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Ching-Chih Chang, Wen-Shin Lee, Chiao-Lin Chuang, I-Fang Hsin, Shao-Jung Hsu, Ting Chang, Hui-Chun Huang, Fa-Yauh Lee, Shou-Dong Lee
Raloxifene, a selective estrogen receptor modulator, has been used extensively for osteoporosis. In addition to the effect of osteoporosis treatment, emerging evidences show that raloxifene affects the vascular function in different tissues. Cirrhosis is characterized with portal hypertension and complicated with hepatic encephalopathy. Portal hypertension affects portal-systemic shunt which leads to hepatic encephalopathy that the vascular modulation might influence severity of hepatic encephalopathy. Herein, we evaluated the impact of raloxifene on bile duct ligation (BDL)-induced cirrhotic rats...
February 23, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
J Pepe, C Cipriani, F P Cantatore, A Fabbri, E Pola, V Vinicola, O Raimo, F Biamonte, R Pascone, C Ferrara, S Minisola
PURPOSE: To investigate the effect of 18 months' parathyroid hormone 1-84 (PTH 1-84) treatment on serum levels of bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), in postmenopausal women with established osteoporosis. METHODS: Thirty-seven postmenopausal women with osteoporosis (mean age 72.9 ± 8.1 years old) and 23 healthy controls (mean age 68.9 ± 9.9 years old) were enrolled. Patients were treated with daily subcutaneous injections of PTH (1-84) 100 mcg for 18 months, plus calcium 1 gr and vitamin D 800 IU per os daily...
February 25, 2017: Journal of Endocrinological Investigation
Xiaohong Wang, Meik Neufurth, Emad Tolba, Shunfeng Wang, Heinz C Schröder, Werner E G Müller
Based on evolution of biomineralizing systems and energetic considerations, there is now compelling evidence that enzymes play a driving role in the formation of the inorganic skeletons from the simplest animals, the sponges, up to humans. Focusing on skeletons based on calcium minerals, the principle enzymes involved are the carbonic anhydrase (formation of the calcium carbonate-based skeletons of many invertebrates like the calcareous sponges, as well as deposition of the calcium carbonate bioseeds during human bone formation) and the alkaline phosphatase (providing the phosphate for bone calcium phosphate-hydroxyapatite formation)...
2017: Progress in Molecular and Subcellular Biology
Werner E G Müller, Xiaohong Wang, Heinz C Schröder
In the last few years, much progress has been achieved in the discovery of new drug target sites for treatment of osteoporotic disorders, one of the main challenging diseases with a large burden for the public health systems. Among these new agents promoting bone formation, shifting the impaired equilibrium between bone anabolism and bone catabolism in the direction of bone synthesis are inorganic polymers, in particular inorganic polyphosphates that show strong stimulatory effects on the expression of bone anabolic marker proteins and hydroxyapatite formation...
2017: Progress in Molecular and Subcellular Biology
Ralf Oheim, Maciej J K Simon, Malte Steiner, Eik Vettorazzi, Florian Barvencik, Anita Ignatius, Michael Amling, Iain J Clarke, Pia Pogoda, F Timo Beil
Hypothalamic-pituitary disconnection (HPD) leads to low bone turnover followed by bone loss and reduced biomechanical properties in sheep. To investigate the role of peripheral hormones in this centrally induced systemic bone loss model, we planned a hormone replacement experiment. Therefore, estrogen (OHE), thyroxin (OHT) or a combination of both (OHTE) was substituted in ovariectomized HPD sheep, as both hormones are decreased in HPD sheep and are known to have a significant but yet not fully understood impact on bone metabolism...
February 20, 2017: Injury
Y Du, L-J Zhao, Q Xu, K-H Wu, H-W Deng
: Low bone mineral density (BMD) and osteoporosis have become a public health problem. We found that non-Hispanic white, black, and Asian adults with extremely low education and personal income are more likely to have lower BMD. This relationship is gender-specific. These findings are valuable to guide bone health interventions. INTRODUCTION: The evidence is limited regarding the relationship between socioeconomic status (SES) and bone mineral density (BMD) for minority populations in the USA, as well as the relationship between SES and BMD for men...
