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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742811/decreased-rhes-mrna-levels-in-the-brain-of-patients-with-parkinson-s-disease-and-mptp-treated-macaques
#1
Francesco Napolitano, Emily Booth Warren, Sara Migliarini, Daniela Punzo, Francesco Errico, Qin Li, Marie-Laure Thiolat, Angelo Luigi Vescovi, Paolo Calabresi, Erwan Bezard, Micaela Morelli, Christine Konradi, Massimo Pasqualetti, Alessandro Usiello
In rodent and human brains, the small GTP-binding protein Rhes is highly expressed in virtually all dopaminoceptive striatal GABAergic medium spiny neurons, as well as in large aspiny cholinergic interneurons, where it is thought to modulate dopamine-dependent signaling. Consistent with this knowledge, and considering that dopaminergic neurotransmission is altered in neurological and psychiatric disorders, here we sought to investigate whether Rhes mRNA expression is altered in brain regions of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), Schizophrenia (SCZ), and Bipolar Disorder (BD), when compared to healthy controls (about 200 post-mortem samples)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742337/gallium-complexation-stability-and-bioconjugation-of-1-4-7-triazacyclononane-derived-chelators-with-azaheterocyclic-arms
#2
Alexander Schmidtke, Tilman Läppchen, Christian Weinmann, Lorenz Bier-Schorr, Manfred Keller, Yvonne Kiefer, Jason P Holland, Mark D Bartholomä
We have recently introduced a 1,4,7-triazacyclononane (TACN) based chelating system with additional five-membered azaheterocyclic substituents for complexation of radioactive Cu(2+) ions. In this work, we investigated the complexation properties of these novel chelators with Ga(3+). In labeling experiments, we could show that the penta- and hexadentate imidazole derivatives NODIA-Me 4 and NOTI-Me 1 can be labeled with (68)Ga in specific activities up to ∼30 MBq nmol(-1), while the corresponding thiazole derivative NOTThia 2 did not label satisfactorily under identical conditions...
July 25, 2017: Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742047/optimal-broadband-noise-matching-to-inductive-sensors-application-to-magnetic-particle-imaging
#3
Bo Zheng, Patrick W Goodwill, Neerav Dixit, Di Xiao, Wencong Zhang, Beliz Gunel, Kuan Lu, Greig C Scott, Steven M Conolly
Inductive sensor-based measurement techniques are useful for a wide range of biomedical applications. However, optimizing the noise performance of these sensors is challenging at broadband frequencies, owing to the frequency-dependent reactance of the sensor. In this work, we describe the fundamental limits of noise performance and bandwidth for these sensors in combination with a low-noise amplifier. We also present three equivalent methods of noise matching to inductive sensors using transformer-like network topologies...
July 20, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741426/influence-of-different-irradiation-protocols-on-vascularization-and-bone-formation-parameters-in-rat-femora
#4
Ulrike Rottensteiner-Brandl, Luitpold Distel, Martin Stumpf, Tobias Fey, Katrin Köhn, Ulf Bertram, Lara F Lingens, Peter Greil, Raymund E Horch, Andreas Arkudas
INTRODUCTION: Aim of the present study was the establishment of an efficient and reproducible model for irradiation of rat femora as a model for impaired osteogenesis and angiogenesis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Four different irradiation protocols were compared: single irradiation of the left femur with 20 Gy and explantation after 4 or 8 weeks (group A, B); three irradiation fractions at 3-4 days intervals with 10 Gy and explantation after 4 or 8 weeks (group C, D)...
July 25, 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part C, Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741097/distribution-and-phylogenetic-analysis-of-blastocystis-sp-subtypes-isolated-from-ibd-patients-and-healthy-individuals-in-iran
#5
H Mirjalali, M R Abbasi, N Naderi, Z Hasani, E S Mirsamadi, C R Stensvold, H Balaii, H Asadzadeh Aghdaei, M R Zali
Blastocystis is a single-celled intestinal parasite commonly found in humans and a broad range of animals all over the world. In humans, its role in health and disease remains unsettled. The aim of our study was to investigate the distribution of Blastocystis and Blastocystis subtypes (ST) in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and control subjects. A total of 71 stool samples were collected from IBD patients, 69 and 2 of whom had ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's Disease (CD), respectively. Moreover, 166 stool samples from healthy subjects were included as control samples...
