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Osteoporosis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922003/blood-flow-controls-bone-vascular-function-and-osteogenesis
#1
Saravana K Ramasamy, Anjali P Kusumbe, Maria Schiller, Dagmar Zeuschner, M Gabriele Bixel, Carlo Milia, Jaba Gamrekelashvili, Anne Limbourg, Alexander Medvinsky, Massimo M Santoro, Florian P Limbourg, Ralf H Adams
While blood vessels play important roles in bone homeostasis and repair, fundamental aspects of vascular function in the skeletal system remain poorly understood. Here we show that the long bone vasculature generates a peculiar flow pattern, which is important for proper angiogenesis. Intravital imaging reveals that vessel growth in murine long bone involves the extension and anastomotic fusion of endothelial buds. Impaired blood flow leads to defective angiogenesis and osteogenesis, and downregulation of Notch signalling in endothelial cells...
December 6, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921150/bone-mineral-density-is-decreased-in-fibromyalgia-syndrome-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#2
Sikarin Upala, Wai Chung Yong, Anawin Sanguankeo
Previous studies have shown that fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) is associated with low level of physical activity and exercise, which may lead to an increased risk of osteoporosis. However, studies of bone mineral density (BMD) in fibromyalgia have shown conflicting results. Thus, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to better characterize the association between FMS and BMD. A comprehensive search of the databases MEDLINE and EMBASE was performed from inception through May 2016. The inclusion criterion was the observational studies' assessment of the association between fibromyalgia and bone mineral density in adult subjects...
December 5, 2016: Rheumatology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921147/can-the-alendronate-dosage-be-altered-when-combined-with-high-frequency-loading-in-osteoporosis-treatment
#3
C B Correa, G V Camargos, M Chatterjee, M F Mesquita, A A Del Bel Cury, I Naert, J Duyck, K Vandamme
: Alendronate therapy has been associated with serious side effects. Altering the alendronate concentration and combining with high-frequency loading as mechanical intervention was explored in this animal study as a treatment for osteoporosis. The bone anabolic potency of high-frequency loading was overruled by the different alendronate dosages applied in the present study. Further exploration of reduced hormonal therapy associated with mechanical interventions in osteoporosis treatment should be sought...
December 5, 2016: Osteoporosis International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921146/bone-loss-at-the-distal-femur-and-proximal-tibia-in-persons-with-spinal-cord-injury-imaging-approaches-risk-of-fracture-and-potential-treatment-options
#4
REVIEW
C M Cirnigliaro, M J Myslinski, M F La Fountaine, S C Kirshblum, G F Forrest, W A Bauman
Persons with spinal cord injury (SCI) undergo immediate unloading of the skeleton and, as a result, have severe bone loss below the level of lesion associated with increased risk of long-bone fractures. The pattern of bone loss in individuals with SCI differs from other forms of secondary osteoporosis because the skeleton above the level of lesion remains unaffected, while marked bone loss occurs in the regions of neurological impairment. Striking demineralization of the trabecular epiphyses of the distal femur (supracondylar) and proximal tibia occurs, with the knee region being highly vulnerable to fracture because many accidents occur while sitting in a wheelchair, making the knee region the first point of contact to any applied force...
December 5, 2016: Osteoporosis International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921145/compressive-loading-of-the-murine-tibia-reveals-site-specific-micro-scale-differences-in-adaptation-and-maturation-rates-of-bone
#5
I Bergström, J G Kerns, A E Törnqvist, C Perdikouri, N Mathavan, A Koskela, H B Henriksson, J Tuukkanen, G Andersson, H Isaksson, A E Goodship, S H Windahl
: Loading increases bone mass and strength in a site-specific manner; however, possible effects of loading on bone matrix composition have not been evaluated. Site-specific structural and material properties of mouse bone were analyzed on the macro- and micro/molecular scale in the presence and absence of axial loading. The response of bone to load is heterogeneous, adapting at molecular, micro-, and macro-levels. INTRODUCTION: Osteoporosis is a degenerative disease resulting in reduced bone mineral density, structure, and strength...
