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Jingjing Yu, Yuling Huang, Lijuan Liu, Jing Wang, Jiye Yin, Lihua Huang, Shaojun Chen, Jingao Li, Hong Yuan, Guoping Yang, Wenyu Liu, Hai Wang, Qi Pei, Chengxian Guo
Radiotherapy (RT) is the normative therapeutic treatment for primary nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of genes in Wnt/β-catenin pathway are correlated to the development, prognosis, and treatment benefit of various cancers. However, it has not been established whether SNPs of Wnt/β-catenin pathway are associated with nasopharyngeal tumorigenesis and the efficacy of RT in NPC patients. Therefore, in this study, we aimed to investigate the nine potentially functional SNPs of four genes in the Wnt/β-catenin pathway and genotyped these in 188 NPC patients treated with RT...
October 19, 2016: Oncotarget
Chunwen Tan, Wangxiong Hu, Yanqin Huang, Jiaojiao Zhou, Shu Zheng
BACKGROUND: Recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) identified eighteen single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) to be significantly associated with the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). However, overall results of the following replications are inconsistent and little is known about whether these associations also exit in colorectal adenomas (CRA). METHODS: The SNP genotyping was performed using a Sequenom MassARRAY to investigate the association of these eighteen SNPs with colorectal neoplasm in a case-control study consisted of 1049 colorectal cancers, 283 adenomas, and 1030 controls...
October 19, 2016: Oncotarget
Si Chen, Xiaoting Wen, Jing Li, Yuan Li, Liubing Li, Xinping Tian, Hui Yuan, Fengchun Zhang, Yongzhe Li
Takayasu arteritis (TA) is a chronic large-vessel vasculitis of unclear pathogenesis. A recent genome-wide association study (GWAS) has revealed that the FCGR2A/FCGR3A, EEFSEC, RPS9/LILRB3, RIPPLY2 and MLX genes confer susceptibility to TA. We investigated the linkage between presumptive TA-related genes (FCGR2A/FCGR3A, EEFSEC, RPS9/LILRB3, RIPPLY2 and MLX) and TA in the Han Chinese population. We performed a large case-control multi-center study of 412 Han Chinese TA patients and 597 ethnically matched healthy controls...
October 18, 2016: Oncotarget
Richard McCarty
Major advances in behavioral neuroscience have been facilitated by the development of consistent and highly reproducible experimental paradigms that have been widely adopted. In contrast, many different experimental approaches have been employed to expose laboratory mice and rats to acute versus chronic intermittent stress. An argument is advanced in this review that more consistent approaches to the design of chronic intermittent stress experiments would provide greater reproducibility of results across laboratories and greater reliability relating to various neural, endocrine, immune, genetic, and behavioral adaptations...
October 15, 2016: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Stacy-Anne Morgan, Dana C Nadler, Rayka Yokoo, David F Savage
Metabolic engineering offers the potential to renewably produce important classes of chemicals, particularly biofuels, at an industrial scale. DNA synthesis and editing techniques can generate large pathway libraries, yet identifying the best variants is slow and cumbersome. Traditionally, analytical methods like chromatography and mass spectrometry have been used to evaluate pathway variants, but such techniques cannot be performed with high throughput. Biosensors - genetically encoded components that actuate a cellular output in response to a change in metabolite concentration - are therefore a promising tool for rapid and high-throughput evaluation of candidate pathway variants...
October 18, 2016: Current Opinion in Chemical Biology
Sinem Acar, Ece Bulut, Bora Durul, Ilhan Uner, Mehmet Kur, M Dilek Avsaroglu, Hüseyin Avni Kirmaci, Yasar Osman Tel, Fadile Y Zeyrek, Yesim Soyer
192 Food samples (commonly consumed 8 food types), 355 animal samples (animal feces of bovine, ovine, goat and chicken) and 50 samples from clinical human cases in Sanliurfa city, Turkey in a year were collected to determine the Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica mosaic in Turkey. 161 Salmonella isolates represented 17 serotypes, 20 sequence types (STs) and 44 PFGE patterns (PTs). 3 serotypes, S. Enteritidis, S. Typhimurium and S. Kentucky, were recovered from three different hosts. The highest discriminatory power was obtained by PFGE (SID=0...
October 8, 2016: International Journal of Food Microbiology
Liang Li, Jin-Yu Zhao, Hui-Xia Chen, Hui-Dong Ju, Meng An, Zhen Xu, Lu-Ping Zhang
The cinnamon flounder Pseudorhombus cinnamoneus is a frequently consumed marine fish in China. However, the occurrence of ascaridoid larvae in P. cinnamoneus remains unclear. In the present study, a total of 85 P. cinnamoneus caught from the Yellow Sea (off Shidao, 36°52'57″N, 122°26'42″E) in 2011, which is located between mainland China and the Korean Peninsula, was investigated for ascaridoid larval infection. Four ascaridoid larval types, including Anisakis type I of Berland (1961), Hysterothylacium type of Smith (1983), Hysterothylacium type HL of Guo et al...