July 25, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741092/a-potent-indolylquinoline-alleviates-growth-of-human-lung-cancer-cell-tumorspheres
#6
Yu-Ling Ni, Chang-Hung Hsieh, Seung-Hun Kim, Jing-Ping Wang, Chun-Li Su, Ching-Fa Yao, Kang Fang
To fight cancer at its roots by targeting cancer stem cells is a promising approach for therapy. Previously, an indolylquinoline derivative, 3-((7-ethyl-1H-indol-3-yl)-methyl)-2-methylquinoline (EMMQ), was reported effectively inhibiting the growth of lung cancer cells through impairment of cellular mitochondria functions. To address more on drug efficiency, the study further exploited if EMMQ can impede the propagation of tumorspheres stemmed from non-small cell lung cancer cells. EMMQ inhibited proliferation of spheroids in culture...
July 24, 2017: Apoptosis: An International Journal on Programmed Cell Death
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740849/end-cycle-sow-carcass-condemnation-in-a-french-slaughterhouse
#7
Pierre-Yves Decaudin, Didier Raboisson, Agnès Waret-Szkuta
Surveillance at an abattoir allows all animals or carcasses that present a potential public health risk to be withdrawn from the human food chain. Whole-carcass condemnation results in important economic losses, not only for the producer but also for other participants in the meat industry. Access to the personal electronic database of an abattoir in France enabled us to run logistic regression models to investigate the risk factors for whole-carcass condemnation of end-cycle sows in that abattoir. When end-cycle sows that were slaughtered and eviscerated between 22 June 2015 and 8 December 2015 (185 days) were considered (n = 19,866), the results highlighted the importance of the total theoretical time off feed, which represents the fasting period from leaving the farm of origin to the time of slaughter (including transportation and waiting time at the abattoir)...
2017: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739324/reaction-based-small-molecule-fluorescent-probes-for-dynamic-detection-of-ros-and-transient-redox-changes-in-living-cells-and-small-animals
#8
REVIEW
Rui Lü
Dynamic detection of transient redox changes in living cells and animals has broad implications for human health and disease diagnosis, because intracellular redox homeostasis regulated by reactive oxygen species (ROS) plays important role in cell functions, normal physiological functions and some serious human diseases (e.g., cancer, Alzheimer's disease, diabetes, etc.) usually have close relationship with the intracellular redox status. Small-molecule ROS-responsive fluorescent probes can act as powerful tools for dynamic detection of ROS and redox changes in living cells and animals through fluorescence imaging techniques; and great advances have been achieved recently in the design and synthesis of small-molecule ROS-responsive fluorescent probes...
July 21, 2017: Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739088/trimucrin-an-arg-gly-asp-containing-disintegrin-attenuates-myocardial-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-in-murine-by-inhibiting-platelet-function
#9
Yu-Chun Hung, Yu-Ju Kuo, Shiang-Suo Huang, Tur-Fu Huang
Trimucrin, a novel small-mass Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD)-containing disintegrin, has been demonstrated to possess anti-platelet and anti-inflammatory effect through blockade of platelet αIIbβ3 and phagocyte αvβ3 integrin. In this study, we found that the platelet-rich plasma prepared from trimucrin-treated rats platelet aggregation was diminished in response to adenosine diphosphate (ADP). We tried to determine whether trimucrin is cardioprotective in rats subjected to myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (I-R) injury...
July 21, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738970/a-predictive-focus-of-gain-modulation-encodes-target-trajectories-in-insect-vision
#10
Steven D Wiederman, Joseph M Fabian, James R Dunbier, David C O'Carroll
When a human catches a ball, they estimate future target location based on the current trajectory. How animals, small and large, encode such predictive processes at the single neuron level is unknown. Here we describe small target-selective neurons in predatory dragonflies that exhibit localized enhanced sensitivity for targets displaced to new locations just ahead of the prior path, with suppression elsewhere in the surround. This focused region of gain modulation is driven by predictive mechanisms, with the direction tuning shifting selectively to match the target's prior path...