December 5, 2016: Osteoporosis International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920816/concomitant-extraspinal-hyperostosis-and-osteoporosis-in-a-patient-with-congenital-ichthyosis
#6
Niloufar Torkamani, Pramit Phal, Ravi Savarirayan, Peter Simm, George Varigos, John Wark
Ichthyosiform dermatosis is a term referred to a group of disorders that have as their basis a disorder of keratinization (1). These conditions which are present at birth result in a generalized dry, scaly skin without any inflammation. There are several types of ichthyosis based on their clinical presentation and mode of inheritance. The most common types are: ichthyosis vulgaris, X-linked recessive ichthyosis, epidermolytic hyperkeratosis (bullous), lamellar ichthyosis and non-bullous ichthyosiform erythroderma...
May 2016: Clinical Cases in Mineral and Bone Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920815/early-onset-acute-tubular-necrosis-following-single-infusion-of-zoledronate
#7
Ralph Yachoui
Zoledronate is a highly potent bisphosphonate widely used in the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis. We report the first occurrence of toxic acute tubular necrosis (ATN) following treatment with zoledronate in a patient with osteoporosis. A 63-year-old Caucasian female with rheumatoid arthritis on anti-immune agents received a single dose of zoledronic acid (reclast) for worsening osteoporosis. Twelve days later, she developed renal failure with a rise in serum creatinine from a baseline level of 1.1 mg/dL to 5...
May 2016: Clinical Cases in Mineral and Bone Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920811/the-use-of-routine-non-density-calibrated-clinical-computed-tomography-data-as-a-potentially-useful-screening-tool-for-identifying-patients-with-osteoporosis
#8
Christopher John Burke, Manjiri M Didolkar, Huiman X Barnhart, Emily N Vinson
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate whether lumbar vertebral body density CT attenuation values measured in Hounsfield Units (HUs) on routine Computed Tomography (CT) examinations can be reliably measured with limited variability, and to evaluate for a correlation between HUs and bone mineral density as measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scan. METHODS: Retrospective review of a total of 249 routine MDCT examinations, performed to measure HUs at the first non-rib bearing lumbar vertebral body on axial images, cross-referenced to the lateral scout image...
May 2016: Clinical Cases in Mineral and Bone Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920809/rates-and-reasons-for-lack-of-persistence-with-anti-osteoporotic-drugs-analysis-of-the-campania-region-database
#9
Giovanni Iolascon, Francesca Gimigliano, Antimo Moretti, Ilaria Riccio, Massimo Di Gennaro, Maddalena Illario, Valeria Marina Monetti, Valentina Orlando, Enrica Menditto
Subjects with chronic diseases are more likely to be nonpersistent to pharmacological treatment. Lack of persistence is common among subjects using oral anti-osteoporotic drugs, and leads to increased risk of fragility fracture. The aim of our retrospective study is to analyze the rates and reasons for discontinuation of anti-osteoporotic drugs in the Campania Region. Subjects aged over 40 years were included if they had received at least one prescription for any anti-osteoporotic drugs. Data were obtained from an administrative database of regional data on outpatient drug prescriptions reimbursed by the National Health Service...
May 2016: Clinical Cases in Mineral and Bone Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920808/risk-factors-of-mortality-during-the-first-year-after-low-energy-osteoporosis-fracture-a-retrospective-case-control-study
#10
Aurore Lloret, Guillaume Coiffier, Tiffen Couchouron, Aleth Perdriger, Pascal Guggenbuhl
INTRODUCTION: Osteoporotic fractures are a major public health problem because of the morbidity and mortality of fracture complications. The objective of this study was to examine predictive factors of mortality during the first year after an osteoporotic fracture. METHODS: It is a retrospective case-control study using data of a group of 1081 patients aged over 50 years with severe osteoporotic fractures by the Rennes university hospital emergency department from August 2007 to September 2008...
