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Prostate ca

Jacques Klein, Arachk de Górski, Daniel Benamran, Jean-Paul Vallee, Thomas De Perrot, Gregory J Wirth, Christophe E Iselin
INTRODUCTION: The study aimed to evaluate 3 different modalities of transrectal ultrasound (TRUS)-guided prostate biopsies (PBs; 2D-, 3D- and targeted 3D-TRUS with fusion to MRI - T3D). Primary end point was the detection rate of prostate cancer (PC). Secondary end point was the detection rate of insignificant PC according to the Epstein criteria. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Inclusion of 284 subsequent patients who underwent 2D-, 3D- or T3D PB from 2011 to 2015. All patients having PB for initial PC detection with a serum prostate-specific antigen value ≤20 ng/ml were included...
October 27, 2016: Urologia Internationalis
Shalini Singh Yadav, Jinyi Li, Jennifer A Stockert, James O'Connor, Bryan Herzog, Cordelia Elaiho, Matthew D Galsky, Ashutosh Kumar Tewari, Kamlesh Kumar Yadav
Several promising targeted-therapeutics for prostate cancer (PCa), primarily affecting the androgen receptor (AR) and the PI3K/AKT/mTOR-pathway, are in various phases of development. However, despite promise, single-agent inhibitors targeting the two pathways have not shown long-term benefits, perhaps due to a complex compensatory cross talk that exists between the two pathways. Combination therapy has thus been proposed to maximize benefit. We have carried out a systematic study of two-drug combination effect of MDV3100 (AR antagonist), BKM120 (PI3K inhibitor), TKI258 (pan RTK inhibitor) and RAD001 (mTOR inhibitor) using various PCa cell lines...
October 20, 2016: Oncotarget
Vivekananda Kedage, Nagarathinam Selvaraj, Taylor R Nicholas, Justin A Budka, Joshua P Plotnik, Travis J Jerde, Peter C Hollenhorst
More than 50% of prostate tumors have a chromosomal rearrangement resulting in aberrant expression of an oncogenic ETS family transcription factor. However, mechanisms that differentiate the function of oncogenic ETS factors expressed in prostate tumors from non-oncogenic ETS factors expressed in normal prostate are unknown. Here, we find that four oncogenic ETS (ERG, ETV1, ETV4, and ETV5), and no other ETS, interact with the Ewing's sarcoma breakpoint protein, EWS. This EWS interaction was necessary and sufficient for oncogenic ETS functions including gene activation, cell migration, clonogenic survival, and transformation...
October 25, 2016: Cell Reports
T J Mai, R Ma, Z Li, S C Bi
Cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen-4 (CTLA-4) is a negative regulator of T cell activation, which competes with CD28 for B7.1/B7.2 binding, and which has a greater affinity. Fusion of specific antigens to extracellular domain of CTLA4 represents a promising approach to increase the immunogenicity of DNA vaccines. In this study, we evaluated this interesting approach for CTLA4 enhancement on prostate stem cell antigen (PSCA)-specific immune responses and its anti-tumor effects in a prostate cancer mouse model...
October 24, 2016: Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, Revista Brasileira de Pesquisas Médicas e Biológicas
Andrew B Rosenkrantz, James S Babb, Samir S Taneja, Justin M Ream
Purpose To test the impact of existing Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System (PI-RADS) version 2 (V2) decision rules, as well as of proposed adjustments to these decision rules, on detection of Gleason score (GS) 7 or greater (GS ≥7) prostate cancer. Materials and Methods Two radiologists independently provided PI-RADS V2 scores for the dominant lesion on 343 prostate magnetic resonance (MR) examinations. Diagnostic performance for GS ≥7 tumor was assessed by using MR imaging-ultrasonography fusion-targeted biopsy as the reference...
October 26, 2016: Radiology
Alexander Kirschenbaum, Sudeh Izadmehr, Shen Yao, Kieley L O'Connor-Chapman, Alan Huang, Elias M Gregoriades, Shoshana Yakar, Alice C Levine
Prostate cancer (PCa) is unique in its tendency to produce osteoblastic (OB) bone metastases. There are no existing therapies that specifically target the OB phase that affects 90% of men with bone metastatic disease. Prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) is secreted by PCa cells in OB metastases and increases OB growth, differentiation and bone mineralization. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether PAP effects on OB bone metastases are mediated by autocrine and/or paracrine alterations in the RANK/RANKL/OPG system...
October 26, 2016: Endocrinology
Jung Jae Park, Byung Kwan Park
PURPOSE: To evaluate the role of Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System v. 2 (PI-RADSv2) in triaging patients with prostate cancer according to Prostate Cancer Research International: Active Surveillance (PRIAS). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between January 2012 and December 2014, 456 patients with biopsy-proven cancer underwent multiparametric 3T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using T2 -weighted, diffusion-weighted, and dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI sequences, and then radical prostatectomy...
