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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339648/three-dimensional-testicular-organoid-a-novel-tool-for-the-study-of-human-spermatogenesis-and-gonadotoxicity-in-vitro%C3%A2
#1
Samuel S Pendergraft, Hooman Sadri-Ardekani, Anthony Atala, Colin E Bishop
Existing methods for evaluating the potential gonadotoxicity of environmental agents and pharmaceutical compounds rely heavily on animal studies. The current gold standard in vivo functional assays in animals are limited in their human predictive capacity. In addition, existing human two-dimensional in vitro models of testicular toxicity do not accurately reflect the in vivo situation. A more reliable testicular in vitro model system is needed to better assess the gonadotoxic potential of drugs prior to progression into clinical trials...
February 17, 2017: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339553/de-and-recellularization-of-the-pig-uterus-a-bioengineering-pilot-study%C3%A2
#2
Hannes Campo, Pedro M Baptista, Nuria López-Pérez, Amparo Faus, Irene Cervelló, Carlos Simón
Absolute uterine factor infertility, or the absence of a functional uterus, has a prevalence of 3%-5% in the general population. Despite the great strides being made in reproductive medicine, patients diagnosed with absolute uterine factor infertility remain untreatable. The only available solution has been gestational surrogacy, but recently the Brannström group presented a viable alternative by reporting the first successful live birth after uterus transplantation. Similar to other transplantations, this approach has inherent limitations such as the paucity of donor organs and the need for long-term immunosuppression...
December 27, 2016: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339393/postscription-what-lies-beneath-potentially-harmful-excipients-to-avoid-when-compounding-for-small-animals-a-note-of-caution
#3
Erika Rost
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: International Journal of Pharmaceutical Compounding
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339301/cultivation-of-human-oral-mucosal-explants-on-contact-lenses
#4
Barbara Zsebik, László Ujlaky-Nagy, Gergely Losonczy, György Vereb, Lili Takács
Purpose/Aim: Autologous cultivated oral mucosal (OM) epithelial transplantation has been successfully used as corneal epithelial replacement in bilateral limbal stem cell deficiency. Recently, lotrafilcon A contact lens (CL) surface was described as a suitable carrier for cultured stem cells in corneal epithelial transplantation. Our aim was to establish explant cultures from human OM on CL carriers that are free of animal-derived materials and feeder cells. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Human cadaveric 2 mm OM explants were sutured onto CL surfaces and cultivated with fetal calf serum (FCS) or human serum (HS) supplemented culture medium without feeder cells...
March 24, 2017: Current Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339120/accessing-structurally-diverse-near-infrared-cyanine-dyes-for-folate-receptor-targeted-cancer-cell-staining
#5
Sandra G König, Roland Krämer
Folate receptor (FR) targeting is one of the most promising strategies for the development of small-molecule based cancer imaging agents since the FR is highly overexpressed on the surface of many cancer cell types. FR-targeted conjugates of NIR emissive cyanine dyes are in advanced clinical trials for fluorescence-guided surgery and are valuable research tools for optical molecular imaging in animal models. Only a small number of promising conjugates has been evaluated so far. Analysis of structure-performance relations to identify critical factors modulating the performance of targeted conjugates is essential for successful further optimization...
March 24, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338896/rapid-evolution-of-microrna-loci-in-the-brown-algae
#6
J Mark Cock, Fuli Liu, Delin Duan, Simon Bourdareau, Agnieszka Lipinska, Susana M Coelho, James E Tarver
Stringent searches for microRNAs (miRNAs) have so far only identified these molecules in animals, land plants, chlorophyte green algae, slime molds and brown algae. The identification of miRNAs in brown algae was based on analysis of a single species, the filamentous brown alga Ectocarpus sp. Here we have used deep sequencing of small RNAs and a recently published genome sequence to identify miRNAs in a second brown alga, the kelp Saccharina japonica. S. japonica possesses a large number of miRNAs (117) and these miRNAs are highly diverse, falling into 98 different families...
