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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679564/frequencies-and-expression-levels-of-programmed-death-ligand-1-pd-l1-in-circulating-tumor-rna-ctrna-in-various-cancer-types
#1
Toshiyuki Ishiba, Andreas-Claudius Hoffmann, Joshua Usher, Yahya Elshimali, Todd Sturdevant, Mai Dang, Yolanda Jaimes, Rama Tyagi, Ronald Gonzalez, Mary Grino, Jacek K Pinski, Afsaneh Barzi, Luis E Raez, Wilfried E Eberhardt, Dirk Theegarten, Heinz-Josef Lenz, Hiroyuki Uetake, Peter V Danenberg, Kathleen Danenberg
BACKGROUND: Precision medicine and prediction of therapeutic response requires monitoring potential biomarkers before and after treatment. Liquid biopsies provide noninvasive prognostic markers such as circulating tumor DNA and RNA. Circulating tumor RNA (ctRNA) in blood is also used to identify mutations in genes of interest, but additionally, provides information about relative expression levels of important genes. In this study, we analyzed PD-L1 expression in ctRNA isolated from various cancer types...
April 18, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679563/shrna-mediated-knock-down-of-cxcl8-inhibits-tumor-growth-in-colorectal-liver-metastasis
#2
Abhishek Kumar, Madhuri Cherukumilli, Seyed Hamidreza Mahmoudpour, Karsten Brand, Obul Reddy Bandapalli
CXCL8 belongs to proinflammatory chemokines that are predominantly involved in neutrophil chemotaxis and degranulation. Several studies have suggested that secretion of CXCL8 from cancer cells have a profound effect on tumor microenvironment. In this study, in continuation to our previous work of understanding the global picture of invasion related genes in colorectal liver metastases, we clearly show an up-regulation of CXCL8 expression in the tumor cells at the invasion front as compared to the tumor cells in the inner parts of the tumor...
April 18, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679517/urogenital-function-three-years-after-abdominoperineal-excision-for-rectal-cancer
#3
Anna Ledebo, David Bock, Mattias Prytz, Eva Haglind, Eva Angenete
AIM: The aim of this study was to explore urogenital dysfunction and associated risk factors after treatment of rectal cancer, in a large national cohort of patients three years after abdominoperineal excision and to compare outcomes with a reference population and a cohort of patients operated for prostate cancer. METHOD: Patients treated with abdominoperineal excision 2007-2009 were identified using the Swedish ColoRectal Cancer Registry. All consenting patients received a questionnaire...
April 21, 2018: Colorectal Disease: the Official Journal of the Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679250/the-marine-dinoflagellate-alexandrium-andersoni-induces-cell-death-in-lung-and-colorectal-tumor-cell-lines
#4
Clementina Sansone, Genoveffa Nuzzo, Christian Galasso, Raffaella Casotti, Angelo Fontana, Giovanna Romano, Adrianna Ianora
Dinoflagellates are one of the most important components in marine phytoplankton, second only to diatoms as primary producers. Dinoflagellates have also been reported to produce bioactive secondary metabolites such as polyethers and macrolides with potential applications as pharmaceuticals. Here, we tested the effect of the organic extract and its related enriched extracts from solid-phase extraction (SPE) of a strain of the dinoflagellate Alexandrium andersoni. We found that the SPE extracts induced high cytotoxicity towards two cancer cell lines (A549 lung cancer and HT29 colorectal cancer) without affecting normal cell viability...
April 20, 2018: Marine Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679138/sexual-quality-of-life-body-image-distress-and-psychosocial-outcomes-in-colorectal-cancer-a-longitudinal-study
#5
Jennifer Barsky Reese, Elizabeth Handorf, Jennifer A Haythornthwaite
PURPOSE: The objectives were to assess changes in sexual QOL and body image distress over time and to examine longitudinal associations between sexual QOL and body image variables with psychosocial outcomes in a sample of colorectal cancer patients. METHODS: Participants (N = 141) completed a mail-based survey assessing sexual QOL [sexual distress (ISS), treatment impact on sexual function (SFQ), sexual function (FSFI; IIEF)], body image distress (BIS), and psychosocial outcomes [relationship quality (DAS-4), depressive symptoms (CESD-SF), and health-related QOL (HRQOL; FACT-C)]; 88 patients completed 6-month follow-up surveys (62%)...
