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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780032/severe-outcomes-associated-with-respiratory-viruses-in-newborns-and-infants-a-prospective-viral-surveillance-study-in-jordan
#1
Najwa Khuri-Bulos, Lindsey Lawrence, Bhinnata Piya, Li Wang, Christopher Fonnesbeck, Samir Faouri, Asem Shehabi, Sten H Vermund, John V Williams, Natasha B Halasa
OBJECTIVE: To assess virus-specific hospitalisation rates, risk factors for illness severity and seasonal trends in children hospitalised with acute respiratory infections (ARI). DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: A government hospital serving low-income and middle-income population in Amman, Jordan. PARTICIPANTS: Children under 2 years of age hospitalised with fever and/or respiratory symptoms (n=3168) from 16 March 2010 to 31 March 2013...
May 20, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777925/epidemiology-of-respiratory-pathogen-carriage-in-the-homeless-population-within-2-shelters-in-marseille-france-2015-2017-cross-sectional-one-day-surveys
#2
Tran Duc Anh Ly, Sophie Edouard, Sekene Badiaga, Herve Tissot-Dupont, Van Thuan Hoang, Vincent Pommier de Santi, Philippe Brouqui, Didier Raoult, Philippe Gautret
OBJECTIVES: To assess risk factors for respiratory tract infection symptoms and signs in sheltered homeless people in Marseille during the winter season, including pathogen carriage. METHODS: Data on 479 male participants within 2 shelters who completed questionnaires and a total of 950 nasal and pharyngeal samples were collected during the winters of 2015-2017. Respiratory pathogen carriage including 7 viruses and 4 bacteria was assessed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction...
May 16, 2018: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761411/detection-of-pathogenic-viruses-in-the-ambient-air-in-seoul-korea
#3
Tae-Hee Han, Sang-Hun Park, Ju-Young Chung, Hyo-Won Jeong, Jihun Jung, Jae-In Lee, Young-Ok Hwang, Il-Young Kim, Jip-Ho Lee, Kweon Jung
The possible transport of pathogenic microorganisms during Asian dust events could be an important concern for health workers; however, this is still uncertain owing to a lack of supporting evidence. The present study aimed to investigate the presence of pathogenic microorganisms in air samples collected during the Asian and non-Asian dust periods. Between March and September 2016, air samples were collected at three weather observation stations in Seoul using a high-volume air sampler. Multiplex PCR was performed using the Allplex™ respiratory and gastrointestinal panel assay kits to detect 46 microorganisms...
May 14, 2018: Food and Environmental Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760414/fragment-derived-inhibitors-of-human-n-myristoyltransferase-block-capsid-assembly-and-replication-of-the-common-cold-virus
#4
Aurélie Mousnier, Andrew S Bell, Dawid P Swieboda, Julia Morales-Sanfrutos, Inmaculada Pérez-Dorado, James A Brannigan, Joseph Newman, Markus Ritzefeld, Jennie A Hutton, Anabel Guedán, Amin S Asfor, Sean W Robinson, Iva Hopkins-Navratilova, Anthony J Wilkinson, Sebastian L Johnston, Robin J Leatherbarrow, Tobias J Tuthill, Roberto Solari, Edward W Tate
Rhinoviruses (RVs) are the pathogens most often responsible for the common cold, and are a frequent cause of exacerbations in asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and cystic fibrosis. Here we report the discovery of IMP-1088, a picomolar dual inhibitor of the human N-myristoyltransferases NMT1 and NMT2, and use it to demonstrate that pharmacological inhibition of host-cell N-myristoylation rapidly and completely prevents rhinoviral replication without inducing cytotoxicity. The identification of cooperative binding between weak-binding fragments led to rapid inhibitor optimization through fragment reconstruction, structure-guided fragment linking and conformational control over linker geometry...
May 14, 2018: Nature Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756703/most-commonly-isolated-viruses-in-asthma-exacerbation-and-their-correlation-with-eosinophil-and-total-serum-immunoglobulin-e-levels
#5
Mireya Robledo Aceves, Alejandro Barrón Balderas, María de L Jaime Ornelas
BACKGROUND: Asthma exacerbations are still a cause of hospitalization at the Emergency Department. The triggers of asthma exacerbations include allergens and infections -mostly viral-. The objective of this study was to establish the relationship between viruses detected during an asthma exacerbation and eosinophil and serum immunoglobulin E (IgE) levels in pediatric patients. POPULATION AND METHODS: Cross-sectional. analytical study. Children aged 5-15 years seen at the Pediatric Emergency Department with an asthma exacerbation in the period between March 2013 and February 2016 were included...