March 3, 2017: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338802/cross-species-genome-wide-identification-of-evolutionary-conserved-microproteins
#7
Daniel Straub, Stephan Wenkel
MicroProteins are small single-domain proteins that act by engaging their targets into different, sometimes non-productive protein complexes. In order to identify novel microProteins in any sequenced genome of interest, we have developed miPFinder, a program that identifies and classifies potential microProteins. In the past years, several microProteins have been discovered in plants where they are mainly involved in the regulation of development by fine-tuning transcription factor activities. The miPFinder algorithm identifies all up to date known plant microProteins and extends the microProtein concept beyond transcription factors to other protein families...
March 2, 2017: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338595/3-0-nacl-adenosine-lidocaine-mg-2-alm-bolus-and-4-hours-drip-infusion-reduces-non-compressible-hemorrhage-by-60-in-a-rat-model
#8
Hayley L Letson, Geoffrey P Dobson
BACKGROUND: Noncompressible torso hemorrhage is the leading cause of potentially survivable trauma in far-forward combat environments. Our aim was to examine the effect of small-volume 3% NaCl adenosine, lidocaine and Mg (ALM) bolus and 0.9% NaCl/ALM 'drip' on survivability and cardiac/gut/kidney function in a rat model of hepatic hemorrhage and shock. METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley rats (428±4 g) were anesthetized and randomly assigned to one of five groups (n=16): 1) Sham, 2) No Treatment, 3) Saline controls, 4) ALM therapy and 5) Hextend®...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338461/mesenchymal-stem-cells-suppress-chronic-rejection-in-heterotopic-small-intestine-transplant-rat-models-via-inhibition-of-cd68-transforming-growth-factor-%C3%AE-1-and-platelet-derived-growth-factor-expression
#9
Fuxin Li, Jisen Cao, Zhicheng Zhao, Chuan Li, Feng Qi, Tong Liu
OBJECTIVES: Mesenchymal stem cells are easy to obtain and expand, with characteristics of low immunogenicity and strong tissue repair capacity. In this study, our aim was to investigate the role of mesenchymal stem cells in chronic immune rejection of heterotopic small intestine transplant in rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: After successfully constructing a rat chronic immune rejection model of heterotopic small intestine transplant, we infused mesenchymal stem cells into the animal recipients...
April 2017: Experimental and Clinical Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338001/renin-angiotensin-system-acting-on-reactive-oxygen-species-in-paraventricular-nucleus-induces-sympathetic-activation-via-at1r-pkc%C3%AE-rac1-pathway-in-salt-induced-hypertension
#10
Qing Su, Chan-Juan Huo, Hong-Bao Li, Kai-Li Liu, Xiang Li, Qing Yang, Xin-Ai Song, Wen-Sheng Chen, Wei Cui, Guo-Qing Zhu, Xiao-Lian Shi, Jin-Jun Liu, Yu-Ming Kang
Brain renin-angiotensin system (RAS) could regulate oxidative stress in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) in the development of hypertension. This study was designed to explore the precise mechanisms of RAS acting on reactive oxygen species (ROS) in salt-induced hypertension. Male Wistar rats were administered with a high-salt diet (HS, 8.0% NaCl) for 8 weeks to induced hypertension. Those rats were received PVN infusion of AT1R antagonist losartan (LOS, 10 μg/h) or microinjection of small interfering RNAs for protein kinase C γ (PKCγ siRNA) once a day for 2 weeks...
March 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337932/stroke-lesions-in-a-large-upper-limb-rehabilitation-trial-cohort-rarely-match-lesions-in-common-preclinical-models
#11
Matthew A Edwardson, Ximing Wang, Brent Liu, Li Ding, Christianne J Lane, Caron Park, Monica A Nelsen, Theresa A Jones, Steven L Wolf, Carolee J Winstein, Alexander W Dromerick
BACKGROUND: Stroke patients with mild-moderate upper extremity motor impairments and minimal sensory and cognitive deficits provide a useful model to study recovery and improve rehabilitation. Laboratory-based investigators use lesioning techniques for similar goals. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether stroke lesions in an upper extremity rehabilitation trial cohort match lesions from the preclinical stroke recovery models used to drive translational research. METHODS: Clinical neuroimages from 297 participants enrolled in the Interdisciplinary Comprehensive Arm Rehabilitation Evaluation (ICARE) study were reviewed...
