Murray, Chris Grainge, Peter A Wark, Darryl A Knight
A common feature of chronic respiratory disease is the progressive decline in lung function. The decline can be indolent, or it can be accelerated by acute exacerbations, whereby the patient experiences a pronounced worsening of disease symptoms. Moreover, acute exacerbations may also be a marker of insufficient disease management. The underlying cause of an acute exacerbation can be due to insults such as pathogens or environmental pollutants, or the cause can be unknown. For each acute exacerbation, the patient may require medical intervention such as rescue medication, or in more severe cases, hospitalization and ventilation and have an increased risk of death...
November 24, 2016: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888348/pathogenesis-of-copd-and-asthma
#8
Clive Page, Blaze O'Shaughnessy, Peter Barnes
Asthma and COPD remain two diseases of the respiratory tract with unmet medical needs. This review considers the current state of play with respect to what is known about the underlying pathogenesis of these two chronic inflammatory diseases of the lung. The review highlights why they are different conditions requiring different approaches to treatment and provides a backdrop for the subsequent chapters in this volume discussing recent advances in the pharmacology and treatment of asthma and COPD.
November 26, 2016: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883375/analysis-of-risk-factors-for-severe-acute-respiratory-infection-and-pneumonia-and-among-adult-patients-with-acute-respiratory-illness-during-2011-2014-influenza-seasons-in-korea
#9
Seong Hui Kang, Hee Jin Cheong, Joon Young Song, Ji Yun Noh, Ji Ho Jeon, Min Joo Choi, Jacob Lee, Yu Bin Seo, Jin Soo Lee, Seong Heon Wie, Hye Won Jeong, Young Keun Kim, Kyung Hwa Park, Shin Woo Kim, Eun Joo Jeong, Sun Hee Lee, Won Suk Choi, Woo Joo Kim
BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization recommends the surveillance of influenza-like illness (ILI) and severe acute respiratory infection (SARI) to respond effectively to both seasonal influenza epidemics and pandemics. In Korea, the "Hospital-based Influenza Morbidity and Mortality (HIMM)" surveillance system has been operated to monitor ILI and SARI occurrences. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A multi-center prospective observational study was conducted. Adult patients with acute respiratory infection (ARI) were enrolled during the 2011-2012, 2012-2013, and 2013-2014 influenza seasons at the 10 university hospitals using the HIMM surveillance system...
November 22, 2016: Infection & Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883002/a-randomised-open-label-cross-over-study-of-inhaler-errors-preference-and-time-to-achieve-correct-inhaler-use-in-patients-with-copd-or-asthma-comparison-of-ellipta-with-other-inhaler-devices
#10
Job van der Palen, Mike Thomas, Henry Chrystyn, Raj K Sharma, Paul Dlpm van der Valk, Martijn Goosens, Tom Wilkinson, Carol Stonham, Anoop J Chauhan, Varsha Imber, Chang-Qing Zhu, Henrik Svedsater, Neil C Barnes
Errors in the use of different inhalers were investigated in patients naive to the devices under investigation in a multicentre, single-visit, randomised, open-label, cross-over study. Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) or asthma were assigned to ELLIPTA vs DISKUS (Accuhaler), metered-dose inhaler (MDI) or Turbuhaler. Patients with COPD were also assigned to ELLIPTA vs Handihaler or Breezhaler. Patients demonstrated inhaler use after reading the patient information leaflet (PIL). A trained investigator assessed critical errors (i...
November 24, 2016: NPJ Primary Care Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878470/%C3%AE-2-agonists
#11
Charlotte K Billington, Raymond B Penn, Ian P Hall
History suggests β agonists, the cognate ligand of the β2 adrenoceptor, have been used as bronchodilators for around 5,000 years, and β agonists remain today the frontline treatment for asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The β agonists used clinically today are the products of significant expenditure and over 100 year's intensive research aimed at minimizing side effects and enhancing therapeutic usefulness. The respiratory physician now has a therapeutic toolbox of long acting β agonists to prophylactically manage bronchoconstriction, and short acting β agonists to relieve acute exacerbations...
November 23, 2016: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27877033/combination-therapy-of-inhaled-steroids-and-long-acting-beta2-agonists-in-asthma-copd-overlap-syndrome
#12
Suh-Young Lee, Hye Yun Park, Eun Kyung Kim, Seong Yong Lim, Chin Kook Rhee, Yong Il Hwang, Yeon-Mok Oh, Sang Do Lee, Yong Bum Park
BACKGROUND: The efficacy of inhaled corticosteroids (ICSs)/long-acting beta2-agonist (LABA) treatment in patients with asthma-chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) overlap syndrome (ACOS) compared to patients with COPD alone has rarely been examined. This study aimed to evaluate the clinical efficacy for the improvement of lung function after ICS/LABA treatment in patients with ACOS compared to COPD alone patients. METHODS: Patients with stable COPD were selected from the Korean Obstructive Lung Disease (KOLD) cohort...
2016: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867663/dry-powder-inhalers-a-focus-on-advancements-in-novel-drug-delivery-systems
#13
REVIEW
Piyush Mehta
Administration of drug molecules by inhalation route for treatment of respiratory diseases has the ability to deliver drugs, hormones, nucleic acids, steroids, proteins, and peptides, particularly to the site of action, improving the efficacy of the treatment and consequently lessening adverse effects of the treatment. Numerous inhalation delivery systems have been developed and studied to treat respiratory diseases such as asthma, COPD, and other pulmonary infections. The progress of disciplines such as biomaterials science, nanotechnology, particle engineering, molecular biology, and cell biology permits further improvement of the treatment capability...