April 20, 2018: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678514/effect-of-neoadjuvant-therapy-and-rectal-surgery-on-health-related-quality-of-life-in-patients-with-rectal-cancer-during-the-first-2-years-after-diagnosis
#6
Alice M Couwenberg, Johannes P M Burbach, Wilhelmina M U van Grevenstein, Anke B Smits, Esther C J Consten, Anandi H W Schiphorst, Niels A T Wijffels, Joost T Heikens, Martijn P W Intven, Helena M Verkooijen
INTRODUCTION: Rectal cancer surgery with neoadjuvant therapy is associated with substantial morbidity. The present study describes the course of quality of life (QOL) in rectal cancer patients in the first 2 years after the start of treatment. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We performed a prospective study within a colorectal cancer cohort including rectal cancer patients who were referred for neoadjuvant chemoradiation or short-course radiotherapy and underwent rectal surgery...
March 21, 2018: Clinical Colorectal Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678513/review-of-blood-based-colorectal-cancer-screening-how-far-are-circulating-cell-free-dna-methylation-markers-from-clinical-implementation
#7
REVIEW
Mai-Britt Worm Ørntoft
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a leading cause of cancer related deaths worldwide, and late stages (III-IV) in particular have low 5-year survival rates. Stage shifting by CRC screening programs has proven effective by decreasing morbidity and mortality and in many countries national CRC screening programs have been implemented. Currently, European, Asian, and American authorities recommend screening for CRC using fecal occult blood testing, sigmoidoscopy, or colonoscopy. Because these approaches all have weaknesses (eg, poor compliance, high costs, test invasiveness), much effort has been put into the development of alternative screening approaches, many of which are blood-based...
March 2, 2018: Clinical Colorectal Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678311/neighborhood-disadvantage-and-racial-disparities-in-colorectal-cancer-incidence-a-population-based-study-in-louisiana
#8
Denise M Danos, Tekeda F Ferguson, Neal R Simonsen, Claudia Leonardi, Qingzhao Yu, Xiao-Cheng Wu, Richard A Scribner
PURPOSE: Colorectal cancer (CRC) continues to demonstrate racial disparities in incidence and survival in the United States. This study investigates the role of neighborhood concentrated disadvantage in racial disparities in CRC incidence in Louisiana. METHODS: Louisiana Tumor Registry and U.S. Census data were used to assess the incidence of CRC diagnosed in individuals 35 years and older between 2008 and 2012. Neighborhood concentrated disadvantage index (CDI) was calculated based on the PhenX Toolkit protocol...
May 2018: Annals of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678273/preoperative-ct-based-predictive-factors-for-resectability-and-medium-term-overall-survival-in-patients-with-peritoneal-carcinomatosis-from-colorectal-cancer
#9
C Suzuki, H Wallgren, M Abraham-Nordling, G Palmer
AIM: To determine preoperative radiological findings that may correlate with resectability and medium-term overall survival (OS) in patients with peritoneal carcinomatosis (PC) from colorectal cancer (CRC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study included 81 consecutive patients with PC scheduled for cytoreductive surgery (CRS) with hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC). PCI scores from preoperative computed tomography (CT) were compared with Peritoneal Cancer Index (PCI) scores at laparotomy...
April 17, 2018: Clinical Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677931/predicting-clinical-outcomes-in-colorectal-cancer-using-machine-learning
#10
Julian Gründner, Hans-Ulrich Prokosch, Michael Stürzl, Roland Croner, Jan Christoph, Dennis Toddenroth
Using gene markers and other patient features to predict clinical outcomes plays a vital role in enhancing clinical decision making and improving prognostic accuracy. This work uses a large set of colorectal cancer patient data to train predictive models using machine learning methods such as random forest, general linear model, and neural network for clinically relevant outcomes including disease free survival, survival, radio-chemotherapy response (RCT-R) and relapse. The most successful predictive models were created for dichotomous outcomes like relapse and RCT-R with accuracies of 0...