June 1, 2018: Archivos Argentinos de Pediatría
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754431/expanding-severe-acute-respiratory-infection-sari-surveillance-beyond-influenza-the-process-and-data-from-1-year-of-implementation-in-vietnam
#6
Karen A Alroy, Trang Thuy Do, Phu Dac Tran, Tan Quang Dang, Long Ngoc Vu, Nga Thi Hang Le, Anh Duc Dang, Nghia Duy Ngu, Tu Huy Ngo, Phuong Mai Vu Hoang, Lan Trong Phan, Thuong Vu Nguyen, Long Thanh Nguyen, Thinh Viet Nguyen, Mai Quang Vien, Huy Xuan Le, Anh The Dao, Trieu Bao Nguyen, Duoc Tho Pham, Van Thi Tuyet Nguyen, Thanh Ngoc Pham, Binh Hai Phan, Brett Whitaker, Thuy Thi Thu Do, Phuong Anh Dao, S Arunmozhi Balajee, Anthony W Mounts
BACKGROUND: In 2016, as a component of the Global Health Security Agenda, the Vietnam Ministry of Health expanded its existing influenza sentinel surveillance for severe acute respiratory infections (SARI) to include testing for 7 additional viral respiratory pathogens. This article describes the steps taken to implement expanded SARI surveillance in Vietnam and reports data from 1 year of expanded surveillance. METHOD: The process of expanding the suite of pathogens for routine testing by real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) included laboratory trainings, procurement/distribution of reagents, and strengthening and aligning SARI surveillance epidemiology practices at sentinel sites and regional institutes (RI)...
May 13, 2018: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29741642/a-cross-sectional-surveillance-study-of-the-frequency-and-etiology-of-acute-respiratory-illness-among-pregnant-women
#7
Anne M Hause, Vasanthi Avadhanula, Maurizio L Maccato, Phillip M Pinell, Nanette Bond, Patricia Santarcangelo, Laura Ferlic-Stark, Flor M Munoz, Pedro A Piedra
Background: Other than influenza, little is known about the consequences of viral acute respiratory illness (ARI) on pregnant women and fetuses. Our objectives were to determine the frequency of ARI due to respiratory viruses and the associated clinical outcomes during pregnancy. Methods: Pregnant women in their second or third trimester were enrolled if they reported having symptoms of ARI or were healthy within the preceding 2 weeks. Nasopharyngeal secretions were evaluated for respiratory viruses by molecular diagnostic assays...
May 5, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29736236/temporal-relationship-between-antibiotic-use-and-respiratory-virus-activities-in-the-republic-of-korea-a-time-series-analysis
#8
Sukhyun Ryu, Sojung Kim, Bryan I Kim, Eili Y Klein, Young Kyung Yoon, Byung Chul Chun
Background: Inappropriate use of antibiotics increases resistance and reduces their effectiveness. Despite evidence-based guidelines, antibiotics are still commonly used to treat infections likely caused by respiratory viruses. In this study, we examined the temporal relationships between antibiotic usage and respiratory infections in the Republic of Korea. Methods: The number of monthly antibiotic prescriptions and the incidence of acute respiratory tract infections between 2010 and 2015 at all primary care clinics were obtained from the Korean Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service...
2018: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729188/atopic-asthma-after-rhinovirus-induced-wheezing-is-associated-with-dna-methylation-change-in-the-smad3-gene-promoter
#9
Riikka J Lund, Maria Osmala, Maia Malonzo, Minna Lukkarinen, Annamari Leino, Jussi Salmi, Sanna Vuorikoski, Riitta Turunen, Tytti Vuorinen, Cezmi Akdis, Harri Lähdesmäki, Riitta Lahesmaa, Tuomas Jartti
Children with rhinovirus-induced severe early wheezing have an increased risk of developing asthma later in life. The exact molecular mechanisms for this association are still mostly unknown. To identify potential changes in the transcriptional and epigenetic regulation in rhinovirus-associated atopic or non-atopic asthma we analyzed a cohort of 5-year-old children (n = 45) according to the virus etiology of the first severe wheezing episode at the mean age of 13 months and to five-year asthma outcome. The development of atopic asthma in children with early rhinovirus-induced wheezing was associated with DNA methylation changes at several genomic sites in chromosomal regions previously linked to asthma...
