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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346849/clostridium-perfringens-type-a-isolates-of-animal-origin-with-decreased-susceptibility-to-metronidazole-show-extensive-genetic-diversity
#1
Sergio Álvarez-Pérez, José L Blanco, Marta E García
Metronidazole is a first-line drug for the treatment of human infections caused by anaerobic bacteria. Although most Clostridium perfringens isolates are susceptible to metronidazole, a number of strains with decreased susceptibility have been obtained in clinical and environmental surveys. However, little is known yet about the toxinotype and genetic diversity of metronidazole-resistant C. perfringens strains. We tested for susceptibility to metronidazole and assessed the toxigenic status and amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) diversity of a collection of 80 C...
March 27, 2017: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346799/activation-of-macrophages-by-lipopolysaccharide-for-assessing-the-immunomodulatory-property-of-biomaterials
#2
Shengwei Han, Zetao Chen, Pingping Han, Qingang Hu, Yin Xiao
The design paradigm of biomaterials has been changed to ones with favorable immunomodulatory effects, indicating the importance of accurately evaluating the immunomodulatory properties of biomaterials. Among all the immune cells macrophages receive most attention, due to their plasticity and multiple roles in the materials and host interactions, and thereby become model immune cells for the evaluation of immunomodulatory properties of biomaterials in many studies. Lipopolysaccharides (LPS), a polysaccharide in the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria, elicit strong immune responses, which was often applied to activate macrophages, resulting in a proinflammatory M1 phenotype, and the release of proinflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα), interleukin (IL)-1, and IL-6...
March 24, 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346770/a-core-outcome-set-for-localised-prostate-cancer-effectiveness-trials
#3
Steven MacLennan, Paula R Williamson, Hanneke Bekema, Marion Campbell, Craig Ramsay, James N'Dow, Sara MacLennan, Luke Vale, Philipp Dahm, Nicolas Mottet, Thomas Lam, Paul Abel, Hashim U Ahmed, Gary Akehurst, Robert Almquist, Karl Beck, David Budd, Steven Canfield, James Catto, Philip Cornford, William Cross, Alexander Ewen, Judith Grant, Rakesh Heer, David Hurst, Rob Jones, Roger Kockelbergh, Andrew Mackie, Graham MacDonald, Alan McNeill, Malcolm Mason, Sam McClinton, Duncan McLaren, Hugh Mostafid, Ian Pearce, Linda Pennet, Justine Royle, Hans Schreuder, Grant D Stewart, Henk van der Poel, Kevin Wardlaw, Thomas Wiegel
OBJECTIVE: To develop a core outcome set (COS) applicable for effectiveness trials of all interventions for localised prostate cancer. BACKGROUND: Many treatments exist for localised prostate cancer, although it is unclear which offers the optimal therapeutic ratio. This is confounded by inconsistencies in the selection, definition, measurement and reporting of outcomes in clinical trials. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A list of 79 outcomes was derived from a systematic review of published localised prostate cancer effectiveness studies and semi-structured interviews with 15 prostate cancer patients...
March 27, 2017: BJU International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346623/family-medicine-maternity-care-call-to-action-moving-toward-national-standards-for-training-and-competency-assessment
#4
Susanna R Magee, W Suzanne Eidson-Ton, Larry Leeman, Michael Tuggy, Thomas O Kim, Melissa Nothnagle, Joseph Breuner, Mark Loafman
Maternity care is an integral part of family medicine, and the quality and cost-effectiveness of maternity care provided by family physicians is well documented. Considering the population health perspective, increasing the number of family physicians competent to provide maternity care is imperative, as is working to overcome the barriers discouraging maternity care practice. A standard that clearly defines maternity care competency and a systematic set of tools to assess competency levels could help overcome these barriers...
March 2017: Family Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346451/sc3-consensus-clustering-of-single-cell-rna-seq-data
#5
Vladimir Yu Kiselev, Kristina Kirschner, Michael T Schaub, Tallulah Andrews, Andrew Yiu, Tamir Chandra, Kedar N Natarajan, Wolf Reik, Mauricio Barahona, Anthony R Green, Martin Hemberg
Single-cell RNA-seq enables the quantitative characterization of cell types based on global transcriptome profiles. We present single-cell consensus clustering (SC3), a user-friendly tool for unsupervised clustering, which achieves high accuracy and robustness by combining multiple clustering solutions through a consensus approach (http://bioconductor.org/packages/SC3). We demonstrate that SC3 is capable of identifying subclones from the transcriptomes of neoplastic cells collected from patients.
