keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Genetics

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088090/degradation-in-forensic-trace-dna-samples-explored-by-massively-parallel-sequencing
#1
Eirik Nataas Hanssen, Robert Lyle, Thore Egeland, Peter Gill
Routine forensic analysis using STRs will fail if the DNA is too degraded. The DNA degradation process in biological stain material is not well understood. In this study we sequenced old semen and blood stains by massively parallel sequencing. The sequence data coverage was used to measure degradation across the genome. The results supported the contention that degradation is uniform across the genome, showing no evidence of regions with increased or decreased resistance towards degradation. Thus the lack of genetic regions robust to degradation removes the possibility of using such regions to further optimize analysis performance for degraded DNA...
January 3, 2017: Forensic Science International. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088078/genetically-tailored-magnetosomes-used-as-mri-probe-for-molecular-imaging-of-brain-tumor
#2
M Boucher, F Geffroy, S Prévéral, L Bellanger, E Selingue, G Adryanczyk-Perrier, M Péan, C T Lefèvre, D Pignol, N Ginet, S Mériaux
We investigate here the potential of single step production of genetically engineered magnetosomes, bacterial biogenic iron-oxide nanoparticles embedded in a lipid vesicle, as a new tailorable magnetic resonance molecular imaging probe. We demonstrate in vitro the specific binding and the significant internalization into U87 cells of magnetosomes decorated with RGD peptide. After injection at the tail vein of glioblastoma-bearing mice, we evidence in the first 2 h the rapid accumulation of both unlabeled and functionalized magnetosomes inside the tumor by Enhanced Permeability and Retention effects...
December 19, 2016: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088010/challenges-and-opportunities-for-improving-food-quality-and-nutrition-through-plant-biotechnology
#3
REVIEW
David Francis, John J Finer, Erich Grotewold
Plant biotechnology has been around since the advent of humankind, resulting in tremendous improvements in plant cultivation through crop domestication, breeding and selection. The emergence of transgenic approaches involving the introduction of defined DNA sequences into plants by humans has rapidly changed the surface of our planet by further expanding the gene pool used by plant breeders for plant improvement. Transgenic approaches in food plants have raised concerns on the merits, social implications, ecological risks and true benefits of plant biotechnology...
January 11, 2017: Current Opinion in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087979/rapid-antidepressant-effect-of-ketamine-correlates-with-astroglial-plasticity-in-the-hippocampus
#4
Maryam Ardalan, Ali H Rafati, Jens R Nyengaard, Gregers Wegener
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Astroglia contributes to the pathophysiology of major depression and the action of antidepressant drugs through modulating synaptic plasticity; therefore, present study investigated whether fast antidepressant action of ketamine is reflected in the rapid alteration of the astrocytes morphology in a genetic animal model of depression. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: S-Ketamine (15 mg/kg) or saline was administered as a single injection to Flinders Line (FSL/FRL) rats...
January 14, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087950/amyloid-prions-in-fungi
#5
Sven J Saupe, Daniel F Jarosz, Heather L True
Prions are infectious protein polymers that have been found to cause fatal diseases in mammals. Prions have also been identified in fungi (yeast and filamentous fungi), where they behave as cytoplasmic non-Mendelian genetic elements. Fungal prions correspond in most cases to fibrillary β-sheet-rich protein aggregates termed amyloids. Fungal prion models and, in particular, yeast prions were instrumental in the description of fundamental aspects of prion structure and propagation. These models established the "protein-only" nature of prions, the physical basis of strain variation, and the role of a variety of chaperones in prion propagation and amyloid aggregate handling...
December 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087944/laboratory-diagnosis-and-susceptibility-testing-for-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#6
Gary W Procop
The laboratory, which utilizes some of the most sophisticated and rapidly changing technologies, plays a critical role in the diagnosis of tuberculosis. Some of these tools are being employed in resource-challenged countries for the rapid detection and characterization of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Foremost, the laboratory defines appropriate specimen criteria for optimal test performance. The direct detection of mycobacteria in the clinical specimen, predominantly done by acid-fast staining, may eventually be replaced by rapid-cycle PCR...
