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Elise Juzda Smith
This article focuses on the consolidation of naval hygiene practices during the Victorian era, a period of profound medical change that coincided with the fleet's transition from sail to steam. The ironclads of the mid- to late- nineteenth century offered ample opportunities to improve preventive medicine at sea, and surgeons capitalised on new steam technologies to provide cleaner, dryer, and airier surroundings below decks. Such efforts reflected the sanitarian idealism of naval medicine in this period, inherited from the eighteenth-century pioneers of the discipline...
April 2018: Medical History
Damianos G Kokkinidis, Bejan Alvandi, Prio Hossain, T Raymond Foley, Caitlin E Kielhorn, Gagan D Singh, Stephen W Waldo, John R Laird, Ehrin J Armstrong
PURPOSE: To evaluate the association between a chronic total occlusion (CTO) and long-term outcomes among patients undergoing endovascular intervention to the external iliac artery (EIA). METHODS: A 2-center retrospective study was conducted of 331 patients (mean age 64.7±12.7 years; 221 men) who underwent endovascular intervention for 481 EIA atherosclerotic lesions between 2006 and 2016. A quarter of the lesions (115, 23.9%) were CTOs. The majority of patients (184, 60...
April 2018: Journal of Endovascular Therapy
Johanna Tell, Ewy Olander, Peter Anderberg, Johan Sanmartin Berglund
AIM: The aim of this study was to investigate child health-care coordinators' experiences of being a facilitator for the implementation of a new national child health-care programme in the form of a web-based national guide. METHODS: The study was based on eight remote, online focus groups, using Skype for Business. A qualitative content analysis was performed. RESULTS: The analysis generated three categories: adapt to a local context, transition challenges and led by strong incentives...
February 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health
Victoria E Jackson, Helen Hurst, Sandip Mitra
INTRODUCTION: Arteriovenous fistulae remain the gold standard of vascular access in haemodialysis. There is currently no consensus on standardised methods of monitoring arteriovenous fistulae. Assessment techniques and practice remain widely variable. The purpose of this study is to determine whether existing evidence supports physical assessment as an effective tool and a good predictor of arteriovenous fistulae dysfunction to allow for timely intervention and improve outcomes. METHODS: A literature search was performed using CINAHL, PubMed, Medline and BNI databases and relevant search terms...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Vascular Access
Enzo Emanuelli, Andrea Ciorba, Daniele Borsetto, Diego Cazzador, Samantha Sarcognato, Filippo Marino, Stefano Fusetti, Chiara Bianchini, Francesco Stomeo, Stefano Pelucchi
PURPOSE: Most primary tumors spreading metastasis to the parotid gland are usually located in the head and neck region, nonetheless, rarely, parotid gland can also be the target of metastatic localization site of distant primary tumors. The purpose of this study was to describe a clinical series of metastasis to the parotid gland from distant primary tumors (non Head & Neck). METHODS: The clinical databases of parotid tumors in two academic centers have been analyzed and 11 cases of parotid metastatic cancers from distant primary tumors were found...
January 2018: Journal of B.U.ON.: Official Journal of the Balkan Union of Oncology
Toshirou Nishida
There are some disparities between the clinical practice and profiles of cancer in Asia and those in Europe & North America. In Asia, surgical oncologists still have a major role in the multidisciplinary therapy of gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST), whereas medical oncologists hold this status in the West. Although the incidence of clinical GIST is considered similar between the two areas, small gastric GISTs are more frequently treated by surgery in East Asia compared with Europe & North America...
2018: Translational Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Emmanouil Kalampokas, Vijay Sharma, Tanja Gagliardi, Fiona Payne, Mahalakshmi Gurumurthy
Background: Primary small cell ovarian cancer of pulmonary type (SCCOPT) is a rare aggressive ovarian tumour with an incidence of <1%, usually occurring in perimenopausal or postmenopausal women and known to have a poor prognosis. Current treatment is platinum based but has not resulted in long term survival. Case presentation: We report a case of a 77-year old Caucasian woman who presented initially with a one-week history of abdominal discomfort with raised inflammatory markers and Ca125 of 50 μ/ml...