July 25, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738007/comparison-of-intraosseous-pentobarbital-administration-and-thoracic-compression-for-euthanasia-of-anesthetized-sparrows-passer-domesticus-and-starlings-sturnus-vulgaris
#11
Joanne R Paul-Murphy, Andrew Engilis, Peter J Pascoe, D Colette Williams, Kate A Gustavsen, Tracy L Drazenovich, M Kevin Keel, Tamsen M Polley, Irene E Engilis
OBJECTIVE To compare intraosseous pentobarbital treatment (IPT) and thoracic compression (TC) on time to circulatory arrest and an isoelectric electroencephalogram (EEG) in anesthetized passerine birds. ANIMALS 30 wild-caught adult birds (17 house sparrows [Passer domesticus] and 13 European starlings [Sturnus vulgaris]). PROCEDURES Birds were assigned to receive IPT or TC (n = 6/species/group). Birds were anesthetized, and carotid arterial pulses were monitored by Doppler methodology. Five subdermal braided-wire electrodes were used for EEG...
August 2017: American Journal of Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738005/accuracy-and-repeatability-of-long-bone-replicas-of-small-animals-fabricated-by-use-of-low-end-and-high-end-commercial-three-dimensional-printers
#12
Jamie A Cone, Thomas M Martin, Denis J Marcellin-Little, Ola L A Harrysson, Emily H Griffith
OBJECTIVE To assess the repeatability and accuracy of polymer replicas of small, medium, and large long bones of small animals fabricated by use of 2 low-end and 2 high-end 3-D printers. SAMPLE Polymer replicas of a cat femur, dog radius, and dog tibia were fabricated in triplicate by use of each of four 3-D printing methods. PROCEDURES 3-D renderings of the 3 bones reconstructed from CT images were prepared, and length, width of the proximal aspect, and width of the distal aspect of each CT image were measured in triplicate...
August 2017: American Journal of Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737767/sensitive-and-non-invasive-method-for-the-in-vivo-analysis-of-membrane-permeability-in-small-animals
#13
Andrea Fernandez-Carrera, Eva Vigo, Carla Regueiro-Rodríguez, África González-Fernández, David Olivieri, Luiz S Aroeira
Tissue membranes are boundaries that isolate organs or cavities in the body. These semi-permeable membranes are responsible for passive protection that acts through the regulation of nutrient absorption, secretion and filtration of small molecules. These functions could be altered as a consequence of inflammation or trauma, which in turn could lead to changes in permeability, allowing the entrance of toxins, antigens, proteins or facilitating the spread of tumors. Membrane permeability therefore plays an important role in numerous diseases...
July 24, 2017: Laboratory Investigation; a Journal of Technical Methods and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737247/a-single-base-deletion-in-the-slc45a2-gene-in-a-bullmastiff-with-oculocutaneous-albinism
#14
M Caduff, A Bauer, V Jagannathan, T Leeb
Oculocutaneous albinism type 4 (OCA4) in humans and similar phenotypes in many animal species are caused by variants in the SLC45A2 gene, encoding a putative sugar transporter. In dog, two independent SLC45A2 variants are known that cause oculocutaneous albinism in Doberman Pinschers and several small dog breeds respectively. For the present study, we investigated a Bullmastiff with oculocutaneous albinism. The affected dog was highly inbred and resulted from the mating of a sire to its own grandmother. We obtained whole genome sequence data from the affected dog and searched specifically for variants in candidate genes known to cause albinism...
July 24, 2017: Animal Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736828/genomic-and-metabolic-characterization-of-a-chromophobe-renal-cell-carcinoma-cell-line-model-uok276
#15
Youfeng Yang, Cathy D Vocke, Christopher J Ricketts, Darmood Wei, Hesed M Padilla-Nash, Martin Lang, Carole Sourbier, J Keith Killian, Shawna L Boyle, Robert Worrell, Paul S Meltzer, Thomas Ried, Maria J Merino, Adam R Metwalli, W Marston Linehan
Chromophobe renal cell carcinoma (ChRCC) represents 5% of all RCC cases and frequently demonstrates multiple chromosomal losses and an indolent pattern of local growth, but can demonstrate aggressive features and resistance to treatment in a metastatic setting. Cell line models are an important tool for the investigation of tumor biology and therapeutic drug efficacy. Currently, there are few ChRCC-derived cell lines and none is well characterized. This study characterizes a novel ChRCC-derived cell line model, UOK276...
