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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905914/development-of-a-gene-synthesis-platform-for-the-efficient-large-scale-production-of-small-genes-encoding-animal-toxins
#1
Ana Filipa Sequeira, Joana L A Brás, Catarina I P D Guerreiro, Renaud Vincentelli, Carlos M G A Fontes
BACKGROUND: Gene synthesis is becoming an important tool in many fields of recombinant DNA technology, including recombinant protein production. De novo gene synthesis is quickly replacing the classical cloning and mutagenesis procedures and allows generating nucleic acids for which no template is available. In addition, when coupled with efficient gene design algorithms that optimize codon usage, it leads to high levels of recombinant protein expression. RESULTS: Here, we describe the development of an optimized gene synthesis platform that was applied to the large scale production of small genes encoding venom peptides...
December 1, 2016: BMC Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904930/micrornas-in-bone-diseases
#2
REVIEW
L Gennari, S Bianciardi, D Merlotti
MicroRNAs are small, noncoding single-stranded RNAs that have emerged as important posttranscriptional regulators of gene expression, with an essential role in vertebrate development and different biological processes. This review highlights the recent advances in the function of miRNAs and their roles in bone remodeling and bone diseases. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small (∼22 nt), noncoding single-stranded RNAs that have emerged as important posttranscriptional regulators of gene expression. They are essential for vertebrate development and play critical roles in different biological processes related to cell differentiation, activity, metabolism, and apoptosis...
November 30, 2016: Osteoporosis International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904786/a-targeted-metabolomics-assay-to-measure-eight-purines-in-the-diet-of-common-bottlenose-dolphins-tursiops-truncatus
#3
A J Ardente, T J Garrett, R S Wells, M Walsh, C R Smith, J Colee, R C Hill
Bottlenose dolphins managed under human care, human beings and Dalmatian dogs are prone to forming urate uroliths. Limiting dietary purine intake limits urate urolith formation in people and dogs because purines are metabolized to uric acid, which is excreted in urine. Managed dolphins develop ammonium urate nephroliths, whereas free-ranging dolphins do not. Free-ranging dolphins consume live fish, whereas managed dolphins consume different species that have been stored frozen and thawed. Differences in the purine content of fish consumed by dolphins under human care versus in the wild may be responsible for the difference in urolith prevalence...
October 2016: Journal of Chromatography & Separation Techniques
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903744/metallothionein-is-downstream-of-nrf2-and-partially-mediates-sulforaphane-prevention-of-diabetic-cardiomyopathy
#4
Junlian Gu, Yanli Cheng, Hao Wu, Lili Kong, Shudong Wang, Zheng Xu, Zhiguo Zhang, Yi Tan, Bradley B Keller, Honglan Zhou, Yuehui Wang, Zhonggao Xu, Lu Cai
We have reported that sulforaphane prevented diabetic cardiomyopathy in both T1DM and T2DM animal models via the up-regulation of Nrf2 and metallothionein (MT). Here we tested whether sulforaphane protects the heart from T2DM directly through Nrf2, MT or both. Using Nrf2-knockout (KO), MT-KO, and wild-type mice T2DM was induced by feeding high-fat diet (HFD) for 3 months followed by a small dose of streptozotocin. Age-matched controls were given normal diet (ND). Both T2DM and control mice were then treated with or without sulforaphane for 4 months with continually feeding HFD or ND...
November 30, 2016: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903519/dairy-intake-and-fecundability-in-2-preconception-cohort-studies
#5
Lauren A Wise, Amelia K Wesselink, Ellen M Mikkelsen, Heidi Cueto, Kristen A Hahn, Kenneth J Rothman, Katherine L Tucker, Henrik Toft Sørensen, Elizabeth E Hatch
BACKGROUND: Animal studies have shown that a high intake of galactose, a breakdown product of lactose, increases ovarian toxicity. Few epidemiologic studies, to our knowledge, have examined the association between dairy intake and fertility, and they have had conflicting findings. OBJECTIVE: We prospectively evaluated dairy intake in relation to fecundability among women who were planning for pregnancy. DESIGN: Data were derived from preconception cohort studies in Denmark (Snart Foraeldre) and North America [PRESTO (Pregnancy Study Online)] in which women completed a validated food-frequency questionnaire 10 d after enrollment...