January 1, 2017: Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337875/the-pig-as-a-model-for-premature-infants-the-importance-of-immunoglobulin-supplementation-for-growth-and-development
#12
A Socha-Banasiak, S Pierzynowski, J Woliński, D Grujic, M Boryczka, P Grzesiak, P Szczurek, E Czkwianianc, B Westrom, K Goncharova
Preterm human neonates, contrary to preterm piglets, obtain immunoglobulins from their mothers via the placenta during intrauterine development. However, one should note that the majority of trans-placental transfer of immunoglobulins in humans takes place during the last trimester of pregnancy. It is also known that the feeding of limited amounts of colostrum or systemic infusion of small amounts of serum improves the survival of preterm and full-term piglets. Full-term piglets deprived of their mother’s immunoglobulins exhibit strong apathy and develop watery diarrhoea, often resulting in death...
January 2017: Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337596/prolactin-regulation-of-the-hpa-axis-is-not-mediated-by-a-direct-action-upon-crh-neurons-evidence-from-the-rat-and-mouse
#13
Papillon Gustafson, Ilona Kokay, Tony Sapsford, Stephen Bunn, David Grattan
Centrally acting prolactin has been shown to have anti-stress effects by modulating the activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. We tested the hypothesis that prolactin directly targets hypothalamic corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) neurons. In situ hybridisation confirmed expression of mRNA encoding the long, but not the short, isoform of the prolactin receptor (PRLR) within the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the virgin rat; however, only 6% of CRH neurons expressed long-form Prlr mRNA. Examination of the functional response of CRH neurons to intracerebroventricular prolactin (500 ng) showed that these neurons did not respond with activation of phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 (pSTAT5), a marker of long-form PRLR activation...
March 23, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337572/genetic-appraisal-of-serological-response-post-vaccination-against-enterotoxaemia-et-in-malpura-and-avikalin-sheep
#14
G R Gowane, Najif Akram, L L L Prince, Ved Prakash, Arun Kumar
Enterotoxaemia (ET) is a fatal enteric disease of small ruminants attributable to a toxigenic type of Clostridium perfringens. The key strategy for prevention of ET is the management and vaccination. Present study aimed at identifying the sources of variation for ET vaccine response especially against epsilon toxin in 173 sheep that included 83 Avikalin and 90 Malpura lambs raised at the institute flock in the semi-arid region of India. The mean age at vaccination was 90 days. Sera were tested by blocking ELISA...