May 5, 2018: Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29721720/comparison-of-paired-human-nasal-and-bronchial-airway-epithelial-cell-responses-to-rhinovirus-infection-and-il-13-treatment
#10
Nicole Roberts, Reem Al Mubarak, David Francisco, Monica Kraft, Hong Wei Chu
BACKGROUND: Because of its advantage as a minimally invasive procedure, nasal brushings have been increasingly used and proposed as a valuable approach to study lower airway diseases in lieu of bronchial epithelial cells. However, there is limited or conflicting evidence pertaining to whether nasal samples can be surrogates to bronchial samples. The goal of the present study is to test whether nasal epithelial cells have similar antiviral and inflammatory responses to IL-13 treatment and rhinovirus infection, a condition mimicking virally induced asthma exacerbation...
May 2, 2018: Clinical and Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29715717/antiviral-and-anti-inflammatory-activities-of-pochonin-d-a-heat-shock-protein-90-inhibitor-against-rhinovirus-infection
#11
Jae-Hyoung Song, Aeri Shim, Yeon-Jeong Kim, Jae-Hee Ahn, Bo-Eun Kwon, Thuy Trang Pham, Jongkook Lee, Sun-Young Chang, Hyun-Jeong Ko
Human rhinoviruses (HRV) are one of the major causes of common cold in humans and are also associated with acute asthma and bronchial illness. Heat-shock protein 90 (Hsp90), a molecular chaperone, is an important host factor for the replication of single-strand RNA viruses. In the current study, we examined the effect of the Hsp90 inhibitor pochonin D, in vitro and in vivo , using a murine model of human rhinovirus type 1B (HRV1B) infection. Our data suggested that Hsp90 inhibition significantly reduced the inflammatory cytokine production and lung damage caused by HRV1B infection...
May 2, 2018: Biomolecules & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29709992/characterization-of-virucidal-activities-of-chlorous-acid
#12
Hisataka Goda, Keiko Ikeda, Mitsunori Nishide, Tamiko Nagao, A Hajime Koyama
Virucidal effects of chlorous acid on enveloped and non-enveloped viruses were characterized. The virucidal activity was prominent against the enveloped viruses. However, some viruses among non-enveloped viruses, such as human rhinovirus and feline calicivirus, showed significant sensitivity to the reagent while the other, poliovirus and coxsackievirus, showed weak sensitivity, suggesting the presence of two classes of sensitivity among non-enveloped viruses against the reagent. In addition, characterization of the mode of inactivation by the reagent revealed that this inactivation of virus is strongly dependent on virus species, contaminated proteins and composition of solvent system...
April 27, 2018: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29707364/assessment-of-a-respiratory-face-mask-for-capturing-air-pollutants-and-pathogens-including-human-influenza-and-rhinoviruses
#13
S Steve Zhou, Salimatu Lukula, Cory Chiossone, Raymond W Nims, Donna B Suchmann, M Khalid Ijaz
Background: Prevention of infection with airborne pathogens and exposure to airborne particulates and aerosols (environmental pollutants and allergens) can be facilitated through use of disposable face masks. The effectiveness of such masks for excluding pathogens and pollutants is dependent on the intrinsic ability of the masks to resist penetration by airborne contaminants. This study evaluated the relative contributions of a mask, valve, and Micro Ventilator on aerosol filtration efficiency of a new N95 respiratory face mask...
March 2018: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29703950/human-rhinovirus-internal-ribosome-entry-site-element-enhances-transgene-expression-in-transfected-cho-s-cells
#14
Yu-Rong Chai, Meng-Meng Ge, Ting-Ting Wei, Yan-Long Jia, Xiao Guo, Tian-Yun Wang
Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells are mainly used for recombinant protein production. However, the unstable transgene expression and lower transgene copy numbers are the major issues need to be resolved. Here, eleven internal ribosome entry site (IRES) elements from viral and cellular IRES were evaluated for foreign gene expression in CHO-S cells. We constructed eleven fusing plasmids containing different IRES sequences downstream of the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) gene. EGFP expression was detected by flow cytometry and the transgene copy number was evaluated by quantitative PCR...