December 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087942/the-mutualistic-interaction-between-plants-and-arbuscular-mycorrhizal-fungi
#7
Luisa Lanfranco, Paola Bonfante, Andrea Genre
Mycorrhizal fungi belong to several taxa and develop mutualistic symbiotic associations with over 90% of all plant species, from liverworts to angiosperms. While descriptive approaches have dominated the initial studies of these fascinating symbioses, the advent of molecular biology, live cell imaging, and "omics" techniques have provided new and powerful tools to decipher the cellular and molecular mechanisms that rule mutualistic plant-fungus interactions. In this article we focus on the most common mycorrhizal association, arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM), which is formed by a group of soil fungi belonging to Glomeromycota...
December 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087934/fungal-cell-cycle-a-unicellular-versus-multicellular-comparison
#8
Ilkay Dörter, Michelle Momany
All cells must accurately replicate DNA and partition it to daughter cells. The basic cell cycle machinery is highly conserved among eukaryotes. Most of the mechanisms that control the cell cycle were worked out in fungal cells, taking advantage of their powerful genetics and rapid duplication times. Here we describe the cell cycles of the unicellular budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and the multicellular filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans. We compare and contrast morphological landmarks of G1, S, G2, and M phases, molecular mechanisms that drive cell cycle progression, and checkpoints in these model unicellular and multicellular fungal systems...
December 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087895/crohn-disease-risk-prediction-best-practices-and-pitfalls-with-exome-data
#9
Manuel Giollo, David T Jones, Marco Carraro, Emanuela Leonardi, Carlo Ferrari, Silvio C E Tosatto
The Critical Assessment of Genome Interpretation (CAGI) experiment is the first attempt to evaluate the state-of-the-art in genetic data interpretation. Among the proposed challenges, Crohn disease (CD) risk prediction has become the most classic problem spanning three editions. The scientific question is very hard: can anybody assess the risk to develop CD given the exome data alone? This is one of the ultimate goals of genetic analysis, which motivated most CAGI participants to look for powerful new methods...
January 13, 2017: Human Mutation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087883/defining-genetic-and-chemical-diversity-in-wheat-grain-by-1h-nmr-spectroscopy-of-polar-metabolites
#10
Peter R Shewry, Delia I Corol, Huw D Jones, Michael H Beale, Jane L Ward
SCOPE: The application of high throughput 1H-NMR of unpurified extracts to determine to determine genetic diversity and the contents of polar components in grain of wheat. METHODS AND RESULTS: milled whole wheat grain was extracted with 80:20 D2O:CD3OD containing 0.05% d4- trimethylsilylpropionate (TSP). 1H-NMR spectra were acquired under automation at 300 °K using an Avance Spectrometer operating at 600.0528 MHz. Regions for individual metabolites were identified by comparison to a library of known standards run under identical conditions...
January 13, 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087842/novel-determinants-of-mammalian-primary-microrna-processing-revealed-by-systematic-evaluation-of-hairpin-containing-transcripts-and-human-genetic-variation
#11
Christine Anne Roden, Jonathan Gaillard, Shaveta Kanoria, William Rennie, Syndi Barish, Jijun Cheng, Wen Pan, Jun Liu, Chris Cotsapas, Ye Ding, Jun Lu
Mature microRNAs (miRNAs) are processed from hairpin-containing primary miRNAs (pri-miRNAs). However, rules that distinguish pri-miRNAs from other hairpin-containing transcripts in the genome are incompletely understood. By developing a computational pipeline to systematically evaluate 30 structural and sequence features of mammalian RNA hairpins, we report several new rules that are preferentially utilized in miRNA hairpins and govern efficient pri-miRNA processing. We propose that a hairpin stem length of 36+/-3nt is optimal for pri-miRNA processing...
