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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647513/respiratory-syncytial-virus-bronchiolitis-weather-conditions-and-air-pollution-in-an-italian-urban-area-an-observational-study
#1
Raffaella Nenna, Melania Evangelisti, Antonella Frassanito, Carolina Scagnolari, Alessandra Pierangeli, Guido Antonelli, Ambra Nicolai, Serena Arima, Corrado Moretti, Paola Papoff, Maria Pia Villa, Fabio Midulla
BACKGROUND: In this study we sought to evaluate the association between viral bronchiolitis, weather conditions, and air pollution in an urban area in Italy. METHODS: We included infants hospitalized for acute bronchiolitis from 2004 to 2014. All infants underwent a nasal washing for virus detection. A regional agency network collected meteorological data (mean temperature, relative humidity and wind velocity) and the following air pollutants: sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxide, carbon monoxide, ozone, benzene and suspended particulate matter measuring less than 10µm (PM10) and less than 2...
June 22, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646961/rhinovirus-not-just-the-common-cold
#2
Simon B Drysdale, Asuncion Mejias, Octavio Ramilo
Rhinoviruses (RV) are ubiquitous respiratory tract pathogens. They affect both the upper and lower respiratory tract and cause colds but have also been associated with wheezing, asthma exacerbations and pneumonia. New blood transcription profiling techniques of the host immune response are becoming available to characterise the pathogenesis of RV in humans. This review will outline the clinical impact of RVs in children.
June 2017: Journal of Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639594/viral-aetiology-of-wheezing-in-children-under-five
#3
Prithi Sureka Mummidi, Radha Tripathy, Bhagirathi Dwibedi, Amarendra Mahapatra, Suryakanta Baraha
BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: Wheezing is a common problem in children under five with acute respiratory infections (ARIs). Viruses are known to be responsible for a considerable proportion of ARIs in children. This study was undertaken to know the viral aetiology of wheezing among the children less than five years of age, admitted to a tertiary care hospital in eastern India. METHODS: Seventy five children, under the age of five years admitted with wheezing, were included in the study...
February 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634031/does-atopy-affect-the-course-of-viral-pneumonia
#4
S B Erdem, D Can, S Girit, F Çatal, V Şen, S Pekcan, H Yüksel, A Bingöl, I Bostancı, D Erge, R Ersu
BACKGROUND: The presence of atopy is considered as a risk factor for severe respiratory symptoms in children. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of atopy on the course of disease in children hospitalised with viral pneumonia. METHODS: Children between the ages of 1 and 6 years hospitalised due to viral pneumonia between the years of 2013 and 2016 were included to this multicentre study. Patients were classified into two groups as mild-moderate and severe according to the course of pneumonia...
June 17, 2017: Allergologia et Immunopathologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630939/retrospective-surveillance-of-wastewater-to-examine-seasonal-dynamics-of-enterovirus-infections
#5
Nichole E Brinkman, G Shay Fout, Scott P Keely
Enteroviruses are RNA viruses that are responsible for both mild gastroenteritis and mild respiratory illnesses as well as debilitating diseases such as meningitis and myocarditis. The disease burden of enteroviruses in the United States is difficult to assess because most infections are not recorded. Since infected individuals shed enterovirus in feces and urine, surveillance of municipal wastewater can reveal the diversity of enteroviruses circulating in human populations. Therefore, monthly municipal wastewater samples were collected for 1 year and enteroviruses were quantified by reverse transcriptase quantitative PCR and identified by next-generation, high-throughput sequencing...
May 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628546/the-impact-of-multiple-viral-respiratory-infections-on-outcomes-for-critically-ill-children
#6
Jigar C Chauhan, Nicholas B Slamon
OBJECTIVE: Advances in molecular diagnosis have led to increased testing for single and multiviral respiratory infection in routine clinical practice. This study compares outcomes between single and multiviral respiratory infections in children younger than 5 years old admitted to the PICU with respiratory failure. DESIGN: Retrospective, single-center, cohort study. SETTING: Tertiary-care, freestanding children's hospital. PATIENTS: Children younger than 5 years old admitted to the PICU with respiratory failure and positive respiratory molecular panel...
