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Durga Mahor, Anu Priyanka, Gandham S Prasad, Krishan Gopal Thakur
Consumption of foods and beverages with high purine content increases the risk of hyperuricemia, which causes gout and can lead to cardiovascular, renal, and other metabolic disorders. As patients often find dietary restrictions challenging, enzymatically lowering purine content in popular foods and beverages offers a safe and attractive strategy to control hyperuricemia. Here, we report structurally and functionally characterized purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP) from Kluyveromyces lactis (KlacPNP), a key enzyme involved in the purine degradation pathway...
2016: PloS One
Zhong-Jie Wang, Ling Qin, Jin-Xi Chen, He-Gen Zheng
Two luminescent Cd(II) metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) were prepared from electron-rich π-conjugated fluorescent ligands. They are isostructural with sql nets. Their strong luminescences can be quenched by a series of nitroaromatic explosives. Notably, MOF 1 shows highly selective and sensitive detection of 4-nitrophenol (4-NP), while MOF 2 exhibits good responses toward picric acid (PA) compared with other nitroaromatic explosives. This different order of quenching efficiency is because there are H-bonding interactions between MOF 1 and 4-NP, while MOF 2 lacks these H-bonding interactions...
October 21, 2016: Inorganic Chemistry
Li Wu, Jie Li, Hui Li Xu, Bo Xu, Xian Hong Tong, Joanne Kwak-Kim, Yu Sheng Liu
PROBLEM: We aim to investigate a possible role of IL-7/IL-7R signaling pathway in recurrent pregnancy losses (RPL). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Using the abortion-prone (AP) and non-abortion-prone (NP) mice model, fetal resorption rates (FRR), Th17 and Treg cells-related factors, and the effect of IL-7 and IL-7R antagonist were investigated by flow cytometry, quantitative real-time PCR, and immunohistochemistry. IL-7 and IL-7R expressions in human decidua were investigated by immunohistochemistry...
October 21, 2016: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology: AJRI
Xiaoli Xu, Yue Wu, Mingyang Hu, Xiang Li, Qichao Bao, Jinlei Bian, Qidong You, Xiaojin Zhang
DDO-6101, a simplified structure obtained from the Garcinia natural product (NP) gambogic acid (GA), has been previously shown to possess high cytotoxicity to a variety of human tumour cell lines. To improve its physicochemical properties and in vivo cytotoxic potency, a series of novel carbamate-bearing derivatives based on DDO-6101 was synthesized and characterized. The structural modifications revealed that the presence of a carbamate moiety was useful for obtaining comparable cytotoxicity and improved aqueous solubility and permeability...
October 21, 2016: Scientific Reports
Javier Díez
Natriuretic peptides (NPs) promote diuresis, natriuresis and vasodilation in early chronic heart failure (CHF), countering renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) and sympathetic nervous system (SNS) overstimulation. Despite dramatic increases in circulating NP concentrations as CHF progresses, their effects become blunted. Increases in diuresis, natriuresis, and vasodilation after administration of exogenous atrial (ANP) or brain (BNP) natriuretic peptides are attenuated in patients with advanced CHF compared with controls...
October 21, 2016: European Journal of Heart Failure
Eun Ho Kim, Mi-Sook Kim, Kyung-Hee Lee, Jae-Soo Koh, Won-Gyun Jung, Chang-Bae Kong
To overcome radioresistance in the treatment of osteosarcoma, a primary malignant tumor of the bone, radiotherapy is generally combined with radiosensitizers. The purpose of this study was to investigate a third-generation bisphosphonate, zoledronic acid (ZOL), as a radiosensitizer for osteosarcoma. We found that exposure of KHOS/NP osteosarcoma cells to 20 μM ZOL decreased the γ-radiation dose needed to kill 90% of cells. This radiosensitizing effect of ZOL was mediated through decreased mitochondrial membrane potential, increased levels of reactive oxygen species, increased DNA damage (as assessed by counting γ-H2AX foci), decreased abundance of proteins involved in DNA repair pathways (ATR, Rad52, and DNA-PKcs), and decreased phosphorylation of PI3K-Akt and MAPK pathway proteins (Raf1, MEK1/2, ERK1/2, and Akt), as compared to γ-irradiation alone...