June 9, 2017: Genes, Chromosomes & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736668/in-vivo-photoacoustics-and-high-frequency-ultrasound-imaging-of-mechanical-high-intensity-focused-ultrasound-hifu-ablation
#16
Khalid Daoudi, Martijn Hoogenboom, Martijn den Brok, Dylan Eikelenboom, Gosse J Adema, Jürgen J Fütterer, Chris L de Korte
The thermal effect of high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) has been clinically exploited over a decade, while the mechanical HIFU is still largely confined to laboratory investigations. This is in part due to the lack of adequate imaging techniques to better understand the in-vivo pathological and immunological effects caused by the mechanical treatment. In this work, we explore the use of high frequency ultrasound (US) and photoacoustics (PA) as a potential tool to evaluate the effect of mechanical ablation in-vivo, e...
April 1, 2017: Biomedical Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736331/microbial-regulation-of-hippocampal-mirna-expression-implications-for-transcription-of-kynurenine-pathway-enzymes
#17
Gerard M Moloney, Olivia F O'Leary, Eloisa Salvo-Romero, Lieve Desbonnet, Fergus Shanahan, Timothy G Dinan, Gerard Clarke, John F Cryan
Increasing evidence points to a functional role of the enteric microbiota in brain development, function and behaviour including the regulation of transcriptional activity in the hippocampus. No changes in CNS miRNA expression have yet been linked to the colonisation status of the gut. Given the pivotal impact of miRNAs on gene expression, our study was based on the hypothesis that this would also be altered in the germ-free state in the hippocampus. We measured miRNAs in the hippocampus of Germ free (GF), conventional (C) and Germ free colonised (GFC) Swiss Webster mice...
July 20, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736221/scaffold-curvature-mediated-novel-biomineralization-process-originates-a-continuous-soft-tissue-to-bone-interface
#18
Michael Paris, Andreas Götz, Inga Hettrich, Cécile M Bidan, John W C Dunlop, Hajar Razi, Ivo Zizak, Dietmar W Hutmacher, Peter Fratzl, Georg N Duda, Wolfgang Wagermaier, Amaia Cipitria
A myriad of shapes are found in biological tissues, often naturally evolved to fulfill a particular function. In the field of tissue engineering, substrate geometry influences cell behavior and tissue formation in-vitro, yet little is known how this translates to an in-vivo scenario. Here we investigate scaffold curvature-induced tissue growth, without additional growth factors or cells, in an ovine animal model. We show that soft tissue formation follows a curvature-driven tissue growth model. The highly organized endogenous soft matrix, potentially under mechanical strain, leads to a non-standard form of biomineralization, whereby the pre-existing organic matrix is mineralized without collagen remodeling and without an intermediate cartilage ossification phase...
July 20, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736167/an-actomyosin-arf-gef-negative-feedback-loop-for-tissue-elongation-under-stress
#19
Junior J West, Teresa Zulueta-Coarasa, Janna A Maier, Donghoon M Lee, Ashley E E Bruce, Rodrigo Fernandez-Gonzalez, Tony J C Harris
In response to a pulling force, a material can elongate, hold fast, or fracture. During animal development, multi-cellular contraction of one region often stretches neighboring tissue. Such local contraction occurs by induced actomyosin activity, but molecular mechanisms are unknown for regulating the physical properties of connected tissue for elongation under stress. We show that cytohesins, and their Arf small G protein guanine nucleotide exchange activity, are required for tissues to elongate under stress during both Drosophila dorsal closure (DC) and zebrafish epiboly...
July 13, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736164/idiothetic-path-integration-in-the-fruit-fly-drosophila-melanogaster
#20
Irene S Kim, Michael H Dickinson
After discovering a small drop of food, hungry flies exhibit a peculiar behavior in which they repeatedly stray from, but then return to, the newly discovered resource. To study this behavior in more detail, we tracked hungry Drosophila as they explored a large arena, focusing on the question of how flies remain near the food. To determine whether flies use external stimuli, we individually eliminated visual, olfactory, and pheromonal cues. In all cases, flies still exhibited a centralized search behavior, suggesting that none of these cues are absolutely required for navigation back to the food...
July 11, 2017: Current Biology: CB
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