2018: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676964/advanced-imaging-techniques-in-evaluation-of-colorectal-cancer
#11
Roberto García-Figueiras, Sandra Baleato-González, Anwar R Padhani, Antonio Luna-Alcalá, Ana Marhuenda, Joan C Vilanova, Iria Osorio-Vázquez, Anxo Martínez-de-Alegría, Antonio Gómez-Caamaño
Imaging techniques are clinical decision-making tools in the evaluation of patients with colorectal cancer (CRC). The aim of this article is to discuss the potential of recent advances in imaging for diagnosis, prognosis, therapy planning, and assessment of response to treatment of CRC. Recent developments and new clinical applications of conventional imaging techniques such as virtual colonoscopy, dual-energy spectral computed tomography, elastography, advanced computing techniques (including volumetric rendering techniques and machine learning), magnetic resonance (MR) imaging-based magnetization transfer, and new liver imaging techniques, which may offer additional clinical information in patients with CRC, are summarized...
April 20, 2018: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676343/histopathological-report-of-colorectal-carcinoma-resections-a-5-year-audit-in-lagos
#12
Kabir Bolarinwa Badmos, Olorunda Rotimi, Abdulrazzaq Oluwagbemiga Lawal, Adedapo O Osinowo, Mohammed Y Habeebu, Fatimah Biade Abdulkareem
Background: Complete and accurate pathology reporting of colorectal carcinoma (CRC) resection specimen is critical to clinical management of individual patients. The study aims to audit colorectal cancer histopathology reporting in Lagos between 2011 and 2015 before the adoption of the Society for Gastroenterology and Hepatology in Nigeria pro forma in 2016. Materials and Methods: All resected CRC cases were identified from the Histopathology record of our Department and that of a private Laboratory in Lagos over a 5-year from 2011 to 2015...
January 2018: Nigerian Postgraduate Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676134/-colorectal-cancer-preventive-effect-of-combined-administration-of-phenolic-acids-and-supercritical-extracts-from-angelica-sinensis
#13
Yu Peng, Bo-Chen Zhao, Qian Kang, Jia Liu, Cheng Chen, Bing-Shao Li, Yuan-Ping Xie, Qing Wu
This study aimed to investigate the colorectal cancer preventive effect of the combined administration of phenolic acids and supercritical extracts from Angelica sinensis. The AOM/DSS model in mice was adopted. Phenolic acids were administrated orally in the initial stage of the model at a dose of 1 g·kg⁻¹ BW, which was combined withtherectal administration with three doses of supercritical extracts (15, 30, 60 g·kg⁻¹ BW). PCNA, 8-oxoguaine, γ-H2AX, iNOS and COX-2 were tested by immunohistochemistry and Western blot assays...
March 2018: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675984/associations-of-pre-existing-co-morbidities-with-skeletal-muscle-mass-and-radiodensity-in-patients-with-non-metastatic-colorectal-cancer
#14
Jingjie Xiao, Bette J Caan, Erin Weltzien, Elizabeth M Cespedes Feliciano, Candyce H Kroenke, Jeffrey A Meyerhardt, Vickie E Baracos, Marilyn L Kwan, Adrienne L Castillo, Carla M Prado
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Co-morbidities and computerized tomography-measured muscle abnormalities are both common in cancer patients and independently adversely influence clinical outcomes. Muscle abnormalities are also evident in other diseases, such as diabetes and obesity. This study examined for the first time the association between co-morbidities and muscle abnormalities in patients diagnosed with colorectal cancer (CRC). METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 3051 non-metastatic patients with Stages I-III CRC...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675892/dna-repair-protein-xpa-is-differentially-expressed-in-colorectal-cancer-and-predicts-better-prognosis
#15
Xue Feng, Jingwei Liu, Yuehua Gong, Kaihua Gou, Huaiwei Yang, Yuan Yuan, Chengzhong Xing
As an indispensable factor in DNA damage recognition step of nucleotide excision repair, XPA interacts with a series of proteins to initiate repair process. The expression characteristics of XPA in colorectal cancer (CRC) and its influence on CRC prognosis remain elusive. Tissue specimens of CRC and nontumor adjacent tissues from 283 patients were collected. XPA protein expressions were detected by immunohistochemistry staining. Nonparametric test was used to investigate the difference of XPA expression between CRC and nontumor adjacent tissues, as well as the correlation between XPA expression and clinicopathological parameters of CRC...