September 27, 2016: Oncotarget
Deliang Yi, Qian Zhang, Yinghua Liu, Jiaying Song, Yi Tang, Frank Caruso, Yajun Wang
We report the synthesis of chemically asymmetric silica nanobottles (NBs) with a hydrophobic exterior surface (capped with 3-chloropropyl groups) and a hydrophilic interior surface for spatially selective cargo loading, and for application as nanoreactors and nanomotors. The silica NBs, which have a "flask bottle" shape with an average diameter of 350 nm and an opening of ca. 100 nm, are prepared by anisotropic sol-gel growth in a water/n-pentanol emulsion. Due to their chemically asymmetric properties, nanoparticles (NPs) with hydrophilic or hydrophobic surface properties can be selectively loaded inside the NBs or on the outside of the NBs, respectively...
October 20, 2016: Angewandte Chemie
(no author information available yet)
Reports an error in "Does Reading a Single Passage of Literary Fiction Really Improve Theory of Mind? An Attempt at Replication" by Maria Eugenia Panero, Deena Skolnick Weisberg, Jessica Black, Thalia R. Goldstein, Jennifer L. Barnes, Hiram Brownell and Ellen Winner (Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Advanced Online Publication, Sep 19, 2016, np). In the article, due to an error in stimulus construction, four items (three authors, one foil) were omitted from the ART presented to all participants tested by Research Group 1...
November 2016: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
Guang Yang, Daniel T Hallinan
Using a three-phase system, centimeter-scale monolayer gold nanoparticle (Au NP) films have been prepared that have long-range order and hydrophobic ligands. The system contains an interface between an aqueous phase containing Au NPs and an oil phase containing one of various types of amine ligands, and a water/air interface. As the Au NPs diffuse to the water/oil interface, ligand exchange takes place which temporarily traps them at the water/oil interface. The ligand-exchanged particles then spontaneously migrate to the air/water interface, where they self-assemble, forming a monolayer under certain conditions...
October 20, 2016: Scientific Reports
T Titma, R Shimmo, J Siigur, A Kahru
Heavy metals are found naturally on Earth and exposure to them in the living environment is increasing as a consequence of human activity. The toxicity of six different metal oxide nanoparticles (NP) at different points in time was compared using resazurin assay. After incubating Caco2 and A549 cells with 100 μg/mL of Sb2O3, Mn3O4 and TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) for 24 h no toxic effects were observed while Co3O4 and ZnO NPs had moderate effects and CuO NPs were toxic below 100 μg/mL (24 h EC25 = 11 for A549 and 71 μg/mL for Caco2)...
October 19, 2016: Cytotechnology
Yushu Yin, Georgia Papavasiliou, Olga Y Zaborina, John C Alverdy, Fouad Teymour
The human gastrointestinal tract is the primary site of colonization of multidrug resistant pathogens and the major source of life-threatening complications in critically ill and immunocompromised patients. Eradication measures using antibiotics carry further risk of antibiotic resistance. Furthermore, antibiotic treatment can adversely shift the intestinal microbiome toward domination by resistant pathogens. Therefore, approaches directed to prevent replacement of health promoting microbiota with resistant pathogens should be developed...
October 19, 2016: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
Jun Hyuk Heo, Gyu Sung Yi, Byoung Sang Lee, Hui Hun Cho, Jin Woong Lee, Jung Heon Lee
Here, we report the development of an achromatic nanoparticle-based colorimetric sensor (achromatic nanosensor) with an on-off type color change that significantly enhances the color transition and increases the sensitivity of the sensor for naked-eye inspection. The achromatic nanosensor was prepared via a modified CMYK (CRYK) subtractive color model by combining DNA-functionalized gold nanoparticles (AuNPs-DNA), silver nanoparticles (AgNPs-DNA), and gold nanorods (AuNRs-DNA). The initially black-colored achromatic nanosensor not only allowed multiplexed detection by generating target-specific diverse color changes, but also improved the recognition of color changes by the naked eye...
October 20, 2016: Nanoscale
James Knox, Claire Gregory, Louise Prendergast, Chandrika Perera, Jennifer Robson, Lynette Waring
Stool specimens spiked with a panel of 46 carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) and 59 non-carbapenemase producers were used to compare the diagnostic accuracy of 4 testing algorithms for the detection of intestinal carriage of CPE: (1) culture on Brilliance ESBL agar followed by the Carba NP test; (2) Brilliance ESBL followed by the Carba NP test, plus chromID OXA-48 agar with no Carba NP test; (3) chromID CARBA agar followed by the Carba NP test; (4) chromID CARBA followed by the Carba NP test, plus chromID OXA-48 with no Carba NP test...
September 30, 2016: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
Jian Zhang, Guixin Chou, Zhijun Liu, Mei Liu
AIM: To examine if rubusoside (RUB) can overcome insolubility of betulonic acid (BEA), it can be accurately evaluated for its intrinsic activity against cancer in cell culture and in tumor animal models. MATERIALS & METHODS: By processing RUB and BEA together using a solvent evaporation method, a joint nanoparticulate structure is formed, designated as BEA-NP. RESULTS: BEA-NP was found over three-times more permeable than that solubilized by DMSO in Caco-2 cell monocultures...