October 26, 2016: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
Margaret Peggy Adamo, Jessica A Boten, Linda M Coyle, Kathleen A Cronin, Clara J K Lam, Serban Negoita, Lynne Penberthy, Jennifer L Stevens, Kevin C Ward
BACKGROUND: Researchers have used prostate-specific antigen (PSA) values collected by central cancer registries to evaluate tumors for potential aggressive clinical disease. An independent study collecting PSA values suggested a high error rate (18%) related to implied decimal points. To evaluate the error rate in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) program, a comprehensive review of PSA values recorded across all SEER registries was performed. METHODS: Consolidated PSA values for eligible prostate cancer cases in SEER registries were reviewed and compared with text documentation from abstracted records...
October 26, 2016: Cancer
C M Rosenbaum, O Engel, M Fisch, L A Kluth
Radiation-induced urethral stricture occurs most often due to radiation for prostate cancer. It is one of the most common side effects of radiotherapy. Stricture rates are lowest in patients undergoing external beam radiation therapy, occur more frequently in those who require brachytherapy and show highest stricture rates in patients receiving a combination of external beam radiation and brachytherapy. Strictures are mostly located at the bulbomembranous part of the urethra. Diagnostic work-up should include basic urologic work-up, ultrasound, uroflowmetric assessment, urethroscopy, retrograde urethrogram and voiding cystourethrography...
October 25, 2016: Der Urologe. Ausg. A
Michela Bulfoni, Matteo Turetta, Fabio Del Ben, Carla Di Loreto, Antonio Paolo Beltrami, Daniela Cesselli
Although the enumeration of circulating tumor cells (CTC) defined as expressing both epithelial cell adhesion molecule and cytokeratins (EpCAM⁺/CK⁺) can predict prognosis and response to therapy in metastatic breast, colon and prostate cancer, its clinical utility (i.e., the ability to improve patient outcome by guiding therapy) has not yet been proven in clinical trials. Therefore, scientists are now focusing on the molecular characterization of CTC as a way to explore its possible use as a "surrogate" of tumor tissues to non-invasively assess the genomic landscape of the cancer and its evolution during treatment...
October 24, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Madhav P Yadav, Sanjana Ballal, Madhavi Tripathi, Nishikant A Damle, Ranjit K Sahoo, Amlesh Seth, Chandrasekhar Bal
OBJECTIVE: Lu-DKFZ-PSMA-617, a urea-based compound, binds to the extracellular domain of prostate-specific membrane antigen, thus providing an effective target for the treatment of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). Before its therapeutic use, it is necessary that the radiation dosimetry of this radiopharmaceutical be studied to determine the safe activity that can be administered in patients to prevent haematological, renal and liver toxicity. The present study thus aimed to assess the pharmacokinetics and dosimetry of Lu-DKFZ-PSMA-617 in CRPC patients...
October 25, 2016: Nuclear Medicine Communications
Andrik Rampun, Bernie Tiddeman, Reyer Zwiggelaar, Paul Malcolm
PURPOSE: In this paper the authors propose a texton based prostate computer aided diagnosis approach which bypasses the typical feature extraction process such as filtering and convolution which can be computationally expensive. The study focuses the peripheral zone because 75% of prostate cancers start within this region and the majority of prostate cancers arising within this region are more aggressive than those arising in the transitional zone. METHODS: For the model development, square patches were extracted at random locations from malignant and benign regions...
October 2016: Medical Physics
Dengwang Li, Pengxiao Zang, Xiangfei Chai, Yi Cui, Ruijiang Li, Lei Xing
PURPOSE: Accurate segmentation of pelvic organs in CT images is of great importance in external beam radiotherapy for prostate cancer. The aim of this studying is to develop a novel method for automatic, multiorgan segmentation of the male pelvis. METHODS: The authors' segmentation method consists of several stages. First, a pretreatment includes parameterization, principal component analysis (PCA), and an established process of region-specific hierarchical appearance cluster (RSHAC) model which was executed on the training dataset...
October 2016: Medical Physics
Christopher Kurz, Florian Kamp, Yang-Kyun Park, Christoph Zöllner, Simon Rit, David Hansen, Mark Podesta, Gregory C Sharp, Minglun Li, Michael Reiner, Jan Hofmaier, Sebastian Neppl, Christian Thieke, Reinoud Nijhuis, Ute Ganswindt, Claus Belka, Brian A Winey, Katia Parodi, Guillaume Landry
PURPOSE: This work aims at investigating intensity corrected cone-beam x-ray computed tomography (CBCT) images for accurate dose calculation in adaptive intensity modulated proton therapy (IMPT) for prostate and head and neck (H&N) cancer. A deformable image registration (DIR)-based method and a scatter correction approach using the image data obtained from DIR as prior are characterized and compared on the basis of the same clinical patient cohort for the first time. METHODS: Planning CT (pCT) and daily CBCT data (reconstructed images and measured projections) of four H&N and four prostate cancer patients have been considered in this study...
