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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345007/aetiology-of-neonatal-conjunctivitis-evaluated-in-a-population-based-setting
#1
Minna Honkila, Marjo Renko, Irma Ikäheimo, Tytti Pokka, Matti Uhari, Terhi Tapiainen
AIM: Our aim was to study prospectively the aetiology of neonatal conjunctivitis in a population-based setting. METHODS: Altogether 173 neonates with clinical conjunctivitis aged on average 20 (SD 10) days were recruited from child welfare clinics in Oulu, Finland, in 2010-2015. Conjunctival specimens were collected from 167 neonates for multiplex polymerase chain reaction to detect 16 respiratory viruses, from 163 for polymerase chain reaction to detect Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae and from 160 for bacterial culture studies...
January 18, 2018: Acta Paediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343585/rhinovirus-in-febrile-infants-and-risk-of-bacterial-infection
#2
Anne J Blaschke, E Kent Korgenski, Jacob Wilkes, Angela P Presson, Emily A Thorell, Andrew T Pavia, Elizabeth D Knackstedt, Carolyn Reynolds, Jeff E Schunk, Judy A Daly, Carrie L Byington
BACKGROUND: Febrile infants with viral respiratory infections have a reduced risk of bacterial infection compared with virus-negative infants. The risk of concomitant bacterial infection in febrile infants positive for human rhinovirus (HRV) by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is unknown. METHODS: Infants 1-90 days old managed using the care process model for well-appearing febrile infants and with respiratory viral testing by PCR (RVPCR) in the emergency department or inpatient setting of 22 hospitals in the Intermountain Healthcare system from 2007-2016 were identified...
January 17, 2018: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332209/the-rapid-diagnosis-of-viral-respiratory-tract-infections-and-its-impact-on-antimicrobial-stewardship-programs
#3
Şiran Keske, Önder Ergönül, Faik Tutucu, Doruk Karaaslan, Erhan Palaoğlu, Füsun Can
We aimed to describe the potential benefit of new rapid molecular respiratory tests (MRT) in decreasing inappropriate antibiotic use among the inpatients presenting with influenza-like illness (ILI). We included patients from inpatient and outpatient departments who had ILI and performed MRT between 1 January 2015 and 31 December 2016 in a 265-bed private hospital in Istanbul. At the end of 2015, we implemented antimicrobial stewardship including systematic use of MRT. Then, we compared our observations between the year 2015 and the year 2016...
January 13, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331160/reduction-in-rate-of-nosocomial-respiratory-virus-infections-in-a-children-s-hospital-associated-with-enhanced-isolation-precautions
#4
Lorry G Rubin, Nina Kohn, Susan Nullet, Margaret Hill
OBJECTIVE To determine whether the use of enhanced isolation precautions (droplet and contact precautions) for inpatients with respiratory tract viral infections is associated with a reduction in rate of nosocomial viral respiratory infections. DESIGN Quasi-experimental study with the rate of nosocomial respiratory virus infection as the primary dependent variable and rate of nosocomial Clostridium difficile infection as a nonequivalent dependent variable comparator. SETTING Cohen Children's Medical Center of NY, a tertiary-care children's hospital attached to a large general hospital...
January 14, 2018: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328393/paediatric-virology-and-its-interaction-between-basic-science-and-clinical-practice-review
#5
Ioannis N Mammas, Anne Greenough, Maria Theodoridou, Anna Kramvis, Maria Rusan, Angeliki Melidou, Paraskevi Korovessi, Georgia Papaioannou, Alexia Papatheodoropoulou, Chryssie Koutsaftiki, Maria Liston, George Sourvinos, Demetrios A Spandidos
The 3rd Workshop on Paediatric Virology, which took place on October 7th, 2017 in Athens, Greece, highlighted the role of breast feeding in the prevention of viral infections during the first years of life. Moreover, it focused on the long-term outcomes of respiratory syncytial virus and rhinovirus infections in prematurely born infants and emphasised the necessity for the development of relevant preventative strategies. Other topics that were covered included the vaccination policy in relation to the migration crisis, mother‑to‑child transmission of hepatitis B and C viruses, vaccination against human papilloma viruses in boys and advances on intranasal live‑attenuated vaccination against influenza...
