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Rhinovirus

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088354/uncovering-oxysterol-binding-protein-osbp-as-a-target-of-the-anti-enteroviral-compound-ttp-8307
#1
Lucian Albulescu, Joëlle Bigay, Bishyajit Biswas, Marion Weber-Boyvat, Cristina M Dorobantu, Leen Delang, Hilde M van der Schaar, Young-Sik Jung, Johan Neyts, Vesa M Olkkonen, Frank J M van Kuppeveld, Jeroen R P M Strating
The genus Enterovirus (e.g. poliovirus, coxsackievirus, rhinovirus) of the Picornaviridae family of positive-strand RNA viruses includes many important pathogens linked to a range of acute and chronic diseases for which no approved antiviral therapy is available. Targeting a step in the life cycle that is highly conserved provides an attractive strategy for developing broad-range inhibitors of enterovirus infection. A step that is currently explored as a target for the development of antivirals is the formation of replication organelles, which support replication of the viral genome...
January 11, 2017: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088167/randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-clinical-trial-to-assess-the-safety-and-effectiveness-of-a-novel-dual-action-oral-topical-formulation-against-upper-respiratory-infections
#2
Pranab K Mukherjee, Frank Esper, Ken Buchheit, Karen Arters, Ina Adkins, Mahmoud A Ghannoum, Robert A Salata
BACKGROUND: Current prevention options for upper respiratory infections (URIs) are not optimal. We conducted a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled pilot clinical trial to evaluate the safety and efficacy of ARMS-I™ (currently marketed as Halo™) in the prevention of URIs. METHODS: ARMS-I is patented novel formulation for the prevention and treatment of influenza, comprising a broad-spectrum antimicrobial agent (cetylpyridinium chloride, CPC) and components (glycerin and xanthan gum) that form a barrier on the host mucosa, thus preventing viral contact and invasion...
January 14, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077283/aetiology-of-febrile-pharyngitis-in-children-potential-of-myxovirus-resistance-protein-a-mxa-as-a-biomarker-of-viral-infection
#3
Lauri Ivaska, Jussi Niemelä, Johanna Lempainen, Riikka Österback, Matti Waris, Tytti Vuorinen, Jukka Hytönen, Kaisu Rantakokko-Jalava, Ville Peltola
OBJECTIVES: Besides group A streptococcus (GAS), microbial causes of pharyngitis in children are not well known. We aimed to document the viral and bacterial aetiology of pharyngitis and to assess the pathogenic role of viruses by determining the myxovirus resistance protein A (MxA) in the blood as a marker of interferon response. METHODS: In this prospective observational study, throat swabs and blood samples were collected from children (age 1-16 years) presenting to the emergency department with febrile pharyngitis...
January 7, 2017: Journal of Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067857/impact-of-a-transition-from-respiratory-virus-shell-vial-to-multiplex-pcr-on-clinical-outcomes-and-cost-in-hospitalized-children
#4
Pui-Ying Iroh Tam, Lei Zhang, Zohara Cohen
While respiratory virus PCR panel (RVPP) is more expensive than shell vial (SV) cell culture, it has been shown to reduce unnecessary diagnostic procedures, decrease the inappropriate use of antimicrobials, and shorten the hospital length of stay (LOS). We therefore hypothesized that, for hospitalized children, RVPP would be associated with improved clinical outcomes but higher hospital charges than SV cell culture. We performed a retrospective cohort study of hospitalized children. Multivariate analysis was performed, and p-values were calculated...
January 7, 2017: Children
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067078/antiviral-therapy-for-respiratory-viral-infections-in-immunocompromised-patients
#5
Lokesh Shahani, Ella J Ariza-Heredia, Roy F Chemaly
Respiratory viruses (influenza, parainfluenza, respiratory syncytial virus, coronavirus, human metapneumovirus, and rhinovirus) represent the most common causes of respiratory viral infections in immunocompromised patients. Also, these infections may be more severe in immunocompromised patients than in the general population. Early diagnosis and treatment of viral infections continue to be of paramount importance in immunocompromised patients; because once viral replication and invasive infections are evident, prognosis can be grave...