May 2016: Clinical Cases in Mineral and Bone Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920807/underdiagnosis-of-osteoporotic-vertebral-fractures-in-patients-with-fragility-fractures-retrospective-analysis-of-over-300-patients
#11
Vanna Bottai, Stefano Giannotti, Gloria Raffaetà, Maurizio Mazzantini, Francesco Casella, Gaia De Paola, Agnese Menconi, Francesca Falossi, Giulio Guido
Osteoporosis (OP) is a silent disease unless a fracture occurs; it is a major health problem, mainly due to fragility fractures, that occur at vertebral and peripheral sites. Vertebral fractures (VF) are probably the most common fragility fractures, but they go often unrecognized. The main clinical symptoms of VF are acute and chronic back pain, spinal deformity, reduced mobility and impaired quality of life. They are frequently associated with other fragility fractures. We examined 478 patients at our outpatient clinic, who were referred for fragility fracture occurrence...
May 2016: Clinical Cases in Mineral and Bone Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920805/abaloparatide
#12
REVIEW
Stefano Gonnelli, Carla Caffarelli
Abaloparatide is an investigational analog of human PTHrP (1-34) being developed for the treatment of osteoporosis. The amino-acid sequence of abaloparatide is identical to that of PTHrP in the first 20 amino-acids, while over half of the remaining amino-acids are different. Some studies in animals and in humans reported that abaloparatide presented a potent anabolic activity with reduced effects on bone resorption as compared to that observed with teriparatide. This may be due to a more transient signaling response of abaloparatide related to differing affinities of the two drugs to the specific conformations of the PTH1 receptor...
May 2016: Clinical Cases in Mineral and Bone Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920803/bone-pain-mechanism-in-osteoporosis-a-narrative-review
#13
REVIEW
Consalvo Mattia, Flaminia Coluzzi, Ludovica Celidonio, Renato Vellucci
Bone pain in elderly people dramatically affects their quality of life, with osteoporosis being the leading cause of skeletal related events. Peripheral and central mechanisms are involved in the pathogenesis of the nervous system sensitization. Osteoporosis in the elderly has been associated with increased density of bone sensory nerve fibers and their pathological modifications, together with an over-expression of nociceptors sensitized by the lowering pH due to the osteoclastic activity. The activation of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors and the microglia, as a response to a range of pathological conditions, represent the leading cause of central sensitization...
May 2016: Clinical Cases in Mineral and Bone Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920801/implications-of-analgesics-use-in-osteoporotic-related-pain-treatment-focus-on-opioids
#14
REVIEW
Renato Vellucci, Consalvo Mattia, Ludovica Celidonio, Rocco Domenico Mediati
Bone loss is asymptomatic and will progress without pain and other symptoms until the occurrence of a fracture. The occurrence of a breaking bone induce acute pain determined and supported by a mechanical, inflammatory and neuropathic component. Very often the acute component evolves in a chronic musculoskeletal component. Overall objectives of the analgesic therapy can be summarized in pain relief, improving sleep, improve mobility, reduce anxiety, emotional component and depression. Osteoporosis is predominantly a condition of the elderly, more likely to have coexisting cardiovascular disease and age-related decline in renal function, receiving treatment for one or more comorbid conditions, taking multiple medications...
May 2016: Clinical Cases in Mineral and Bone Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920504/gender-and-age-related-treatment-compliance-in-patients-with-osteoporosis-in-germany
#15
Peyman Hadji, Louis Jacob, Karel Kostev
AIM: The purpose of this study was to analyze treatment compliance in osteoporotic patients treated with osteoporosis medications in Germany. METHODS: Patients included in the analysis had been diagnosed with osteoporosis with or without fractures and started anti-osteoporotic therapy (bisphosphonates, denosumab, or strontium ranelate) between 2011 and 2014 in a general (GP) or orthopedic practice (OP) setting in Germany. Data pertaining to 6,221 individuals followed in GP and 4,044 individuals followed in OP were analyzed retrospectively...