January 4, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327237/regional-age-and-respiratory-secretion-specific-prevalence-of-respiratory-viruses-associated-with-asthma-exacerbation-a-literature-review
#6
REVIEW
Xue-Yan Zheng, Yan-Jun Xu, Wei-Jie Guan, Li-Feng Lin
Despite increased understanding of how viral infection is involved in asthma exacerbations, it is less clear which viruses are involved and to what extent they contribute to asthma exacerbations. Here, we sought to determine the prevalence of different respiratory viruses during asthma exacerbations. Systematic computerized searches of the literature up to June 2017 without language limitation were performed. The primary focus was on the prevalence of respiratory viruses, including AdV (adenovirus), BoV (bocavirus), CoV (coronavirus), CMV (cytomegalovirus), EnV (enterovirus), HSV (herpes simplex virus), IfV (influenza virus), MpV (metapneumovirus), PiV (parainfluenzavirus), RV (rhinovirus) and RSV (respiratory syncytial virus) during asthma exacerbations...
January 11, 2018: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324996/laboratory-confirmed-respiratory-infections-as-predictors-of-hospital-admission-for-myocardial-infarction-and-stroke-time-series-analysis-of-english-data-for-2004-2015
#7
R M Blackburn, H Zhao, R Pebody, A C Hayward, C Warren-Gash
Background: Acute respiratory infections are associated with increased risk of myocardial infarction (MI) and stroke, however, the role of different organisms is poorly characterised. Methods: We undertook a time-series analysis of English hospital admissions for MI and stroke (age-stratified: 45-64, 65-74, 75+ years), laboratory-confirmed viral respiratory infections and environmental data for 2004-2015. Weekly counts of admissions were modelled using multivariable Poisson regression with weekly counts of respiratory viruses (influenza, parainfluenza, rhinovirus, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), adenovirus or human meta-pneumovirus (HMPV)) investigated as predictors...
January 6, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319193/house-dust-mite-impairs-antiviral-response-in-asthma-exacerbation-models-through-its-effects-on-tlr3
#8
Hamid Akbarshahi, Mandy Menzel, Sangeetha Ramu, Irma Mahmutovic Persson, Leif Bjermer, Lena Uller
BACKGROUND: Impaired antiviral interferon expression may be involved in asthma exacerbations commonly caused by rhinovirus infections. Allergy is a known risk factor for viral-induced asthma exacerbation, but little is known whether allergens may affect interferon responses. OBJECTIVE: Our hypothesis is that house dust mite (HDM) impairs viral stimulus-induced antiviral signalling. METHODS: Experimental asthma exacerbations were produced in vitro in human bronchial epithelial cells (HBECs) and in mice by using sequential challenges with HDM and a viral infection mimic, Poly(I:C)...
January 10, 2018: Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317243/effects-of-rhinovirus-rv-39-infection-on-airway-hyper-responsiveness-ahr-to-carbachol-in-human-airways-precision-cut-lung-slices-pcls
#9
Joshua L Kennedy, Cynthia J Koziol-White, Susanne Jeffus, Mallikarjuna R Rettiganti, Paige Fisher, Megan Kurten, Anthony Eze, Suzanne House, James D Sikes, Emily Askew, Claire Putt, Reynold A Panettieri, Stacie M Jones, Richard C Kurten
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 6, 2018: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315623/tnf-family-member-light-acts-with-il-1%C3%AE-and-tgf-%C3%AE-to-promote-airway-remodeling-during-rhinovirus-infection
#10
Amit K Mehta, Taylor Doherty, David Broide, Michael Croft
BACKGROUND: Rhinovirus (RV) can exacerbate allergen-driven asthma. However, it has been suggested that serial infections with RV may also lead to asthma-like features in childhood without prior allergen exposure. AIM: We sought to test the effects of RV infection in the absence of allergen challenge on lung tissue remodeling and to understand if RV induced factors in common with allergen that promote remodeling. METHODS: We infected C57BL/6 mice multiple times with RV in the absence or presence of allergen to assess airway remodeling...