April 19, 2018: Cancer Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675807/the-prognostic-impact-of-cdx2-correlates-with-the-underlying-mismatch-repair-status-and-braf-mutational-status-but-not-with-distant-metastasis-in-colorectal-cancer
#16
Jens Neumann, Volker Heinemann, Jutta Engel, Thomas Kirchner, Sebastian Stintzing
Loss of CDX2 expression has been proposed to be a prognostic biomarker in colorectal cancer (CRC) correlating with shorter overall (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS). Since metastatic disease, mismatch repair (MMR) deficiency, and the mutational status of BRAF are considered to be important prognostic determinants in CRC, the present study aimed to analyze CDX2 expression in correlation with these parameters. Immunohistochemistry for CDX2, hMLH1, and hMSH2 was applied to a study cohort of 503 CRC specimens (FIRE-3) and a matched case-control collection of 50 right-sided CRC specimens with synchronous distant metastases and 50 right-sided CRCs without distant metastases...
April 19, 2018: Virchows Archiv: An International Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675806/comparative-study-of-predominant-phytochemical-compounds-and-proapoptotic-potential-of-broccoli-sprouts-and-florets
#17
Paweł Paśko, Małgorzata Tyszka-Czochara, Agnieszka Galanty, Joanna Gdula-Argasińska, Paweł Żmudzki, Henryk Bartoń, Paweł Zagrodzki, Shela Gorinstein
The study compares lyophilized broccoli sprouts and florets in terms of their chemical composition, cytotoxic and proapoptotic potential against hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2, colorectal cancer SW480, and skin fibroblast BJ cells. Sinapic and isochlorogenic acids were predominant phenolics in the sprouts and florets, respectively. The amount of sulforaphane in the sprouts was significantly higher vs. florets. Oleic and linoleic acids dominated in the sprouts, while caproic, stearic and oleic acids in the florets...
April 19, 2018: Plant Foods for Human Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675660/rates-of-prevalent-colorectal-cancer-occurrence-in-persons-75-years-of-age-and-older-a-population-based-national-study
#18
Vijit Chouhan, Emad Mansoor, Sravanthi Parasa, Gregory S Cooper
BACKGROUND/AIMS: There is a lack of studies describing the epidemiology of colorectal cancer (CRC) in patients aged 75 years and older (elderly). Current guidelines recommend against routine screening colonoscopies in this population. We sought to describe the epidemiology of CRC in the elderly, utilizing a large, population-based database as this may impact screening guidelines in this population. METHODS: Utilizing a commercial database (Explorys Inc, Cleveland, OH), we identified a cohort of patients with a first-ever diagnosis of CRC between 2012 and 2017 based on the Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine-Clinical Terms...
April 19, 2018: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675653/medical-student-exposure-to-cancer-patients-whilst-on-clinical-placement-a-retrospective-analyses-of-clinical-log-books
#19
Darren L Starmer
In Australia, one in two men and one in three women will be diagnosed with cancer by the age of 85. Several studies have demonstrated a decline in the number of medical graduates having examined cancer patients during their training. The aim of this study was to evaluate the exposure of medical students to cancer patients during clinical placements. Eighty-eight logbooks (response rate = 24.75%) containing 9430 patients were analysed. A total of 829 patients (8.79%) had a diagnosis of cancer. Most cancer patients were seen on surgical placements, whilst general practice placements returned the lowest numbers...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Cancer Education: the Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675592/late-assessment-of-quality-of-life-in-patients-with-rectal-carcinoma-comparison-between-sphincter-preservation-and-definitive-colostomy
#20
Mariane Messias Reis Lima Silva, Samuel Aguiar Junior, Juliana de Aguiar Pastore, Érica Maria Monteiro Santos, Fábio de Oliveira Ferreira, Ranyell Matheus S B Spencer, Vinicius F Calsavara, Wilson Toshihiko Nakagawa, Ademar Lopes
PURPOSE: Patients with cancer of the lower and middle rectum who are candidates for curative surgery often have negative opinions on definitive colostomy. The purpose of this study is to compare the quality of life (QoL) of patients who undergo standard treatment for rectal cancer with sphincter preservation or definitive colostomy. METHODS: A total of 125 patients with adenocarcinoma of the lower or middle rectum who underwent radical surgery with curative intent with a follow-up ≥ 1 year were recruited: 83 patients (group 1) were subjected to low anterior resection and low colorectal or coloanal anastomosis-thus preserving their sphincter-and 42 (group 2) were treated with abdominoperineal resection, followed by terminal definitive colostomy...
April 19, 2018: International Journal of Colorectal Disease
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