March 23, 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337193/baicalin-protects-mice-from-lethal-infection-by-enterohemorrhagic-escherichia-coli
#15
Yong Zhang, Zhimin Qi, Yan Liu, Wenqi He, Cheng Yang, Quan Wang, Jing Dong, Xuming Deng
Shiga-like toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O157:H7 poses grave challenges to public health by its ability to cause severe colonic diseases and renal failure in both human and animals. Shiga-like toxins are the major pathogenic factor for some highly virulent E. coli expecially Shiga-like toxin 2. Conventional treatments such as antibiotics can facilitate the release of the toxin thus potentially exacerbate the diseases. Small molecule inhibitors and antibodies capable of neutralizing the toxins are the two major venues for the development of therapeutics against enterohemorrhagic serotype E...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337128/connexin36-expression-in-the-mammalian-retina-a-multiple-species-comparison
#16
Tamás Kovács-Öller, Gábor Debertin, Márton Balogh, Alma Ganczer, József Orbán, Miklós Nyitrai, Lajos Balogh, Orsolya Kántor, Béla Völgyi
Much knowledge about interconnection of human retinal neurons is inferred from results on animal models. Likewise, there is a lack of information on human retinal electrical synapses/gap junctions (GJ). Connexin36 (Cx36) forms GJs in both the inner and outer plexiform layers (IPL and OPL) in most species including humans. However, a comparison of Cx36 GJ distribution in retinas of humans and popular animal models has not been presented. To this end a multiple-species comparison was performed in retinas of 12 mammals including humans to survey the Cx36 distribution...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336945/x-ray-dark-field-radiography-facilitates-the-diagnosis-of-pulmonary-fibrosis-in-a-mouse-model
#17
Katharina Hellbach, Andre Yaroshenko, Konstantin Willer, Thomas M Conlon, Margarita B Braunagel, Sigrid Auweter, Ali Ö Yildirim, Oliver Eickelberg, Franz Pfeiffer, Maximilian F Reiser, Felix G Meinel
The aim of this study was to evaluate whether diagnosing pulmonary fibrosis with projection radiography can be improved by using X-ray dark-field radiograms. Pulmonary X-ray transmission and dark-field images of C57Bl/6N mice, either treated with bleomycin to induce pulmonary fibrosis or PBS to serve as controls, were acquired with a prototype grating-based small-animal scanner. Two blinded readers, both experienced radiologists and familiar with dark-field imaging, had to assess dark-field and transmission images for the absence or presence of fibrosis...
March 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336321/the-histological-and-histomorphometric-changes-in-the-mandible-after-radiotherapy-an-animal-model
#18
Lucas J Poort, Johan H B Ludlage, Nienke Lie, Roland A Böckmann, Jim C E Odekerken, Frank J Hoebers, Peter A W H Kessler
PURPOSE: Approximately 5% of irradiated head and neck cancer patients develop osteoradionecrosis of the mandible. The current non-surgical treatment options for osteoradionecrosis have limited effects and are based on a small number of studies. Therefore, we aimed to enhance the understanding of the pathophysiology of osteoradionecrosis by investigating changes induced by external irradiation in mini-pigs. METHODS: Sixteen Göttingen mini-pigs were divided into four groups for the application in two fractions with total equivalent radiation dosages of 25, 50, 70 Gray, and one group served as control...
February 20, 2017: Journal of Cranio-maxillo-facial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335741/high-throughput-sequencing-of-pituitary-and-hypothalamic-microrna-transcriptome-associated-with-high-rate-of-egg-production
#19
Nan Wu, Qing Zhu, Binlong Chen, Jian Gao, Zhongxian Xu, Diyan Li
BACKGROUND: MicroRNAs exist widely in viruses, plants and animals. As endogenous small non-coding RNAs, miRNAs regulate a variety of biological processes. Tissue miRNA expression studies have discovered numerous functions for miRNAs in various tissues of chicken, but the regulation of miRNAs in chicken pituitary and hypothalamic development related to high and low egg-laying performance has remained unclear. RESULTS: In this study, using high-throughput sequencing technology, we sequenced two tissues (pituitary and hypothalamus) in 3 high- and 3 low-rate egg production Luhua chickens at the age of 300 days...
March 23, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335731/highly-diverse-population-of-picornaviridae-and-other-members-of-the-picornavirales-in-cameroonian-fruit-bats
#20
Claude Kwe Yinda, Roland Zell, Ward Deboutte, Mark Zeller, Nádia Conceição-Neto, Elisabeth Heylen, Piet Maes, Nick J Knowles, Stephen Mbigha Ghogomu, Marc Van Ranst, Jelle Matthijnssens
BACKGROUND: The order Picornavirales represents a diverse group of positive-stranded RNA viruses with small non-enveloped icosahedral virions. Recently, bats have been identified as an important reservoir of several highly pathogenic human viruses. Since many members of the Picornaviridae family cause a wide range of diseases in humans and animals, this study aimed to characterize members of the order Picornavirales in fruit bat populations located in the Southwest region of Cameroon...
March 23, 2017: BMC Genomics
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