May 2018: Gynecologic Oncology Reports
José Pedro Ferreira, Chrystiane Vasconcelos Andrade Toscano, Aristides Machado Rodrigues, Guilherme Eustaquio Furtado, Mauro Gomes Barros, Rildo Souza Wanderley, Humberto Moreira Carvalho
Physical exercise has shown positive effects on symptomatology and on the reduction of comorbidities in population with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, there is still no consensus about the most appropriate exercise intervention model for children with ASD. The physical exercise program for children with autism (PEP-Aut) protocol designed allow us to (i) examine the multivariate associations between ASD symptoms, metabolic profile, physical activity level, physical fitness, and health-related quality of life of children with ASD; (ii) assess the effects of a 40-week exercise program on all these aspects of children with ASD...
2018: Frontiers in Public Health
Freek Hollman, Nienke Wolterbeek, Petra E Flikweert, Kiem G Auw Yang
Fatty infiltration is an important prognostic factor for cuff healing after rotator cuff repair. Treatment options for stage 2-3 Goutallier rotator cuff tears vary widely and there is lack of decent comparative studies. Purposes: The objective of this study was 1) to give an overview of the treatment options of stage 2-3 Goutallier rotator cuff tears and their clinical outcome and 2) to give a recommendation of the optimal treatment within this specific subgroup. Methods: We searched the databases of Medline, Embase, Cochrane library, NHS Centre for Reviews and Dissemination, PEDro from inception to December 12th, 2016...
June 2018: Journal of Orthopaedics
Angela Ju, Mark Unruh, Sara Davison, Juan Dapueto, Mary Amanda Dew, Richard Fluck, Michael Germain, Sarbjit V Jassal, Gregorio Obrador, Donal O'Donoghue, Michelle A Josephson, Jonathan C Craig, Andrea Viecelli, Emma O'Lone, Camilla S Hanson, Braden Manns, Benedicte Sautenet, Martin Howell, Bharathi Reddy, Caroline Wilkie, Claudia Rutherford, Allison Tong
Fatigue is one of the most highly prioritized outcomes for patients and clinicians, but remains infrequently and inconsistently reported across trials in hemodialysis. We convened an international Standardized Outcomes in Nephrology-Hemodialysis (SONG-HD) consensus workshop with stakeholders to discuss the development and implementation of a core outcome measure for fatigue. 15 patients/caregivers and 42 health professionals (clinicians, researchers, policy makers, and industry representatives) from 9 countries participated in breakout discussions...
March 15, 2018: American Journal of Kidney Diseases: the Official Journal of the National Kidney Foundation
Javad Parvizi, Timothy L Tan, Karan Goswami, Carlos Higuera, Craig Della Valle, Antonia F Chen, Noam Shohat
BACKGROUND: The introduction of the Musculoskeletal Infection Society (MSIS) criteria for periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) in 2011 resulted in improvements in diagnostic confidence and research collaboration. The emergence of new diagnostic tests and the lessons we have learned from the past 7 years using the MSIS definition, prompted us to develop an evidence-based and validated updated version of the criteria. METHODS: This multi-institutional study of patients undergoing revision total joint arthroplasty was conducted at 3 academic centers...
February 26, 2018: Journal of Arthroplasty
Ifaz T Haider, John Goldak, Hanspeter Frei
Nonlinear finite element (FE) modeling can be a powerful tool for studying femoral fracture. However, there remains little consensus in the literature regarding the choice of material model and failure criterion. Quasi-brittle models recently have been used with some success, but spurious mesh sensitivity remains a concern. The purpose of this study was to implement and validate a new model using a custom finite element designed to mitigate mesh sensitivity problems. Six specimen-specific FE models of the proximal femur were generated from quantitative tomographic (qCT) scans of cadaveric specimens...
March 15, 2018: Medical Engineering & Physics
Bao-Ran An, Guo-Ping Liu, Chong Tan
This paper investigates group consensus problems in networked multi-agent systems (NMAS) with communication delays. Based on the proposed state prediction scheme, the group consensus control protocol is designed to compensate the communication delay actively. In light of algebraic graph theories and matrix theories, necessary and(or) sufficient conditions of group consensus with respect to a given admissible control set are obtained for the NMAS with communication delays under mild assumptions. Finally, simulations are performed to demonstrate the effectiveness of the theoretical results...