October 14, 2016: International Journal of Food Microbiology
Ranjan Basak, Naveen Kumar Nair, Indraneel Mittra
There is extensive literature to show that nucleic acids can be taken up by cells under experimental conditions and that foetal DNA can be detected in maternal tissues. The uptaken DNA can integrate into host cell genomes and can be transcribed and translated into proteins. They can also cause chromosomal damage and karyotype alterations. Cell-free nucleic acids (cfNAs)-based non-invasive DNA diagnostic techniques are being extensively researched in the field of cancer with the potential to advance new prognostic parameters and direct treatment decisions...
October 12, 2016: Mutation Research
Kyung-Ha Lee, Peipei Zhang, Hong Joo Kim, Diana M Mitrea, Mohona Sarkar, Brian D Freibaum, Jaclyn Cika, Maura Coughlin, James Messing, Amandine Molliex, Brian A Maxwell, Nam Chul Kim, Jamshid Temirov, Jennifer Moore, Regina-Maria Kolaitis, Timothy I Shaw, Bing Bai, Junmin Peng, Richard W Kriwacki, J Paul Taylor
Expansion of a hexanucleotide repeat GGGGCC (G4C2) in C9ORF72 is the most common cause of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD). Transcripts carrying (G4C2) expansions undergo unconventional, non-ATG-dependent translation, generating toxic dipeptide repeat (DPR) proteins thought to contribute to disease. Here, we identify the interactome of all DPRs and find that arginine-containing DPRs, polyGly-Arg (GR) and polyPro-Arg (PR), interact with RNA-binding proteins and proteins with low complexity sequence domains (LCDs) that often mediate the assembly of membrane-less organelles...
October 20, 2016: Cell
Yohann Nédélec, Joaquín Sanz, Golshid Baharian, Zachary A Szpiech, Alain Pacis, Anne Dumaine, Jean-Christophe Grenier, Andrew Freiman, Aaron J Sams, Steven Hebert, Ariane Pagé Sabourin, Francesca Luca, Ran Blekhman, Ryan D Hernandez, Roger Pique-Regi, Jenny Tung, Vania Yotova, Luis B Barreiro
Individuals from different populations vary considerably in their susceptibility to immune-related diseases. To understand how genetic variation and natural selection contribute to these differences, we tested for the effects of African versus European ancestry on the transcriptional response of primary macrophages to live bacterial pathogens. A total of 9.3% of macrophage-expressed genes show ancestry-associated differences in the gene regulatory response to infection, and African ancestry specifically predicts a stronger inflammatory response and reduced intracellular bacterial growth...
October 20, 2016: Cell
Hélène Quach, Maxime Rotival, Julien Pothlichet, Yong-Hwee Eddie Loh, Michael Dannemann, Nora Zidane, Guillaume Laval, Etienne Patin, Christine Harmant, Marie Lopez, Matthieu Deschamps, Nadia Naffakh, Darragh Duffy, Anja Coen, Geert Leroux-Roels, Frederic Clément, Anne Boland, Jean-François Deleuze, Janet Kelso, Matthew L Albert, Lluis Quintana-Murci
Humans differ in the outcome that follows exposure to life-threatening pathogens, yet the extent of population differences in immune responses and their genetic and evolutionary determinants remain undefined. Here, we characterized, using RNA sequencing, the transcriptional response of primary monocytes from Africans and Europeans to bacterial and viral stimuli-ligands activating Toll-like receptor pathways (TLR1/2, TLR4, and TLR7/8) and influenza virus-and mapped expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs)...
October 20, 2016: Cell
Diego Villar, Duncan T Odom
The molecular mechanisms underpinning vertebrate body plan evolution are beginning to be unravelled. In this issue of Cell, Kvon et al. spectacularly demonstrate how transplanting snake-specific genetic changes found uniquely in serpent enhancers leads to limb loss in mice.
October 20, 2016: Cell
Steven Z Josefowicz, Miho Shimada, Anja Armache, Charles H Li, Rand M Miller, Shu Lin, Aerin Yang, Brian D Dill, Henrik Molina, Hee-Sung Park, Benjamin A Garcia, Jack Taunton, Robert G Roeder, C David Allis
The inflammatory response requires coordinated activation of both transcription factors and chromatin to induce transcription for defense against pathogens and environmental insults. We sought to elucidate the connections between inflammatory signaling pathways and chromatin through genomic footprinting of kinase activity and unbiased identification of prominent histone phosphorylation events. We identified H3 serine 28 phosphorylation (H3S28ph) as the principal stimulation-dependent histone modification and observed its enrichment at induced genes in mouse macrophages stimulated with bacterial lipopolysaccharide...