January 9, 2018: Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314779/respiratory-viral-infections-in-infancy-and-school-age-respiratory-outcomes-and-healthcare-costs
#11
Victoria MacBean, Simon B Drysdale, Muska N Yarzi, Janet L Peacock, Gerrard F Rafferty, Anne Greenough
OBJECTIVES: To determine the impact of viral lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) in infancy including rhinovirus (RV) and infancy respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), on school age pulmonary function and healthcare utilization in prematurely born children. WORKING HYPOTHESIS: School age respiratory outcomes would be worse and healthcare utilization greater in children who had viral LRTIs in infancy. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective study. SUBJECT SELECTION: A cohort of prematurely born children who had symptomatic LRTIs during infancy documented, was recalled...
January 4, 2018: Pediatric Pulmonology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314338/reduced-cdhr3-expression-in-children-wheezing-with-rhinovirus
#12
Katarina Stenberg Hammar, Katarzyna Niespodziana, Marianne van Hage, Juha Kere, Rudolf Valenta, Gunilla Hedlin, Cilla Söderhäll
BACKGROUND: Rhinovirus induced wheezing in young children has been associated with increased asthma risk at school age. Recently, the transmembrane protein cadherin related family member 3 (CDHR3) was identified as the RV-C receptor and the genetic variant rs6967330 (p.Cys529Tyr) was reported to be associated with enhanced RV-C binding and increased replication in vitro. The aim of this study was to examine rs6967330 genotypes and mRNA expression of CDHR3 in relation to presence of rhinovirus and clinical symptoms in children with acute wheezing and compare to a group of age-matched healthy children...
January 4, 2018: Pediatric Allergy and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29309618/single-cell-tracking-reveals-a-role-for-pre-existing-ccr5-memory-th1-cells-in-the-control-of-rhinovirus-a39-after-experimental-challenge-in-humans
#13
Lyndsey M Muehling, Ronald B Turner, Kenneth B Brown, Paul W Wright, James T Patrie, Sampo J Lahtinen, Markus J Lehtinen, William W Kwok, Judith A Woodfolk
Background: Little is known about T cells that respond to human rhinovirus in vivo, due to timing of infection, viral diversity, and complex T-cell specificities. We tracked circulating CD4+ T cells with identical epitope specificities that responded to intranasal challenge with rhinovirus (RV)-A39, and we assessed T-cell signatures in the nose. Methods: Cells were monitored using a mixture of 2 capsid-specific major histocompatibility complex II tetramers over a 7-week period, before and after RV-A39 challenge, in 16 human leukocyte antigen-DR4+ subjects who participated in a trial of Bifidobacterium lactis (Bl-04) supplementation...
December 22, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302815/long-lasting-cough-in-an-adult-german-population-incidence-symptoms-and-related-pathogens
#14
Raphael Weinberger, Marion Riffelmann, Nicole Kennerknecht, Christel Hülße, Martina Littmann, Judith O'Brien, Rüdiger von Kries, Carl Heinz Wirsing von König
Studies of the incidence of pertussis in adults have shown that it accounts for only 5-15% cases of prolonged coughing. We assessed the burden of suffering related to prolonged coughing and tried to identify further causative agents. Based on a sentinel study with 35 general practitioners in two German cities (Krefeld, Rostock), with 3,946 patients fulfilling the inclusion criteria, we estimated the incidence of prolonged coughing in adults. In 975 of these outpatients, PCR and/or serology for adenovirus, Bordetella pertussis and B...
January 4, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302674/mechanical-stiffening-of-human-rhinovirus-by-cavity-filling-antiviral-drugs
#15
Alejandro Valbuena, Alicia Rodríguez-Huete, Mauricio G Mateu
Emerging studies at the nanoscale on the relationships between the structure, mechanical properties and infectivity of virus particles are revealing important physics-based foundations of virus biology that may have biomedical and nanotechnological applications. Human rhinovirus (HRV) is the major causative agent of common colds leading to important economic losses, and is also associated with more severe diseases. There is renewed interest in developing effective anti-HRV drugs, but none have been approved so far...