March 27, 2017: Nature Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346419/evolving-concepts-in-prognostic-scoring-of-chronic-gvhd
#6
REVIEW
A Lazaryan, M Arora
Chronic GvHD (cGvHD) remains one of the most complex and challenging complications after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation. Emerging knowledge about the clinical manifestations and associated organ involvement of cGvHD has led to the establishment of prognostic parameters for post-transplant survival among affected allograft recipients. Studies employing the pre-National Institutes of Health (NIH) consensus data on cGvHD incidence and its risks have led to development of the CIBMTR's cGvHD risk stratification, which serves as the most refined and validated prognostic tool for estimating survival of patients with cGvHD...
March 27, 2017: Bone Marrow Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346243/modeling-flowsheet-data-to-support-secondary-use
#7
Bonnie L Westra, Beverly Christie, Steven G Johnson, Lisiane Pruinelli, Anne LaFlamme, Suzan G Sherman, Jung In Park, Connie W Delaney, Grace Gao, Stuart Speedie
The purpose of this study was to create information models from flowsheet data using a data-driven consensus-based method. Electronic health records contain a large volume of data about patient assessments and interventions captured in flowsheets that measure the same "thing," but the names of these observations often differ, according to who performs documentation or the location of the service (eg, pulse rate in an intensive care, the emergency department, or a surgical unit documented by a nurse or therapist or captured by automated monitoring)...
March 24, 2017: Computers, Informatics, Nursing: CIN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346153/national-sleep-foundation-s-sleep-quality-recommendations-first-report
#8
Maurice Ohayon, Emerson M Wickwire, Max Hirshkowitz, Steven M Albert, Alon Avidan, Frank J Daly, Yves Dauvilliers, Raffaele Ferri, Constance Fung, David Gozal, Nancy Hazen, Andrew Krystal, Kenneth Lichstein, Monica Mallampalli, Giuseppe Plazzi, Robert Rawding, Frank A Scheer, Virend Somers, Michael V Vitiello
OBJECTIVES: To provide evidence-based recommendations and guidance to the public regarding indicators of good sleep quality across the life-span. METHODS: The National Sleep Foundation assembled a panel of experts from the sleep community and representatives appointed by stakeholder organizations (Sleep Quality Consensus Panel). A systematic literature review identified 277 studies meeting inclusion criteria. Abstracts and full-text articles were provided to the panelists for review and discussion...
February 2017: Sleep Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346126/agreement-between-cytology-and-histopathology-for-regional-lymph-node-metastasis-in-dogs-with-melanocytic-neoplasms
#9
Janet A Grimes, Brad M Matz, Pete W Christopherson, Jey W Koehler, Kelsey K Cappelle, Katelyn C Hlusko, Annette Smith
Melanocytic neoplasms are common in dogs and frequently occur within the oral cavity or in haired skin. The behavior of melanocytic neoplasms is variable and depends on tumor location, size, and histopathologic features. This study compared cytopathology and histopathology of 32 lymph nodes from 27 dogs diagnosed with melanocytic neoplasms. Agreement between the original cytology report, cytology slide review, original histopathology report, and histopathology slide review was determined for each lymph node...
January 1, 2017: Veterinary Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345977/spinal-cord-injuries-overcoming-barriers-to-seamless-care-for-patients
#10
Lorraine Donovan, Lee Francis, Paula Muter, Sheila Nevin, Rebecca Warren
Patients with spinal cord injuries (SCIs) often have complex needs that require multidisciplinary support in specialist centres. Optimal management depends on seamless transitions between service providers. Delays at any point potentially compromise clinical outcomes and efficient resource utilisation. The Spinal Advisory Working Group aims to develop and implement practical initiatives to improve SCI care, initially focusing on admission and discharge. A literature review identified few relevant papers. In addition, the generalisability of the findings of these papers to SCI centres in the UK is unclear...