June 16, 2017: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627819/analysis-of-respiratory-viral-infections-detected-using-multiplex-real-time-pcr-in-hwaseong-korea-from-2013-to-2015
#7
Dae-Hyun Ko, Jungwon Hyun, Han-Sung Kim, Jae-Seok Kim, Wonkeun Song, Hyun Soo Kim
BACKGROUND: We investigated the incidences and age-related/seasonal variations of respiratory virus infections in a regional area in Korea. METHODS: A total of 3,467 respiratory specimens from patients with acute respiratory infection symptoms in a teaching hospital were tested for respiratory viruses during 2013 - 2015. RESULTS: At least one virus was detected in 2,561 of the 3,467 specimens (73.9%), and 706 patients (20.4%) were positive for two or more viruses...
May 1, 2017: Clinical Laboratory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608756/effects-of-omalizumab-on-rhinovirus-infections-illnesses-and-exacerbations-of-asthma
#8
Ann Esquivel, William W Busse, Agustin Calatroni, Alkis G Togias, Kristine G Grindle, Yury A Bochkov, Rebecca S Gruchalla, Meyer Kattan, Carolyn M Kercsmar, G Khurana Hershey, Haejin Kim, Petra Lebeau, Andrew H Liu, Stanley J Szefler, Stephen J Teach, Joseph B West, Jeremy Wildfire, Jacqueline A Pongracic, James E Gern
RATIONALE: Allergic inflammation has been linked to increased susceptibility to viral illnesses, but it is unclear whether this association is causal. OBJECTIVE: To test whether omalizumab treatment to reduce IgE would shorten the frequency and duration of rhinovirus illnesses in children with allergic asthma. METHODS: The Preventative Omalizumab or Step-up Therapy for Severe Fall Exacerbations (PROSE) was a study of children with allergic asthma (6-17 years, n=478) from low-income census tracts in 8 U...
June 13, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606988/recurrent-rhinovirus-infections-in-a-child-with-inherited-mda5-deficiency
#9
Ian T Lamborn, Huie Jing, Yu Zhang, Scott B Drutman, Jordan K Abbott, Shirin Munir, Sangeeta Bade, Heardley M Murdock, Celia P Santos, Linda G Brock, Evan Masutani, Emmanuel Y Fordjour, Joshua J McElwee, Jason D Hughes, Dave P Nichols, Aziz Belkadi, Andrew J Oler, Corinne S Happel, Helen F Matthews, Laurent Abel, Peter L Collins, Kanta Subbarao, Erwin W Gelfand, Michael J Ciancanelli, Jean-Laurent Casanova, Helen C Su
MDA5 is a cytosolic sensor of double-stranded RNA (ds)RNA including viral byproducts and intermediates. We studied a child with life-threatening, recurrent respiratory tract infections, caused by viruses including human rhinovirus (HRV), influenza virus, and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). We identified in her a homozygous missense mutation in IFIH1 that encodes MDA5. Mutant MDA5 was expressed but did not recognize the synthetic MDA5 agonist/(ds)RNA mimic polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid. When overexpressed, mutant MDA5 failed to drive luciferase activity from the IFNB1 promoter or promoters containing ISRE or NF-κB sequence motifs...
June 12, 2017: Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605562/microorganisms-associated-with-pneumonia-in-children-5-years-of-age-in-developing-and-emerging-countries-the-gabriel-pneumonia-multicenter-prospective-case-control-study
#10
Thomas Bénet, Valentina Sánchez Picot, Mélina Messaoudi, Monidarin Chou, Tekchheng Eap, Jianwei Wang, Kunling Shen, Jean-William Pape, Vanessa Rouzier, Shally Awasthi, Nitin Pandey, Ashish Bavdekar, Sonali Sanghavi, Annick Robinson, Mala Rakoto-Andrianarivelo, Maryam Sylla, Souleymane Diallo, Pagbajabyn Nymadawa, Nymadawaagiin Naranbat, Graciela Russomando, Wilma Basualdo, Florence Komurian-Pradel, Hubert Endtz, Philippe Vanhems, Gláucia Paranhos-Baccalà
Background.: Pneumonia, the leading infectious cause of child mortality globally, mainly afflicts developing countries. This prospective observational study aimed to assess the microorganisms associated with pneumonia in children aged <5 years in developing and emerging countries. Methods.: A multicenter, case-control study by the GABRIEL (Global Approach to Biological Research, Infectious diseases and Epidemics in Low-income countries) network was conducted between 2010 and 2014 in Cambodia, China, Haiti, India (2 sites), Madagascar, Mali, Mongolia, and Paraguay...