November 30, 2016: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903314/pudong-white-pig-a-unique-genetic-resource-disclosed-by-sequencing-data
#6
Q Xiao, Z Zhang, H Sun, Q Wang, Y Pan
Pudong White (PW) pigs are distributed in the Taihu region of China and are characterized by their completely white coats. A heated debate concerning this genetic resource and its relationship to Taihu and western pig breeds has arisen, due to the white coat of the animals. To determine whether PW is a unique genetic resource, we performed a detailed assessment of the genetic relationships among PW, six breeds from the Taihu population and three western pig breeds, based on whole-genome single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data...
December 1, 2016: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903258/catwalk-gait-analysis-in-a-rat-model-of-multiple-sclerosis
#7
Sabine Herold, Prateek Kumar, Klaus Jung, Irina Graf, Henrike Menkhoff, Xenia Schulz, Mathias Bähr, Katharina Hein
BACKGROUND: Myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG)-induced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is a widely used animal model for multiple sclerosis. The characteristic feature of the MOG-EAE model in Brown Norway rats is consistent involvement of the spinal cord resulting in limb paresis. The aim of the study was to investigate whether early subclinical gait abnormalities are present in this animal model and can be detected by CatWalk XT, a fully automated gait analysis system...
November 30, 2016: BMC Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902747/joint-profiling-of-mirnas-and-mrnas-reveals-mirna-mediated-gene-regulation-in-the-g%C3%A3-ttingen-minipig-obesity-model
#8
Caroline M Junker Mentzel, Ferhat Alkan, Helle Keinicke, Mette J Jacobsen, Jan Gorodkin, Merete Fredholm, Susanna Cirera
Obesity and its comorbidities are an increasing challenge for both affected individuals and health care systems, worldwide. In obese individuals, perturbation of expression of both protein-coding genes and microRNAs (miRNA) are seen in obesity-relevant tissues (i.e. adipose tissue, liver and skeletal muscle). miRNAs are small non-coding RNA molecules which have important regulatory roles in a wide range of biological processes, including obesity. Rodents are widely used animal models for human diseases including obesity...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902696/interglomerular-connectivity-within-the-canonical-and-gc-d-necklace-olfactory-subsystems
#9
Cedric R Uytingco, Adam C Puche, Steven D Munger
The mammalian main olfactory system contains several subsystems that differ not only in the receptors they express and the glomerular targets they innervate within the main olfactory bulb (MOB), but also in the strategies they use to process odor information. The canonical main olfactory system employs a combinatorial coding strategy that represents odorant identity as a pattern of glomerular activity. By contrast, the "GC-D/necklace" olfactory subsystem-formed by olfactory sensory neurons expressing the receptor guanylyl cyclase GC-D and their target necklace glomeruli (NGs) encircling the caudal MOB-is critical for the detection of a small number of semiochemicals that promote the acquisition of food preferences...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902358/wolbachia-suppresses-cell-fusing-agent-virus-in-mosquito-cells
#10
Guagmei Zhang, Kayvan Etebari, Sassan Asgari
The genus Flavivirus contains a large number of positive sense single-stranded RNA viruses. While some are transmitted by mosquitoes or other arthropods and are pathogenic to humans and animals (e.g. dengue and Zika viruses), some are insect-specific and do not replicate in vertebrate cells. These are known as insect-specific flaviviruses (ISFs). Cell fusing agent virus (CFAV) was the first described ISF, which was detected in an Aedes aegypti cell line, Aag2. Here, we investigated the effect of Wolbachia, a widespread endosymbiont of many insect species, that is known to block replication of several pathogenic flaviviruses, on CFAV...