October 19, 2016: Nanomedicine
Youri van Berkel, Michael Ludwig, Joanna A E van Wijk, Arend Bökenkamp
BACKGROUND: Dent disease is a rare X-linked recessive proximal tubulopathy caused by mutations in CLCN5 (Dent-1) or OCRL (Dent-2). As a rule, total protein excretion (TPE) is low in tubular proteinuria compared with glomerular disease. Several authors have reported nephrotic-range proteinuria (NP) and glomerulosclerosis in Dent disease. Therefore, we aimed to analyze protein excretion in patients with documented CLCN5 or OCRL mutations in a systematic literature review. DESIGN: PubMed and Embase were searched for cases with documented CLCN5 or OCRL mutations and (semi-)quantitative data on protein excretion...
October 18, 2016: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
Yu-Li Huang, Sarah M Bach
BACKGROUND: Patient access to care has been a known and continuing struggle for many health care providers. In spite of appointment lead time policies set by government or clinics, the problem persists. Justification for how lead time policies are determined is lacking. OBJECTIVES: This paper proposed a data-driven approach for how to best set feasible appointment target lead times given a clinic's capacity and appointment requests. METHODS: The proposed approach reallocates patient visits to minimize the deviation between actual appointment lead time and a feasible target lead time...
October 19, 2016: Applied Clinical Informatics
Sohrab Kazemi, Nader Bahramifar, Ali Akbar Moghadamnia, Seyed Gholam Ali Jorsarae
INTRODUCTION: Bisphenol A (BPA) and Nonylphenol (NP) have estrogen-like activity, and some of their adverse biological effects have been demonstrated. This study was designed to determine the association of plasma and tissue concentrations of BPA and NP and changes in the parameters of the reproductive system in rats. METHODS: Male Wistar rats were administered three doses of BPA and NP (5, 25, and 125 μg/kg) by gavage for 35 consecutive days in 2014-2015, and a 2-ml blood sample was taken from each treated rat...
August 2016: Electronic Physician
Robert N Kirchdoerfer, Crystal L Moyer, Dafna M Abelson, Erica Ollmann Saphire
Filoviruses are capable of causing deadly hemorrhagic fevers. All nonsegmented negative-sense RNA-virus nucleocapsids are composed of a nucleoprotein (NP), a phosphoprotein (VP35) and a polymerase (L). However, the VP30 RNA-synthesis co-factor is unique to the filoviruses. The assembly, structure, and function of the filovirus RNA replication complex remain unclear. Here, we have characterized the interactions of Ebola, Sudan and Marburg virus VP30 with NP using in vitro biochemistry, structural biology and cell-based mini-replicon assays...
October 2016: PLoS Pathogens
Saara Carollina Scolari, Guilherme Pugliesi, Ricardo de Francisco Strefezzi, Sónia Cristina Andrade, Luiz Lehmann Coutinho, Mario Binelli
We aimed to evaluate in the bovine endometrium whether (1) key genes involved in endometrial extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling are regulated by the endocrine peri-ovulatory milieu; and (2) specific endometrial ECM-related transcriptome can be linked to pregnancy outcome. In Experiment 1, pre-ovulatory follicle growth of cows was manipulated to obtain two groups with specific endocrine peri-ovulatory profiles: the Large Follicle-Large CL group (LF-LCL) served as a paradigm for greater receptivity and fertility and showed greater plasma pre-ovulatory estradiol and post-ovulatory progesterone concentrations when compared to the Small Follicle-Small CL group (SF-SCL)...
October 17, 2016: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
Gary A Clawson, Thomas Abraham, Weihua Pan, Xiaomeng Tang, Samuel S Linton, Christopher O McGovern, Welley S Loc, Jill P Smith, Peter J Butler, Mark Kester, James H Adair, Gail L Matters
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas (PDACs) constitutively express the G-protein-coupled cholecystokinin B receptor (CCKBR). In this study, we identified DNA aptamers (APs) that bind to the CCKBR and describe their characterization and targeting efficacy. Using dual SELEX selection against "exposed" CCKBR peptides and CCKBR-expressing PDAC cells, a pool of DNA APs was identified. Further downselection was based on predicted structures and properties, and we selected eight APs for initial characterizations. The APs bound specifically to the CCKBR, and we showed not only that they did not stimulate proliferation of PDAC cell lines but rather inhibited their proliferation...
October 18, 2016: Nucleic Acid Therapeutics
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