2016: Journal of Drug Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864675/drugs-affecting-trp-channels
#14
M A Wortley, M A Birrell, M G Belvisi
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma are both common respiratory diseases that are associated with airflow reduction/obstruction and pulmonary inflammation. Whilst drug therapies offer adequate symptom control for many mild to moderate asthmatic patients, severe asthmatics and COPD patients symptoms are often not controlled, and in these cases, irreversible structural damage occurs with disease progression over time. Transient receptor potential (TRP) channels, in particular TRPV1, TRPA1, TRPV4 and TRPM8, have been implicated with roles in the regulation of inflammation and autonomic nervous control of the lungs...
November 19, 2016: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862681/differences-in-analgesic-use-in-community-dwelling-persons-with-and-without-alzheimer-s-disease
#15
A Hamina, H Taipale, A Tanskanen, A-M Tolppanen, J Tiihonen, S Hartikainen
BACKGROUND: There are conflicting findings about analgesic use among persons with cognitive impairment compared to cognitively intact older persons. The objective of our study was to investigate the prevalence of analgesic use in community-dwelling persons with and without Alzheimer's disease (AD), within six months after AD diagnosis and to find out factors associated with the use of analgesics and specific analgesic groups. METHOD: We utilized data from register based MEDALZ (Medication use and Alzheimer's disease) cohort consisting of all community-dwelling persons diagnosed with AD during 2005-2011 in Finland and their matched comparison persons without AD...
November 14, 2016: European Journal of Pain: EJP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861515/involvement-of-igf1r-in-bronchiolar-epithelial-regeneration-role-during-repair-kinetics-after-selective-club-cell-ablation
#16
Icíar P López, Sergio Piñeiro-Hermida, Rosete S Pais, Raquel Torrens, Andreas Hoeflich, José G Pichel
Regeneration of lung epithelium is vital for maintaining airway function and integrity. An imbalance between epithelial damage and repair is at the basis of numerous chronic lung diseases such as asthma, COPD, pulmonary fibrosis and lung cancer. IGF (Insulin-like Growth Factors) signaling has been associated with most of these respiratory pathologies, although their mechanisms of action in this tissue remain poorly understood. Expression profiles analyses of IGF system genes performed in mouse lung support their functional implication in pulmonary ontogeny...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853177/difference-in-resistance-to-humidity-between-commonly-used-dry-powder-inhalers-an-in-vitro-study
#17
Christer Janson, Thomas Lööf, Gunilla Telg, Georgios Stratelis, Folke Nilsson
Multi-dose dry powder inhalers (DPIs) are commonly used in asthma and chronic obstructive lung disease (COPD) treatment. A disadvantage is their sensitivity to humidity. In real life, DPIs are periodically exposed to humid conditions, which may affect aerosol characteristics and lung deposition. This study compared DPI aerosol performance after exposure to humidity. Budesonide (BUD) inhalers (Turbuhaler; Novolizer; Easyhaler) and budesonide/formoterol (BUD/FORM) inhalers (Turbuhaler; Spiromax; Easyhaler) were stored in 75% relative humidity (RH) at both ambient temperature and at -0 °C...
November 17, 2016: NPJ Primary Care Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845721/airway-epithelial-cell-cilia-and-obstructive-lung-disease
#18
REVIEW
Asma Yaghi, Myrna B Dolovich
Airway epithelium is the first line of defense against exposure of the airway and lung to various inflammatory stimuli. Ciliary beating of airway epithelial cells constitutes an important part of the mucociliary transport apparatus. To be effective in transporting secretions out of the lung, the mucociliary transport apparatus must exhibit a cohesive beating of all ciliated epithelial cells that line the upper and lower respiratory tract. Cilia function can be modulated by exposures to endogenous and exogenous factors and by the viscosity of the mucus lining the epithelium...
November 11, 2016: Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845473/preliminary-analysis-of-the-respiratory-disease-based-on-hospital-discharge-records-in-the-province-of-l-aquila-abruzzo-italy
#19
L Fabiani, L Mammarella, P Vittorini, F Zazzara, F Di Orio
BACKGROUND: The hospital discharge records (HDRs), integrated by other electronic health archives, besides some contra, can be a valuable and low-cost tool for monitoring public health. METHODS: Throughout a retrospective cohort study, we analyzed all hospitalizations in ordinary regime from the HDRs database of the residents in the province of L'Aquila, with the exception of day hospital, rehabilitation and long-hospital stay between 2008 and 2013, with a principal diagnosis of respiratory disease of 460 to 519, according to the ICD-9-CM...
November 2016: Annali di Igiene: Medicina Preventiva e di Comunità
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27844172/xanthines-and-phosphodiesterase-inhibitors
#20
D Spina, C P Page
Theophylline is an orally acting xanthine that has been used since 1937 for the treatment of respiratory diseases including asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, in most treatment guidelines, xanthines have now been consigned to third-line therapy because of their narrow therapeutic window and propensity for drug-drug interactions. However, lower than conventional doses of theophylline considered to be bronchodilator are now known to have anti-inflammatory actions of relevance to the treatment of respiratory disease...
November 15, 2016: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
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