November 8, 2016: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901510/genetic-heterogeneity-underlying-variation-in-a-locally-adaptive-clinal-trait-in-pinus-sylvestris-revealed-by-a-bayesian-multipopulation-analysis
#11
S T Kujala, T Knürr, K Kärkkäinen, D B Neale, M J Sillanpää, O Savolainen
Local adaptation is a common feature of plant and animal populations. Adaptive phenotypic traits are genetically differentiated along environmental gradients, but the genetic basis of such adaptation is still poorly known. Genetic association studies of local adaptation combine data over populations. Correcting for population structure in these studies can be problematic since both selection and neutral demographic events can create similar allele frequency differences between populations. Correcting for demography with traditional methods may lead to eliminating some true associations...
November 30, 2016: Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901390/effects-of-various-antiplatelet-drugs-on-ex-vivo-platelet-activation-induced-by-equine-herpesvirus-type-1
#12
Daniela Hernandez, Wee Ming Yeo, Marjory B Brooks, Sally L Ness, Thomas J Divers, Tracy Stokol
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the effects of treatment of horses with standard platelet inhibitors on ex vivo inhibition of platelet activation by equine herpesvirus type I (EHV-I). ANIMALS II healthy adult horses. PROCEDURES In a double-blinded, placebo-controlled crossover study, horses were treated orally for 5 days with theophylline (5 mg/kg, q 12 h), pentoxifylline (10 mg/kg, q 12 h), clopidogrel bisulfate (4 mg/kg, q 24 h), acetylsalicylic acid (20 mg/kg, q 24 h), or placebo. Horses received all treatments, each separated by a 3-week washout period...
December 2016: American Journal of Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901267/binge-alcohol-intake-after-hypergravity-stress-sustainably-decreases-ampk-and-transcription-factors-necessary-for-hepatocyte-survival
#13
Sang Gil Lee, Hong Min Wu, Chan Gyu Lee, Choong Sik Oh, So Won Chung, Sang Geon Kim
BACKGROUND: Binge alcohol consumption elicits mitochondrial dysfunction in hepatocytes. An understanding of the effect of ethanol (EtOH) exposure after hypergravity stress on liver function may assist in the implementation of pathophysiological countermeasures for aerospace missions. This study investigated whether a combination of hypergravity stress and binge alcohol intake has a detrimental effect on AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and other molecules necessary for hepatocyte survival...
November 30, 2016: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901125/rab14-specifies-the-apical-membrane-through-arf6-mediated-regulation-of-lipid-domains-and-cdc42
#14
Ruifeng Lu, Jean M Wilson
The generation of cell polarity is essential for the development of multi-cellular organisms as well as for the function of epithelial organs in the mature animal. Small GTPases regulate the establishment and maintenance of polarity through effects on cytoskeleton, membrane trafficking, and signaling. Using short-term 3-dimensional culture of MDCK cells, we find that the small GTPase Rab14 is required for apical membrane specification. Rab14 knockdown results in disruption of polarized lipid domains and failure of the Par/aPKC/Cdc42 polarity complex to localize to the apical membrane...
November 30, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901096/image-based-in-vivo-assessment-of-targeting-accuracy-of-stereotactic-brain-surgery-in-experimental-rodent-models
#15
Janaki Raman Rangarajan, Greetje Vande Velde, Friso van Gent, Philippe De Vloo, Tom Dresselaers, Maarten Depypere, Kris van Kuyck, Bart Nuttin, Uwe Himmelreich, Frederik Maes
Stereotactic neurosurgery is used in pre-clinical research of neurological and psychiatric disorders in experimental rat and mouse models to engraft a needle or electrode at a pre-defined location in the brain. However, inaccurate targeting may confound the results of such experiments. In contrast to the clinical practice, inaccurate targeting in rodents remains usually unnoticed until assessed by ex vivo end-point histology. We here propose a workflow for in vivo assessment of stereotactic targeting accuracy in small animal studies based on multi-modal post-operative imaging...