June 12, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599066/rhinovirus-and-pre-school-wheeze
#11
REVIEW
Katarina Stenberg-Hammar, Gunilla Hedlin, Cilla Söderhäll
Rhinovirus (RV) known as the common cold virus generally only causes a mild upper respiratory infection, but severe lower respiratory symptoms have been associated with RV infections especially in asthmatic individuals. Wheezing is a symptom of airway obstruction, and preschool children wheezing with RV have been associated with increased risk of asthma at school age. There are however conflicting opinions as to whether there are differences in response to RV infection or if wheezing with RV reveals a preexisting impairment that promotes asthma mainly in predisposed children...
June 9, 2017: Pediatric Allergy and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588119/high-flow-nasal-cannula-utilization-in-pediatric-critical-care
#12
Kristen D Coletti, Dayanand N Bagdure, Linda K Walker, Kenneth E Remy, Jason W Custer
BACKGROUND: High-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) is increasingly utilized in pediatrics, delivering humidified air and oxygen for respiratory conditions causing hypoxia and distress. In the neonatal ICU, it has been associated with better tolerance, lower complications, and lower cost. Few data exist regarding indications for use and the epidemiology of disease/pathology that warrants HFNC in the pediatric ICU. METHODS: This study is a retrospective cohort study of patients admitted to a tertiary children's hospital pediatric ICU and placed on HFNC from October 1, 2011 to October 31, 2013...
June 6, 2017: Respiratory Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587824/enterovirus-inhibitory-activity-of-c-8-tert-butyl-substituted-4-aryl-6-7-8-9-tetrahydrobenzo-4-5-thieno-3-2-e-1-2-4-triazolo-4-3-a-pyrimidin-5-4h-ones
#13
Bishyajit Kumar Biswas, Yashwardhan R Malpani, Neul Ha, Do-Hyun Kwon, Jin Soo Shin, Hae-Soo Kim, Chonsaeng Kim, Soo Bong Han, Chong-Kyo Lee, Young-Sik Jung
Members of a series of 4-aryl-6,7,8,9-tetrahydrobenzo[4,5]thieno[3,2-e][1,2,4]triazolo[4,3-a]pyrimidin-5(4H)-ones (1, Fig. 2) were prepared and tested against representative enteroviruses including Human Coxsackievirus B1 (Cox B1), Human Coxsackievirus B3 (Cox B3), human Poliovirus 3 (PV3), human Rhinovirus 14 (HRV14), human Rhinovirus 21 (HRV 21) and human Rhinovirus 71 (HRV 71). The C-8-tert-butyl group on the tetrahydrobenzene ring in these substances was found to be crucial for their enterovirus activity...
May 19, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584855/febrile-rhinovirus-illness-during-pregnancy-is-associated-with-low-birth-weight-in-nepal
#14
Erin K Philpott, Janet A Englund, Joanne Katz, James Tielsch, Subarna Khatry, Stephen C LeClerq, Laxman Shrestha, Jane Kuypers, Amalia S Magaret, Mark C Steinhoff, Helen Y Chu
BACKGROUND: Adverse birth outcomes, including low birth weight (LBW), defined as <2500 grams, small-for-gestational-age (SGA), and prematurity, contribute to 60%-80% of infant mortality worldwide and may be related to infections during pregnancy. The aim of this study was to assess whether febrile human rhinovirus (HRV) illness is associated with adverse birth outcomes. METHODS: Active household-based weekly surveillance was performed for respiratory illness episodes in pregnant women as part of a community-based, prospective, randomized trial of maternal influenza immunization in rural Nepal...