March 15, 2018: ISA Transactions
Carolien Zwiers, Mirjam Ea Scheffer-Rath, Enrico Lopriore, Masja de Haas, Helen G Liley
BACKGROUND: Exchange transfusion and phototherapy have traditionally been used to treat jaundice and avoid the associated neurological complications. Because of the risks and burdens of exchange transfusion, intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) has been suggested as an alternative therapy for alloimmune hemolytic disease of the newborn (HDN) to reduce the need for exchange transfusion. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effect and complications of IVIg in newborn infants with alloimmune HDN on the need for and number of exchange transfusions...
March 18, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
C B Terwee, C A C Prinsen, A Chiarotto, M J Westerman, D L Patrick, J Alonso, L M Bouter, H C W de Vet, L B Mokkink
BACKGROUND: Content validity is the most important measurement property of a patient-reported outcome measure (PROM) and the most challenging to assess. Our aims were to: (1) develop standards for evaluating the quality of PROM development; (2) update the original COSMIN standards for assessing the quality of content validity studies of PROMs; (3) develop criteria for what constitutes good content validity of PROMs, and (4) develop a rating system for summarizing the evidence on a PROM's content validity and grading the quality of the evidence in systematic reviews of PROMs...
March 17, 2018: Quality of Life Research
Minakshi Rohilla, Bharti Joshi, Vanita Jain, Neetimala, Shalini Gainder
BACKGROUND: Advanced abdominal pregnancy is a highly morbid form of extrauterine gestation that demands skilled management. Despite advancement in antenatal care and imaging modalities, undiagnosed cases of advanced abdominal pregnancies are still reported. We report a case of asymptomatic abdominal pregnancy with healthy fetus advanced till 40 + 4 weeks period of gestation. Her diagnosis was not established even after obstetrical evaluation and cesarean section at primary care hospital...
March 17, 2018: Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics
Maria Maruffi, Richard Sposto, Matthew J Oberley, Lynn Kysh, Etan Orgel
The rarity of mixed-phenotype acute leukemia (MPAL) has resulted in diffuse literature consisting of small case series, thus precluding a consensus treatment approach. We conducted a meta-analysis and systematic review to investigate the association of treatment type (acute lymphoblastic leukemia [ALL], acute myeloid leukemia [AML], or "hybrid" regimens), disease response, and survival. We searched seven databases from inception through June 2017 without age or language restriction. Included studies reported sufficient treatment detail for de novo MPAL classified according to the well-established European Group for Immunological Characterization of Acute Leukemias (EGIL) or World Health Organization (WHO2008) criteria...
February 27, 2018: Leukemia: Official Journal of the Leukemia Society of America, Leukemia Research Fund, U.K
Maria Loreto Alvarez-Nebreda, Nathalie Bentov, Richard D Urman, Sabeena Setia, Joe Chin-Sun Huang, Kurt Pfeifer, Katherine Bennett, Thuan D Ong, Deborah Richman, Divya Gollapudi, G Alec Rooke, Houman Javedan
Frailty is an age-related, multi-dimensional state of decreased physiologic reserve that results in diminished resiliency and increased vulnerability to stressors. It has proven to be an excellent predictor of unfavorable health outcomes in the older surgical population. There is agreement in recommending that a frailty evaluation should be part of the preoperative assessment in the elderly. However, the consensus is still building with regards to how it should affect perioperative care. The Society for Perioperative Assessment and Quality Improvement (SPAQI) convened experts in the fields of gerontology, anesthesiology and preoperative assessment to outline practical steps for clinicians to assess and address frailty in elderly patients who require elective intermediate or high risk surgery...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Clinical Anesthesia
Suzanne S Dunne, Merja Ahonen, Martina Modic, Francy Rl Crijns, Minna M Keinänen-Toivola, Ruth Meinke, C William Keevil, Jim Gray, Nuala H O'Connell, Colum P Dunne
Recognized issues with poor hand hygiene compliance among healthcare workers, and reports of re-contamination of previously chemically disinfected surfaces through hand contact, emphasize need for novel hygiene methods in addition to those currently available. One such approach involves antimicrobial (nano)-coatings (AMC), whereby integrated active ingredients are responsible for elimination of microorganisms that come into contact with treated surfaces. While widely studied under laboratory conditions with promising results, studies under real life healthcare conditions are scarce...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Hospital Infection
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