November 30, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901039/early-factors-related-to-carbohydrate-and-fat-intake-at-8-and-12-months-results-from-the-eden-mother-child-cohort
#16
W L Yuan, S Nicklaus, S Lioret, C Lange, A Forhan, B Heude, M-A Charles, B de Lauzon-Guillain
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Few studies have examined the factors explaining the variability in fat and carbohydrate intake during infancy. We aimed to describe infants' fat and carbohydrate intake and analyse the associations with infant and maternal characteristics and feeding practices. SUBJECTS/METHODS: This study included 1275 infants aged 8 months from the French EDEN mother-child cohort. Carbohydrate intake, fat intake, added fat (vegetable oils and animal fats) and added sugar (honey, white sugar, brown sugar, jam and sweetened beverages) consumption were calculated at 8 and 12 months...
November 30, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900853/an-injectable-click-cross-linked-small-intestinal-submucosa-drug-depot-for-the-treatment-of-rheumatoid-arthritis
#17
Kyungsook Kim, Ji Hoon Park, Seung Hun Park, Hye Yun Lee, Jae Ho Kim, Moon Suk Kim
Here, a click-cross-linked small intestine submucosa (SIS) drug depot is described for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). To the best of the knowledge, there have been no studies related to the intra-articular injection of methotrexate (Met)-loaded click-cross-linkable SIS (Met-loaded Cx-SIS) for RA treatment. As the key objective of this work, injectable formulations of tetrazine-modified SIS (TE-SIS) and transcyclooctene-modified SIS (TC-SIS) are employed as drug depots. Within a few seconds, the simple mixing of equal amounts of TE-SIS and TC-SIS suspensions forms a gelatinous click-cross-linked SIS (Cx-SIS) drug depot in vitro and in vivo...
November 30, 2016: Advanced Healthcare Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900781/the-present-and-future-of-opioid-analgesics-in-small-animal-practice
#18
REVIEW
B T Simon, P V Steagall
Opioids are the cornerstone for the treatment of acute pain in small animal patients. This is primarily because of their remarkable safety profile, high efficacy, and benefit of reversibility. There have been some significant advances in our knowledge on opioid pharmacology and clinical usage in companion animal medicine. This review discusses the progression of opioid use in small animal practice providing current misconceptions and controversies in light of routes of administration. Potential targets for research and drug development and novel therapies are discussed in addition to the concepts of glial cell modulators, individual variability, and opioid tolerance and hyperalgesia...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900695/function-based-metagenomic-library-screening-and-heterologous-expression-strategy-for-genes-encoding-phosphatase-activity
#19
Genis A Castillo Villamizar, Heiko Nacke, Rolf Daniel
The release of phosphate from inorganic and organic phosphorus compounds can be mediated enzymatically. Phosphate-releasing enzymes, comprising acid and alkaline phosphatases, are recognized as useful biocatalysts in applications such as plant and animal nutrition, bioremediation and diagnostic analysis. Metagenomic approaches provide access to novel phosphatase-encoding genes. Here, we describe a function-based screening approach for rapid identification of genes conferring phosphatase activity from small-insert and large-insert metagenomic libraries derived from various environments...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900568/control-of-phosphate-balance-by-the-kidney-and-intestine
#20
REVIEW
Ichiro Kaneko, Sawako Tatsumi, Hiroko Segawa, Ken-Ichi Miyamoto
The prevention and correction of hyperphosphatemia are major goals of the treatment of chronic kidney disease (CKD)-bone mineral disorders, and thus, Pi balance requires special attention. Pi balance is maintained by intestinal absorption, renal excretion, and bone accretion. The kidney is mainly responsible for the plasma Pi concentration. In CKD, reduced glomerular filtration rate leads to various Pi metabolism abnormalities, and Pi absorption in the small intestine also has an important role in Pi metabolism...
November 30, 2016: Clinical and Experimental Nephrology
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