2017: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583227/differential-diagnosis-and-proper-treatment-of-acute-rhinosinusitis-guidance-based-on-historical-data-analysis
#15
Gregor Cevc
BACKGROUND: The time course of rhinovirus positive and negative rhinosinusitis has not been quantified yet, which aggravates proper selection and justification of the optimum treatment for this illness. Such quantitative information would facilitate an early and proper identification of the disease and its differentiation from acute bacterial rhinosinusitis, and could diminish harmful overuse of antibiotics, arguably driven by patients' want for attention and the treating physicians' inability to offer an adequate verbal comfort in its stead...
June 1, 2017: Allergy & Rhinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28581749/a-novel-series-of-highly-potent-small-molecule-inhibitors-of-rhinovirus-replication
#16
Jinwoo Kim, Yu Kyoung Jung, Chonsaeng Kim, Jin Soo Shin, Els Scheers, Joo-Youn Lee, Soo Bong Han, Chong-Kyo Lee, Johan Neyts, Jae-Du Ha, Young-Sik Jung
Human rhinoviruses (hRVs) are the main causative pathogen for common colds and are associated with the exacerbation of asthma. The wide variety in hRV serotypes has complicated the development of rhinovirus replication inhibitors. In the current investigation, we developed a novel series of benzothiophene derivatives and their analogues (6-8) that potently inhibit the replication of both hRV-A and hRV-B strains. Compound 6g inhibited the replication of hRV-B14, A21, and A71, with respective EC50 values of 0...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28581456/epigenetic-silencing-of-irf1-dysregulates-type-iii-interferon-responses-to-respiratory-virus-infection-in-epithelial-to-mesenchymal-transition
#17
Jun Yang, Bing Tian, Hong Sun, Roberto P Garofalo, Allan R Brasier
Chronic oxidative injury produced by airway disease triggers a transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β)-mediated epigenetic reprogramming known as the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). We observe that EMT silences protective mucosal interferon (IFN)-I and III production associated with enhanced rhinovirus (RV) and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) replication. Mesenchymal transitioned cells are defective in inducible interferon regulatory factor 1 (IRF1) expression by occluding RelA and IRF3 access to the promoter...
June 5, 2017: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576493/the-suppression-of-innate-immune-response-by-human-rhinovirus-c
#18
Li-Li Pang, Xin-Hui Yuan, Chang-Sheng Shao, Mao-Zhong Li, Ying Wang, Hui-Min Wang, Guang-Cheng Xie, Zhi-Ping Xie, Yue Yuan, Dong-Mei Zhou, Xiao-Man Sun, Qing Zhang, Yan Xin, Dan-di Li, Zhao-Jun Duan
Rhinovirus C (RV-C), a newly identified group of human rhinoviruses (RVs), is associated with exacerbation of severe asthma. The type I interferon (IFN) response induced by this virus and the mechanisms of evasion of IFN-mediated innate immunity for RV-C remain unclear. In this study, we constructed a full-length cDNA clone of RV-C (LZ651) from a clinical sample. IFN-β mRNA and protein levels were not elevated in differentiated Human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cells at the air-liquid interface infected with RV-C, except in the early stage of infection...
May 31, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575086/lung-epithelial-cells-have-virus-specific-and-shared-gene-expression-responses-to-infection-by-diverse-respiratory-viruses
#19
James T VanLeuven, Benjamin J Ridenhour, Andres J Gonzalez, Craig R Miller, Tanya A Miura
The severity of respiratory viral infections is partially determined by the cellular response mounted by infected lung epithelial cells. Disease prevention and treatment is dependent on our understanding of the shared and unique responses elicited by diverse viruses, yet few studies compare host responses to viruses from different families while controlling other experimental parameters. Murine models are commonly used to study the pathogenesis of respiratory viral infections, and in vitro studies using murine cells provide mechanistic insight into the pathogenesis observed in vivo...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28569582/metagenomic-analysis-identified-human-rhinovirus-b91-infection-in-an-adult-suffering-from-severe-pneumonia
#20
Fugui Yan, Yan Xiao, Mingkun Li, Hao Zhang, Rong Zhang, Hongwei Zhou, Huahao Shen, Jianwei Wang, Wen Li, Lili Ren
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 1, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
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