October 2016: Medical Physics
Adam Daragó, Andrzej Sapota, Marzenna Nasiadek, Michał Klimczak, Anna Kilanowicz
It is thought that zinc and selenium deficiency may play a significant role in the etiology of prostate cancer. Although joint zinc and selenium supplementation is frequently applied in the prevention of prostate diseases, the bioavailability of these elements in the prostate after co-administration is still unknown. The study examines the effect of subchronic supplementation of zinc gluconate and selenium compounds (sodium selenite or selenomethionine), administered together or separately, on their bioavailability in the prostate, as well as the induction of metallothionein-like proteins (MTs) bound to zinc in the prostate and liver...
October 4, 2016: Nutrients
Casina Kan, Geoffrey Vargas, François Le Pape, Philippe Clézardin
Bone metastases are a common complication of epithelial cancers, of which breast, prostate and lung carcinomas are the most common. The establishment of cancer cells to distant sites such as the bone microenvironment requires multiple steps. Tumour cells can acquire properties to allow epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, extravasation and migration. Within the bone metastatic niche, disseminated tumour cells may enter a dormancy stage or proliferate to adapt and survive, interacting with bone cells such as hematopoietic stem cells, osteoblasts and osteoclasts...
October 4, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Mai Hung Thanh Tung, Ho Viet Đuc, Tran Thu Huong, Nguyen Thanh Duong, Do Thi Phuong, Do Thi Thao, Bui Huu Tai, Young Ho Kim, Tran The Bach, Nguyen Manh Cuong
Ten compounds, including soulameanone (1), isobruceine B (2), 9-methoxy-canthin-6-one (3), bruceolline F (4), niloticine (5), octatriacontan-1-ol (6), bombiprenone (7), α-tocopherol (8), inosine (9), and apigenin 7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (10), were isolated from the leaves, stems, and roots of Brucea mollis Wall. ex Kurz. Their structures were determined using one- and two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. All compounds were evaluated for their cytotoxic activity against KB (human carcinoma of the mouth), LU-1 (human lung adenocarcinoma), LNCaP (human prostate adeno-carcinoma), and HL-60 (human promyelocytic leukemia) cancer cell lines...
September 29, 2016: Scientia Pharmaceutica
T Tellez, M Garcia-Aranda, M Redondo
Clusterin is a glycoprotein that has been implicated in many processes, including apoptosis, cell cycle regulation and DNA repair. Since clusterin expression has also been associated with tumorigenesis and the progression of various malignancies including prevalent tumors like prostate, colon, bladder and breast, this protein has been proposed as a good candidate for future treatments. There have been numerous studies conducted in cell lines and xenograft models with successful results that, in general, justify the use of clusterin as a therapeutic target...
October 24, 2016: Current Medicinal Chemistry
Oscar A Debats, Ansje S Fortuin, Hanneke J M Meijer, Thomas Hambrock, Geert J S Litjens, Jelle O Barentsz, Henkjan J Huisman
OBJECTIVES: The key to MR lymphography is suppression of T2* MR signal in normal lymph nodes, while retaining high signal in metastatic nodes. Our objective is to quantitatively compare the ability of ferumoxtran-10 and ferumoxytol to suppress the MR signal in normal pelvic lymph nodes. METHODS: In 2010, a set of consecutive patients who underwent intravenous MR Lymphography (MRL) were included. Signal suppression in normal lymph nodes in T2*-weighted images due to uptake of USPIO (Ultra-Small Superparamagnetic Particles of Iron Oxide) was quantified...
2016: PeerJ
Guangcun Huang, Pawel A Osmulski, Hakim Bouamar, Devalingam Mahalingam, Chun-Lin Lin, Michael A Liss, Addanki Pratap Kumar, Chun-Liang Chen, Ian M Thompson, Lu-Zhe Sun, Maria E Gaczynska, Tim H-M Huang
Activation of TGF-β signaling is known to promote epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) for the development of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). To determine whether targeting TGF-β signaling alone is sufficient to mitigate mCRPC, we used the CRISPR/Cas9 genome-editing approach to generate a dominant-negative mutation of the cognate receptor TGFBRII that attenuated TGF-β signaling in mCRPC cells. As a result, the delicate balance of oncogenic homeostasis is perturbed, profoundly uncoupling proliferative and metastatic potential of TGFBRII-edited tumor xenografts...
October 21, 2016: Oncotarget
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