April 27, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29698627/bronchial-mucosal-interferon-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-and-pattern-recognition-receptor-expression-in-experimental-rhinovirus-induced-asthma-exacerbations
#15
Jie Zhu, Simon D Message, Patrick Mallia, Tatiana Kebadze, Marco Contoli, Christine K Ward, Elliot S Barnathan, Mary Ann Mascelli, Onn M Kon, Alberto Papi, Luminita A Stanciu, Michael R Edwards, Peter K Jeffery, Sebastian L Johnston
BACKGROUND: The innate immune system senses viral infection via pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) leading to type I interferon (IFN) production: their roles in rhinovirus (RV)-induced asthma exacerbations in vivo are uncertain. OBJECTIVES: To compare bronchial mucosal type I IFN and PRR expression at baseline and following RV infection in atopic asthmatic and control subjects. METHODS: Immunohistochemistry was used to detect expression of IFN-α, IFN-β and the PRRs, toll-like receptor (TLR)-3, melanoma-differentiation-associated gene-5 (MDA-5) and retinoic-acid-inducible protein-I (RIG-I) in bronchial biopsies from 10 atopic asthmatics and 15 non-asthmatic non-atopic controls at baseline and on day four and six weeks following RV infection...
April 23, 2018: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29696025/adrenergic-signaling-at-the-interface-of-allergic-asthma-and-viral-infections
#16
Didem Ağaç, Michelle A Gill, J David Farrar
Upper respiratory viral infections are a major etiologic instigator of allergic asthma, and they drive severe exacerbations of allergic inflammation in the lower airways of asthma sufferers. Rhinovirus (RV), in particular, is the main viral instigator of these pathologies. Asthma exacerbations due to RV infections are the most frequent reasons for hospitalization and account for the majority of morbidity and mortality in asthma patients. In both critical care and disease control, long- and short-acting β2-agonists are the first line of therapeutic intervention, which are used to restore airway function by promoting smooth muscle cell relaxation in bronchioles...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686673/the-cd8-t-cell-response-to-respiratory-virus-infections
#17
REVIEW
Megan E Schmidt, Steven M Varga
Humans are highly susceptible to infection with respiratory viruses including respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), influenza virus, human metapneumovirus, rhinovirus, coronavirus, and parainfluenza virus. While some viruses simply cause symptoms of the common cold, many respiratory viruses induce severe bronchiolitis, pneumonia, and even death following infection. Despite the immense clinical burden, the majority of the most common pulmonary viruses lack long-lasting efficacious vaccines. Nearly all current vaccination strategies are designed to elicit broadly neutralizing antibodies, which prevent severe disease following a subsequent infection...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684211/heterotypic-infection-and-spread-of-rhinovirus-a-b-and-c-among-child-care-attendees
#18
Emily T Martin, Jane Kuypers, Helen Y Chu, Sydney Foote, Andrew Hashikawa, Mary P Fairchok, Janet A Englund
Background: Despite the frequency of human rhinovirus (HRV), data describing the molecular epidemiology of HRV in the community are limited. Child care centers are optimal settings to characterize heterotypic HRV co-circulation. Methods: HRV specimens were prospectively obtained from a cohort of child care attendees at enrollment and weekly during respiratory illness. Sequences of the 5' non-coding region were used to determine HRV species (A, B, or C) and genotypes...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684193/rhinovirus-new-insights-into-a-complex-epidemiology
#19
Martin G Ottolini, Allison M W Malloy
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 19, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673810/a-systematic-review-of-emerging-respiratory-viruses-at-the-hajj-and-possible-coinfection-with-streptococcus-pneumoniae
#20
REVIEW
Jaffar A Al-Tawfiq, Samir Benkouiten, Ziad A Memish
BACKGROUND: The annual Hajj to the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia attracts millions of pilgrims from around the world. International health community's attention goes towards this mass gathering and the possibility of the development of any respiratory tract infections due to the high risk of acquisition of respiratory viruses. METHOD: We searched MEDLINE/PubMed and Scopus databases for relevant papers describing the prevalence of respiratory viruses among Hajj pilgrims...
April 16, 2018: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease
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