January 5, 2018: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300926/asymptomatic-summertime-shedding-of-respiratory-viruses
#16
Jeffrey Shaman, Haruka Morita, Ruthie Birger, Mary Boyle, Devon Comito, Benjamin Lane, Chanel Ligon, Hannah Smith, Rob Desalle, Paul Planet
To determine rates of both symptomatic and asymptomatic infection among ambulatory adults, we collected nasopharyngeal swabs, demographics, and survey information from 1477 adult visitors to a New York City tourist attraction during April-July 2016. Multiplex PCR was used to identify specimens positive for common respiratory viruses. 7.2% of samples tested positive; 71.0% of positive samples detected rhinovirus and 21.5% detected coronavirus. Influenza, respiratory syncytial virus, and parainfluenza were also detected...
January 2, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290098/rotavirus-infection-as-a-frequent-cause-of-neonatal-fever
#17
Ha-Na Kang, Hyun Kyung Park, Hyun-Ju Lee, Jin-Hwa Moon, Jae Won Oh, Chang-Ryul Kim
BACKGROUND: Fever rather than diarrhea or vomiting was the most common symptom of neonatal rotavirus(RV) infection in our previous study. We investigated if RV infection is a major cause of neonatal fever and we compared the clinical characteristics of bacterial infections, viral infections and unknown causes of neonatal fever. METHOD: We reviewed the electronic medical records of 48 newborns of ≤ 28 days who were admitted to the Special Care Nursery of Hanyang University Guri Hospital for fever (≥ 38°C) from 2005 to 2009...
December 31, 2017: Pediatrics International: Official Journal of the Japan Pediatric Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287070/a-diagnostic-and-epidemiologic-investigation-of-acute-febrile-illness-afi-in-kilombero-tanzania
#18
Christine Hercik, Leonard Cosmas, Ondari D Mogeni, Newton Wamola, Wanze Kohi, Victor Omballa, Melvin Ochieng, Shirley Lidechi, Juma Bonventure, Caroline Ochieng, Clayton Onyango, Barry S Fields, Sayoki Mfinanga, Joel M Montgomery
INTRODUCTION: In low-resource settings, empiric case management of febrile illness is routine as a result of limited access to laboratory diagnostics. The use of comprehensive fever syndromic surveillance, with enhanced clinical microbiology, advanced diagnostics and more robust epidemiologic investigation, could enable healthcare providers to offer a differential diagnosis of fever syndrome and more appropriate care and treatment. METHODS: We conducted a year-long exploratory study of fever syndrome among patients ≥ 1 year if age, presenting to clinical settings with an axillary temperature of ≥37...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284752/role-of-enhanced-receptor-engagement-in-the-evolution-of-a-pandemic-acute-hemorrhagic-conjunctivitis-virus
#19
Jim Baggen, Daniel L Hurdiss, Georg Zocher, Nitesh Mistry, Richard W Roberts, Jasper J Slager, Hongbo Guo, Arno L W van Vliet, Maryam Wahedi, Kimberley Benschop, Erwin Duizer, Cornelis A M de Haan, Erik de Vries, José M Casasnovas, Raoul J de Groot, Niklas Arnberg, Thilo Stehle, Neil A Ranson, Hendrik Jan Thibaut, Frank J M van Kuppeveld
Acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis (AHC) is a painful, contagious eye disease, with millions of cases in the last decades. Coxsackievirus A24 (CV-A24) was not originally associated with human disease, but in 1970 a pathogenic "variant" (CV-A24v) emerged, which is now the main cause of AHC. Initially, this variant circulated only in Southeast Asia, but it later spread worldwide, accounting for numerous AHC outbreaks and two pandemics. While both CV-A24 variant and nonvariant strains still circulate in humans, only variant strains cause AHC for reasons that are yet unknown...
December 28, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274318/the-burden-of-viruses-in-pneumonia-associated-with-acute-respiratory-failure-an-underappreciated-issue
#20
Andrew F Shorr, Kristen Fisher, Scott T Micek, Marin H Kollef
BACKGROUND: Pneumonia associated with mechanical ventilation (MV) results in substantial mortality and represents a leading reason for antibiotic utilization. The role of viruses in this setting is unclear. Identifying a viral etiology such instances could facilitate antibiotic stewardship. METHODS: We performed a secondary analysis of a prospective cohort with pneumonia requiring MV. We included both community and hospital-onset cases and classified patients as to the pneumonia's etiology...
December 20, 2017: Chest
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