January 13, 2017: Genome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087782/mutation-supply-and-relative-fitness-shape-the-genotypes-of-ciprofloxacin-resistant-escherichia-coli
#12
Douglas L Huseby, Franziska Pietsch, Gerrit Brandis, Linnéa Garoff, Angelica Tegehall, Diarmaid Hughes
Ciprofloxacin is an important antibacterial drug targeting Type II topoisomerases, highly active against Gram-negatives including Escherichia coli The evolution of resistance to ciprofloxacin in E. coli always requires multiple genetic changes, usually including mutations affecting two different drug target genes, gyrA and parC Resistant mutants selected in vitro or in vivo can have many different mutations in target genes and efflux regulator genes that contribute to resistance. Among resistant clinical isolates the genotype, gyrA S83L D87N, parC S80I is significantly overrepresented suggesting that it has a selective advantage...
January 12, 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087781/deleterious-variants-in-asian-rice-and-the-potential-cost-of-domestication
#13
Qingpo Liu, Yongfeng Zhou, Peter L Morrell, Brandon S Gaut
Many SNPs are predicted to encode deleterious amino acid variants. These slightly deleterious mutations can provide unique insights into population history, the dynamics of selection, and the genetic bases of phenotypes. This is especially true for domesticated species, where a history of bottlenecks and selection may affect the frequency of deleterious variants and signal a 'cost of domestication'. Here we investigated the numbers and frequencies of deleterious variants in Asian rice (O. sativa), focusing on two varieties (japonica and indica) and their wild relative (O...
January 12, 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087779/genomics-of-parallel-experimental-evolution-in-drosophila
#14
J L Graves, K L Hertweck, M A Phillips, M V Han, L G Cabral, T T Barter, L F Greer, M K Burke, L D Mueller, M R Rose
What are the genomic foundations of adaptation in sexual populations? We address this question using fitness-character and whole-genome sequence data from 30 Drosophila laboratory populations. These 30 populations are part of a nearly forty-year laboratory radiation featuring three selection regimes, each shared by ten populations for up to 837 generations, with moderately large effective population sizes. Each of three sets of ten populations that shared a selection regime consist of five populations that have long been maintained under that selection regime, paired with five populations that had only recently been subjected to that selection regime...
January 12, 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087776/seed-plant-specific-gene-lineages-involved-in-carpel-development
#15
Kai C Pfannebecker, Matthias Lange, Oliver Rupp, Annette Becker
Evolutionary innovations are important drivers of speciation and some are the defining characters of entire phyla. One such major innovation is the carpel, the unifying character and most complex plant organ, composed of many clearly distinct tissue types to ensure reproductive success. The origin of the carpel is unknown, but many components of the gene regulatory network (GRN) governing carpel development and their genetic interactions are known from the core eudicot Arabidopsis thaliana To unravel the evolution of the carpel GRN and to discriminate between "early" and "late" steps in carpel evolution we calculated thorough phylogeny reconstructions based on sequenced genomes...
January 12, 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087769/enzyme-efficiency-but-not-thermostability-drives-cefotaxime-resistance-evolution-in-tem-1-%C3%AE-lactamase
#16
Jennifer Knies, Fei Cai, Daniel M Weinreich
A leading intellectual challenge in evolutionary genetics is to identify the specific phenotypes that drive adaptation. Enzymes offer a particularly promising opportunity to pursue this question, because many enzymes' contributions to organismal fitness depend on a comparatively small number of experimentally accessible properties. Moreover, on first principles the demands of enzyme thermostability stand in opposition to the demands of catalytic activity. This observation, coupled with the fact that enzymes are only marginally thermostable, motivates the widely held hypothesis that mutations conferring functional improvement require compensatory mutations to restore thermostability...