February 24, 2017: Osteoporosis International
Jana-Carina Morfeld, Vera Vennedey, Dirk Müller, Dawid Pieper, Stephanie Stock
: This review summarizes evidence regarding the effects of patient education in osteoporosis prevention and treatment. The included studies reveal mixed results on a variety of endpoints. Methodological improvem ent of future RCTs (e.g. with regard to randomization and duration of follow-up) might yield more conclusive evidence on the effects of patient education in osteoporosis INTRODUCTION: This review aims to evaluate the effects of patient education on osteoporosis prevention and treatment results...
February 24, 2017: Osteoporosis International
C Roux, K Briot
The clinical significance of osteoporosis is in the occurrence of fractures and re-fractures. The main risk factor of sustaining a fracture is a previous one, but a recent fracture is a better fracture risk factor than fracture history. The role of the recency of fracture has been shown for both vertebral and non-vertebral fracture risk. This imminent risk is explained by both bone-related factors (underlying osteoporosis) and fall-related factors (including those related to postfracture care). Such a short-term increased risk has been shown also in patients initiating corticosteroids and in frail osteoporotic subjects with central nervous system (CNS) diseases or drugs targeting CNS, and thus a high risk of falls...
February 24, 2017: Osteoporosis International
E Michael Lewiecki
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Treat-to-target (goal-directed therapy) has been proposed as a strategy to assist clinicians in selecting the most appropriate initial treatment for osteoporosis and guiding subsequent decisions to continue, change, or stop treatment. This is a review of the current medical evidence regarding treatment targets and potential clinical applications in managing patients with osteoporosis. RECENT FINDINGS: Analyses of randomized placebo-controlled trials of approved agents to treat osteoporosis have generally shown that larger increases in bone mineral density are associated with greater reduction in fracture risk...
February 24, 2017: Current Osteoporosis Reports
Marcus E Cöster, Jesper Fritz, Jan-Åke Nilsson, Caroline Karlsson, Björn E Rosengren, Magnus Dencker, Magnus K Karlsson
OBJECTIVES: Recent evidence from the 7-year follow-up of the Pediatric Osteoporosis Prevention (POP) study indicates an inverse correlation between years of participation in a physical activity (PA) intervention and fracture risk in children. However, we could not see a statistically significant reduction in fracture risk, which urged for an extension of the intervention. SETTING: The study was conducted in 4 neighbouring elementary schools, where 1 school functioned as intervention school...
February 23, 2017: BMJ Open
Oshri Wasserzug, Israel Kaffe, Towy Sorel Lazarovici, Tal Weissman, Ran Yahalom, Dan M Fliss, Noam Yarom
BACKGROUND: The use of bisphosphonates is very common among patients with osteoporosis and multiple myeloma as well as those with bone metastases from various malignancies. The benefits of bisphosphonates are well recognized, but it became evident during the past decade that these medications portend the major adverse effect of osteonecrosis of the jaw, known as bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to evaluate the specific manifestations of bisphosphonate use on the maxillary sinus in patients with documented bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw...
January 1, 2017: American Journal of Rhinology & Allergy
Sumeet Singhania, Sunilkumar Singh, Pujan Parikh
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 1, 2017: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
Marlianne Leite Moreira, Leonardo Vieira Neto, Miguel Madeira, Renata Francioni Lopes, Maria Lucia Fleiuss Farias
Vitamin D supplementation is universal for postmenopausal women, but not for elderly men, in whom osteoporosis is also commonly neglected. This study aimed to evaluate vitamin D deficiency and its association with secondary hyperparathyroidism, bone resorption, and bone density in Brazilian men. A total of 120 men, 20-93 years, were evaluated for serum calcium, phosphorus, creatinine, 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D), parathyroid hormone, biochemical markers of bone resorption (carboxy-terminal telopeptide, carboxy-terminal peptide of type I collagen), and bone mineral density (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry)...