March 23, 2017: British Journal of Nursing: BJN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345494/adaptation-and-validation-of-the-alzheimer-s-disease-assessment-scale-cognitive-adas-cog-in-a-low-literacy-setting-in-sub-saharan-africa
#11
Stella-Maria Paddick, Aloyce Kisoli, Sarah Mkenda, Godfrey Mbowe, William Keith Gray, Catherine Dotchin, Adesola Ogunniyi, John Kisima, Olaide Olakehinde, Declare Mushi, Richard William Walker
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to assess the feasibility of a low-literacy adaptation of the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale - Cognitive (ADAS-Cog) for use in rural sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) for interventional studies in dementia. No such adaptations currently exist. METHODS: Tanzanian and Nigerian health professionals adapted the ADAS-Cog by consensus. Validation took place in a cross-sectional sample of 34 rural-dwelling older adults with mild/moderate dementia alongside 32 non-demented controls in Tanzania...
March 27, 2017: Acta Neuropsychiatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345371/ewma-document-negative-pressure-wound-therapy
#12
Jan Apelqvist, Christian Willy, Ann-Mari Fagerdahl, Marco Fraccalvieri, Malin Malmsjö, Alberto Piaggesi, Astrid Probst, Peter Vowden
1. Introduction Since its introduction in clinical practice in the early 1990's negative pressure wounds therapy (NPWT) has become widely used in the management of complex wounds in both inpatient and outpatient care.(1) NPWT has been described as a effective treatment for wounds of many different aetiologies(2,3) and suggested as a gold standard for treatment of wounds such as open abdominal wounds,(4-6) dehisced sternal wounds following cardiac surgery(7,8) and as a valuable agent in complex non-healing wounds...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Wound Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345268/target-plasma-factor-levels-for-personalized-treatment-in-haemophilia-a-delphi-consensus-statement
#13
A Iorio, E Iserman, V Blanchette, G Dolan, C Escuriola Ettingshausen, C Hermans, C Negrier, J Oldenburg, A Reininger, C Rodriguez-Merchan, M Spannagl, L A Valentino, G Young, K N Steinitz-Trost, A Gringeri
BACKGROUND: Prophylactic replacement with factor concentrate is the optimal treatment for persons with severe haemophilia to avoid or minimize bleeding. This ultimately prevents or reduces joint disease and improves life expectancy and quality of life towards values matching those in the normal population. However, uncertainty still exists around the optimal regimens to be prescribed for prophylaxis. An increasing number of treating physicians and patients are showing interest in patient-tailored approaches to prophylaxis, which aim to harmonize the prophylaxis regimen with the patients' bleeding phenotype, levels of physical activity and a variety of other variables...
March 26, 2017: Haemophilia: the Official Journal of the World Federation of Hemophilia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345246/effect-of-history-and-context-on-forensic-pathologist-interpretation-of-photographs-of-patterned-injury-of-the-skin
#14
William R Oliver
In a previous study, a survey-based analysis of pathologist diagnoses of patterned injury was performed. Subjects were provided with photographs of "classic" injuries and asked to diagnose the lesion in the absence of history or context. There was a relatively low diagnostic consensus among respondents. A second survey suggested that the disparate answers were not due to a strong belief in different diagnoses, but instead reflected how the respondents dealt with ambiguity. A third survey was created that asked participants to evaluate patterned injuries of the skin, but provided history and contextual information...
March 26, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345190/new-medicinal-products-for-chronic-heart-failure-advances-in-clinical-trial-design-and-efficacy-assessment
#15
REVIEW
Martin R Cowie, Gerasimos S Filippatos, Maria de Los Angeles Alonso Garcia, Stefan D Anker, Anna Baczynska, Daniel M Bloomfield, Maria Borentain, Karsten Bruins Slot, Maureen Cronin, Pieter A Doevendans, Amany El-Gazayerly, Claudio Gimpelewicz, Narimon Honarpour, Salim Janmohamed, Heidi Janssen, Albert M Kim, Dominik Lautsch, Ian Laws, Martin Lefkowitz, Jose Lopez-Sendon, Alexander R Lyon, Fady I Malik, John J V McMurray, Marco Metra, Santiago Figueroa Perez, Marc A Pfeffer, Stuart J Pocock, Piotr Ponikowski, Krishna Prasad, Isabelle Richard-Lordereau, Lothar Roessig, Giuseppe M C Rosano, Warren Sherman, Wendy Gattis Stough, Karl Swedberg, Benoit Tyl, Faiez Zannad, Caroline Boulton, Pieter De Graeff
Despite the availability of a number of different classes of therapeutic agents with proven efficacy in heart failure, the clinical course of heart failure patients is characterized by a reduction in life expectancy, a progressive decline in health-related quality of life and functional status, as well as a high risk of hospitalization. New approaches are needed to address the unmet medical needs of this patient population. The European Medicines Agency (EMA) is undertaking a revision of its Guideline on Clinical Investigation of Medicinal Products for the Treatment of Chronic Heart Failure...