2016: Patient Preference and Adherence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919734/microdamage-induced-by-in-vivo-reference-point-indentation-in-mice-is-repaired-by-osteocyte-apoptosis-mediated-remodeling
#16
Oran D Kennedy, Matin Lendhey, Peter Mauer, Anaya Philip, Jelena Basta-Pljakic, Mitchell B Schaffler
Reference Point Indentation (RPI) is a technology that is designed to measure mechanical properties that relate to bone toughness, or its ability to resist crack growth, in vivo. Independent of the mechanical parameters generated by RPI, its ability to initiate and propagate microcracks in bone is itself an interesting issue. Microcracks have a crucial biological relevance in bone, are central to its ability to maintain homeostasis. In healthy tissues, a process of targeted remodeling routinely repairs microcracks in a process mediated by osteocyte apoptosis...
December 2, 2016: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919248/bone-mineral-density-in-patients-with-multiple-sclerosis-hereditary-ataxia-or-hereditary-spastic-paraplegia-after-at-least-10%C3%A2-years-of-disease-a-case-control-study
#17
Cecilia Smith Simonsen, Elisabeth Gulowsen Celius, Cathrine Brunborg, Chantal Tallaksen, Erik Fink Eriksen, Trygve Holmøy, Stine Marit Moen
BACKGROUND: Although disability is considered the main cause of low bone mineral density (BMD) in multiple sclerosis (MS), other factors related to the disease process or treatment could also be involved. The aim of this study was to assess whether patients with MS are more likely to develop low BMD (osteopenia or osteoporosis) than patients with the non-inflammatory neurological diseases Hereditary Spastic Paraplegia (HSP) and Hereditary Ataxia (HA). METHODS: We performed a case control study comparing BMD (spine, hip and total body) and biochemical measures of bone metabolism in 91 MS patients and 77 patients with HSP or HA, matched for age, gender and disability...
December 5, 2016: BMC Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919193/treatment-of-giant-cell-arteritis-a-literature-review
#18
Bénédicte Watelet, Maxime Samson, Hubert de Boysson, Boris Bienvenu
Giant cells arteritis (GCA) is the most common vasculitis in people over 50 years. Despite the frequency of this disease, there is currently no international consensus on its therapeutic modalities. The aim of this study was to conduct a review of the international literature on the treatment of GCA, whatever the clinical pattern. Oral corticosteroids remain the cornerstone treatment, possibly preceded by intravenous bolus in complicated forms. In cases of glucocorticoid dependence or glucocorticoid-related side effects, a glucocorticoid-sparing agent may be necessary...
December 6, 2016: Modern Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918899/the-effects-of-sost-on-implant-osseointegration-in-ovariectomy-osteoporotic-mice
#19
Rui Shu, Dongqing Ai, Ding Bai, Jinlin Song, Mengyuan Zhao, Xianglong Han
OBJECTIVE: Osteoporosis is a risk factor for implant fixation failure. The inhibition of sclerostin effectively improves bone formation and bone remodeling. Therefore, this study investigated whether SOST deficiency enhances the osseointegration of implants in a mouse model of osteoporosis induced by ovariectomy (OVX). DESIGN: Osteoporosis was induced in female C57BL/6 and SOST deficient mice by OVX. Titanium implants were placed in the bilateral distal aspects of the femurs...
November 21, 2016: Archives of Oral Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918708/patient-specific-hip-fracture-strength-assessment-with-microstructural-mr-imaging-based-finite-element-modeling
#20
Chamith S Rajapakse, Alexandra Hotca, Benjamin T Newman, Austin Ramme, Shaleen Vira, Elizabeth A Kobe, Rhiannon Miller, Stephen Honig, Gregory Chang
Purpose To describe a nonlinear finite element analysis method by using magnetic resonance (MR) images for the assessment of the mechanical competence of the hip and to demonstrate the reproducibility of the tool. Materials and Methods This prospective study received institutional review board approval and fully complied with HIPAA regulations for patient data. Written informed consent was obtained from all subjects. A nonlinear finite element analysis method was developed to estimate mechanical parameters that relate to hip fracture resistance by using MR images...
December 2, 2016: Radiology
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