February 20, 2017: Journal of Clinical Densitometry
Xianyan Yang, Sanzhong Xu, Xiaoyi Chen, Dongshuang He, Xiurong Ke, Lei Zhang, Guojing Yang, An Liu, Xiaozhou Mou, Wei Xia, Zhongru Gou
Osteoporotic femur fractures are the most common fragility fracture and account for approximately one million injuries per year. Local intervention by intra-marrow injection is potentially a good choice for preventing osteoporotic bone loss when the osteoporotic femoral fracture was treated. Previously, it was shown that trace element co-doped calcium phosphate (teCaP) implants could stimulate osteoporotic bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell activity in vitro and bone regeneration in femoral bone defects in osteoporotic animal models...
February 24, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
Diomidis Kozyrakis, Dionysios Paridis, Anastasios Karatzas, Georgios Soukias, Zoi Dailiana
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of calcium supplements, with or without vitamin D, in urinary stone formation in healthy population and in osteoporotic patients as well. Moreover, this review aims to clarify whether or not, and above which dose, they are associated with the risk of lithiasis. RECENT FINDINGS: A research in Medline, Embase, and Scopus databases up to September 2015 was conducted using the following keywords: calcium, supplements, vitamin D, complications, lithiasis, and urinary stone...
March 2017: Current Urology Reports
Sayaka Namba, Minako Yamaoka-Tojo, Ryota Kakizaki, Teruyoshi Nemoto, Kazuhiro Fujiyoshi, Takehiro Hashikata, Lisa Kitasato, Takuya Hashimoto, Ryo Kameda, Kentaro Meguro, Takao Shimohama, Taiki Tojo, Junya Ako
In recent years, direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) of dabigatran, rivaroxaban, apixaban, edoxaban, which are all alternatives to warfarin, have been released. The use of DOACs is becoming more widespread in the clinical management of thrombotic stroke risk in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). In large-scale clinical trials of each drug, DOACs were reported to inhibit intracranial hemorrhage, stroke, and death compared to warfarin. Warfarin is an endogenous vitamin K antagonist; therefore, patients who are taking warfarin must be prohibited from taking vitamin K...
February 23, 2017: Heart and Vessels
E O Billington, A Horne, G D Gamble, K Maslowski, M House, I R Reid
: Zoledronic acid provokes an inflammatory reaction, or acute phase response, in some individuals. We examined whether treatment with dexamethasone could prevent this response. A single dose of dexamethasone 4 mg, given at the time of zoledronic acid infusion, did not influence the incidence or severity of the acute phase response. INTRODUCTION: The potent bisphosphonate zoledronic acid (ZOL) is used to treat osteoporosis, Paget's disease, and hypercalcemia of malignancy...
February 23, 2017: Osteoporosis International
Anthony L Hessel, Stan L Lindstedt, Kiisa C Nishikawa
When active muscles are stretched, our understanding of muscle function is stretched as well. Our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of concentric contraction has advanced considerably since the advent of the sliding filament theory, whereas mechanisms for increased force production during eccentric contraction are only now becoming clearer. Eccentric contractions play an important role in everyday human movements, including mobility, stability, and muscle strength. Shortly after the sliding filament theory of muscle contraction was introduced, there was a reluctant recognition that muscle behaved as if it contained an "elastic" filament...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
Jovana Kaludjerovic, Hirotaka Komaba, Beate Lanske
Klotho is a type I transmembrane protein that acts as a permissive co-receptor for FGF23 and helps to maintain proper mineral metabolism. Mice carrying a loss-of-function mutation in either the Klotho or Fgf23 gene develop many similar phenotypes including osteoporosis. Based on these observations it was hypothesized that the bone phenotypes in Klotho- and Fgf23-null mice may be mediated through a common signaling pathway. Recent improvements in antibody specificity have shown that osteoblasts and osteocytes, which produce FGF23, also express low amount of membrane Klotho...
February 19, 2017: Bone
Christina Dornquast, Juliane Tomzik, Thomas Reinhold, Matthias Walle, Norbert Mönter, Anne Berghöfer
BACKGROUND: Somatic comorbidities are a serious problem in patients with severe mental illnesses. These comorbidities often remain undiagnosed for a long time. In Germany, physicians are not allowed to access patients' health insurance data and do not have routine access to documentation from other providers of health care. Against this background, the objective of this article was to investigate psychiatrists' knowledge of relevant somatic comorbidities in their patients with severe mental illnesses...
February 23, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
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