March 27, 2017: European Journal of Heart Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345184/spatial-molecular-epidemiology-of-carbapenem-resistant-and-new-delhi-metallo-beta-lactamase-blandm-producing-escherichia-coli-strains-from-farmed-piglets-of-india
#16
B S Pruthvishree, O R Vinodh Kumar, D K Sinha, Y P S Malik, Z Dubal, P A Desingu, M Shivakumar, Narayanan Krishnaswamy, B R Singh
AIM: A cross-sectional study was conducted in ten government organized pig farms between 2014 and 2016 representing seven states of India to understand the epidemiology of carbapenem resistance in Escherichia coli isolates. METHODS AND RESULTS: In this study, 673 fecal samples both from non- diarhhoeic (n=501) and diarrhoeic (n=172) piglets were processed for isolation of carbapenem resistant E. coli. Wherein, 112 confirmed E. coli isolates were further subjected for genotypic confirmation of carbapenem resistance and virulence factors...
March 27, 2017: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344924/idiopathic-pleuroparenchymal-fibroelastosis
#17
REVIEW
Martina Bonifazi, M Angeles Montero, Elisabetta A Renzoni
PURPOSE OF THE REVIEW: Idiopathic pleuroparenchymal fibroelastosis (IPPFE) is a rare fibrosing lung disease, affecting the visceral pleura and the subpleural parenchyma with an upper lobe predilection, included as a distinct clinicopathologic entity in the latest international multidisciplinary classification of the idiopathic interstitial pneumonias (IIP). We aim to summarize the current evidence on IPPFE, in terms of clinical features and potential treatments. RECENT FINDINGS: Overall, there is increasing awareness of PPFE in association with a separate ILD pattern...
2017: Current Pulmonology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344567/does-hunger-contribute-to-socioeconomic-gradients-in-behavior
#18
Daniel Nettle
Recent research has uncovered many examples of socioeconomic gradients in behavior and psychological states. As yet there is no theoretical consensus on the nature of the causal processes that produce these gradients. Here, I present the hunger hypothesis, namely the claim that part of the reason that people of lower socioeconomic position behave and feel as they do is that they are relatively often hungry. The hunger hypothesis applies in particular to impulsivity-hyperactivity, irritability-aggression, anxiety, and persistent narcotic use, all of which have been found to show socioeconomic gradients...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344561/fetal-growth-restriction-induces-heterogeneous-effects-on-vascular-biomechanical-and-functional-properties-in-guinea-pigs-cavia-porcellus
#19
Daniel Cañas, Emilio A Herrera, Claudio García-Herrera, Diego Celentano, Bernardo J Krause
Aim: Fetal growth restriction (FGR) is associated with a variety of cardiometabolic diseases in adulthood which could involve remodeling processes of the vascular walls that could start in the fetal period. However, there is no consensus whether this remodeling affects in a similar way the whole vascular system. We aimed to determine the effects of FGR on the vasoactive and biomechanical properties of umbilical and systemic vessels in fetal guinea pigs. Methods: FGR was induced by implanting ameroid occluders at mid-gestation in uterine arteries of pregnant guinea pigs, whilst the control group was exposed to simulated surgery...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344522/vascularized-bone-grafting-in-scaphoid-nonunion-a-review-of-patient-centered-outcomes
#20
REVIEW
Ram K Alluri, Christine Yin, Matthew L Iorio, Hyuma Leland, Jason Wong, Ketan Patel
Background: The radiographic and clinical outcomes following vascularized bone grafting (VBG) for scaphoid nonunion have previously been reported in the literature; however, few studies report on patient-derived outcomes. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of VBG for scaphoid nonunion on patient-derived outcomes. Methods: The MEDLINE and PubMed databases were queried for the use of VBG in scaphoid nonunion. We included studies that reported on patient-derived outcomes. We excluded studies with less than 10 patients or less than 6 months of follow-up...
March 2017: Hand: Official Journal of the American Association for Hand Surgery
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