January 12, 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087766/control-of-amygdala-circuits-by-5-ht-neurons-via-5-ht-and-glutamate-co-transmission
#17
Ayesha Sengupta, Marco Bocchio, David M Bannerman, Trevor Sharp, Marco Capogna
: The serotonin (5-HT) system and the amygdala are key regulators of emotional behavior. Several lines of evidence suggest that 5-HT transmission in the amygdala is implicated in the susceptibility and drug treatment of mood disorders. Thus, elucidating the physiological mechanisms through which midbrain 5-HT neurons modulate amygdala circuits could be pivotal in understanding emotional regulation in health and disease. To shed light on these mechanisms, we performed patch-clamp recordings from basal amygdala (BA) neurons in brain slices from mice with channelrhodopsin (ChR2) genetically targeted to 5-HT neurons...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087756/fine-mapping-of-genes-determining-extrafusal-fiber-properties-in-murine-soleus-muscle
#18
Andrew Carroll, Riyan Cheng, Elaina Collie-Duguid, Caroline Meharg, Michael E Scholz, Steven N Fiering, Jennifer L Fields, Abraham A Palmer, Arimantas Lionikas
INTRODUCTION: Muscle fiber cross-sectional area (CSA) and proportion of different fiber types are important determinants of muscle function and overall metabolism. Genetic variation plays a substantial role in phenotypic variation of these traits, however, the underlying genes remain poorly understood. AIMS: This study aimed to map quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting differences in soleus muscle fiber traits between the LG/J and SM/J mouse strains. METHODS: Fiber number, CSA, and proportion of oxidative type I fibers were assessed in the soleus of 334 genotyped male and female mice of the F34 generation of advanced intercross lines (AIL) derived from the LG/J and SM/J strains...
January 13, 2017: Physiological Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087737/a-homozygous-mutation-in-trim36-causes-autosomal-recessive-anencephaly-in-an-indian-family
#19
Nivedita Singh, Vishwanath Kumble Bhat, Ankana Tiwari, Srinivas G Kodaganur, Sagar J Tontanahal, Astha Sarda, K V Malini, Arun Kumar
Anencephaly is characterized by the absence of brain tissues and cranium. During primary neurulation stage of the embryo, the rostral part of the neural pore fails to close, leading to anencephaly. Anencephaly shows a heterogeneous etiology, ranging from environmental to genetic causes. The autosomal recessive inheritance of anencephaly has been reported in several populations. In this study, we employed whole-exome sequencing and identified a homozygous missense mutation c.1522C>A (p.Pro508Thr) in the TRIM36 gene as the cause of autosomal recessive anencephaly (APH) in an Indian family...
January 13, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087736/imputation-of-orofacial-clefting-data-identifies-novel-risk-loci-and-sheds-light-on-the-genetic-background-of-cleft-lip-%C3%A2-cleft-palate-and-cleft-palate-only
#20
Kerstin U Ludwig, Anne C Böhmer, John Bowes, Miloš Nikolić, Nina Ishorst, Niki Wyatt, Nigel L Hammond, Lina Gölz, Frederic Thieme, Sandra Barth, Hannah Schuenke, Johanna Klamt, Malte Spielmann, Khalid Aldhorae, Augusto Rojas-Martinez, Markus M Nöthen, Alvaro Rada-Iglesias, Michael J Dixon, Michael Knapp, Elisabeth Mangold
Nonsyndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate (nsCL/P) is among the most common human birth defects with multifactorial etiology. Here, we present results from a genome-wide imputation study of nsCL/P in which, after adding replication cohort data, four novel risk loci for nsCL/P are identified (at chromosomal regions 2p21, 14q22, 15q24 and 19p13). On a systematic level, we show that the association signals within this high-density dataset are enriched in functionally-relevant genomic regions that are active in both human neural crest cells (hNCC) and mouse embryonic craniofacial tissue...
January 13, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
keyword
keyword
1380
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"