October 20, 2016: Molecular Cell
Raffaela Torggler, Daniel Papinski, Thorsten Brach, Levent Bas, Martina Schuschnig, Thaddäus Pfaffenwimmer, Sabrina Rohringer, Tamara Matzhold, David Schweida, Andrea Brezovich, Claudine Kraft
Autophagy is a potent cellular degradation pathway, and its activation needs to be tightly controlled. Cargo receptors mediate selectivity during autophagy by bringing cargo to the scaffold protein Atg11 and, in turn, to the autophagic machinery, including the central autophagy kinase Atg1. Here we show how selective autophagy is tightly regulated in space and time to prevent aberrant Atg1 kinase activation and autophagy induction. We established an induced bypass approach (iPass) that combines genetic deletion with chemically induced dimerization to evaluate the roles of Atg13 and cargo receptors in Atg1 kinase activation and selective autophagy progression...
October 20, 2016: Molecular Cell
Pang Yao, Liang Sun, Ling Lu, Hong Ding, Xiafei Chen, Lixin Tang, Xinming Xu, Gang Liu, Yao Hu, Yiwei Ma, Feijie Wang, Qianlu Jin, He Zheng, Huiyong Yin, Rong Zeng, Yan Chen, Frank B Hu, Huaixing Li, Xu Lin
CONTEXT: Little is known how genetic and non-genetic factors modify responses of vitamin D supplementation in nonwhite populations. OBJECTIVE: To investigate factors modifying 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) and bioavailable 25(OH)D (25[OH]DBio) responses after vitamin D3 supplementation. Design, Setting, Participants, and Intervention: In this randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial, 448 Chinese with vitamin D deficiency (25[OH]D<50 nmol/L) received 2000 IU/d vitamin D3 or placebo for 20 weeks...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Anuja Bandyopadhyay, A Ioana Cristea, Stephanie D Davis, Veda L Ackerman, James E Slaven, Hasnaa E Jalou, Deborah C Givan, Ameet Daftary
RATIONALE: There is a lack of evidence regarding factors associated with failure of tracheostomy decannulation. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to identify characteristics of pediatric patients who fail a tracheostomy decannulation challenge Methods: A retrospective review was performed on all patients who had a decannulation challenge at a tertiary care center from June 2006 to October 2013. Tracheostomy decannulation failure was defined as reinsertion of the tracheostomy tube within 6 months of the challenge...
October 21, 2016: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
Ruobing Zhang, Gilbert O Fruhwirth, Oana Coban, James E Barrett, Thomas Burgoyne, Sang Hak Lee, Paul Dennis Simonson, Murat Baday, Boris Kholodenko, Clare E Futter, Tony Ng, Paul R Selvin
Heterogeneity of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation in genetically identical cells, which occurs in response to epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling, remains poorly understood. MAPK cascades integrate signals emanating from different EGFR spatial locations, including the plasma membrane and endocytic compartment. We previously hypothesized that in EGF-stimulated cells the MAPK phosphorylation (pMAPK) level and activity are largely determined by the spatial organization of the EGFR clusters within the cell...
October 21, 2016: ACS Nano
Michael R Gillings, Ian T Paulsen, Sasha G Tetu
Antibiotic resistance arises as a consequence of complex interactions among genes, mobile elements, and their bacterial hosts, coupled with the intense selection pressures imposed by humans in an attempt to control bacterial growth. Understanding the evolution of resistance requires an understanding of interacting cellular and genetic components. Here, we review how DNA analysis has helped reconstruct the origins of the mosaic, multiresistant mobile elements that have spread through pathogens in the last 60 years...
October 21, 2016: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Alexandre Caron, Denis Richard
With the still-growing prevalence of obesity worldwide, major efforts are made to understand the various behavioral, environmental, and genetic factors that promote excess fat gain. Obesity results from an imbalance between energy intake and energy expenditure, which emphasizes the importance of deciphering the mechanisms behind energy balance regulation to understand its physiopathology. The control of energy balance is assured by brain systems/circuits capable of generating adequate ingestive and thermogenic responses to maintain the stability of energy reserves, which implies a proper integration of the homeostatic signals that inform about the status of the energy stores...
October 21, 2016: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Gabriëlle H S Buitendijk, Ada J Hooghart, Corina Brussee, Paulus T V M de Jong, Albert Hofman, Johannes R Vingerling, Caroline C W Klaver
Purpose: Reticular pseudodrusen (RPD) are considered to be a distinct feature in AMD. Population studies have studied the epidemiology of RPD using standard color fundus photographs (CFP). However, recent studies have shown that RPD are better imaged using near-infrared (NIR) imaging. We studied the epidemiology of RPD in a large population-based study using NIR and CFP. Methods: Participants aged 65+ years from the Rotterdam Study underwent ophthalmologic examination including NIR and CFP...
October 1, 2016: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
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