January 8, 2017: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056984/the-main-rhinovirus-respiratory-tract-adhesion-site-icam-1-is-upregulated-in-smokers-and-patients-with-chronic-airflow-limitation-cal
#6
Shakti Dhar Shukla, Malik Quasir Mahmood, Steven Weston, Roger Latham, Hans Konrad Muller, Sukhwinder Singh Sohal, Eugene Haydn Walters
BACKGROUND: ICAM-1 is a major receptor for ~60% of human rhinoviruses, and non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae, two major pathogens in COPD. Increased cell-surface expression of ICAM-1 in response to tobacco smoke exposure has been suggested. We have investigated epithelial ICAM-1 expression in both the large and small airways, and lung parenchyma in smoking-related chronic airflow limitation (CAL) patients. METHODS: We evaluated epithelial ICAM-1 expression in resected lung tissue: 8 smokers with normal spirometry (NLFS); 29 CAL patients (10 small-airway disease; 9 COPD-smokers; 10 COPD ex-smokers); Controls (NC): 15 normal airway/lung tissues...
January 5, 2017: Respiratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053847/evaluation-of-antiviral-activity-of-zanthoxylum-species-against-picornaviruses
#7
Hwa-Jung Choi
Human rhinoviruses and enteroviruses (family Picornaviridae) infect millions of people worldwide each year, but little is known about effective therapeutical treatment for the infection caused by these viruses. We sought to determine whether or not Zanthoxylum (Rutaceae) species can exhibit antiviral activity against picornaviruses. The leaf parts of four Zanthoxylum species were extracted with methanol, and the extracts were investigated for their antiviral activity against picornaviruses using cytopathic effects by cytopathic effect reduction...
December 2016: Osong Public Health and Research Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049713/erratum-for-conzemius-et-al-icam-1-binding-rhinoviruses-a89-and-b14-uncoat-in-different-endosomal-compartments
#8
Rick Conzemius, Haleh Ganjian, Dieter Blaas, Renate Fuchs
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 15, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28046097/glucocorticoid-insensitivity-in-virally-infected-airway-epithelial-cells-is-dependent-on-transforming-growth-factor-%C3%AE-activity
#9
Yuxiu C Xia, Asmaa Radwan, Christine R Keenan, Shenna Y Langenbach, Meina Li, Danica Radojicic, Sarah L Londrigan, Rosa C Gualano, Alastair G Stewart
Asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exacerbations are commonly associated with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), rhinovirus (RV) and influenza A virus (IAV) infection. The ensuing airway inflammation is resistant to the anti-inflammatory actions of glucocorticoids (GCs). Viral infection elicits transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) activity, a growth factor we have previously shown to impair GC action in human airway epithelial cells through the activation of activin-like kinase 5 (ALK5), the type 1 receptor of TGF-β...
January 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040689/burden-of-healthcare-associated-viral-respiratory-infections-in-children-s-hospitals
#10
Caroline Quach, Rita Shah, Lorry G Rubin
OBJECTIVE: Although healthcare-associated (HA) viral respiratory infections (VRIs) are common in pediatrics, no benchmark for comparison exists. We aimed to determine, compare, and assess determinants of unit-specific HA-VRI incidence rates in 2 children's hospitals. METHODS: This study was a retrospective comparison of prospective cohorts. The Montreal Children's Hospital and the Cohen Children's Medical Center of New York perform prospective surveillance for HA-VRI using standardized definitions that require the presence of symptoms compatible with VRI and virus detection...
December 30, 2016: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028115/epidemiologic-analysis-of-respiratory-viral-infections-mainly-in-hospitalized-children-and-adults-in-a-midwest-university-medical-center-after-the-implementation-of-a-14-virus-multiplex-nucleic-acid-amplification-test
#11
Sophie Arbefeville, Patricia Ferrieri
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the etiology of viral respiratory tract infections mainly in hospitalized children and adults over a 12-month consecutive period after implementation of a 14-virus multiplex nucleic acid amplification test. METHODS: From January 2014 to January 2015, a total of 2,237 respiratory samples were analyzed with the US Food and Drug Administration-cleared eSensor Respiratory Viral Panel (GenMark Diagnostics, Carlsbad, CA). RESULTS: Of the 2,237 specimens tested, 788 specimens were positive for at least one virus, giving a positivity rate of 35...
December 27, 2016: American Journal of Clinical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027280/clinical-and-virus-surveillance-after-the-first-wheezing-episode-special-reference-to-rhinovirus-a-and-c-species
#12
Riitta Turunen, Tytti Vuorinen, Yury Bochkov, James Gern, Tuomas Jartti
BACKGROUND: Susceptibility to rhinovirus (RV) induced early wheezing episode has been recognized as an important risk factor for asthma but the data on different RV species are limited. Our aim was to investigate the risk for recurrences in first-time wheezing children with special focus on RV species. METHODS: First-time wheezing children (88/23 in-/outpatients) were prospectively followed at 2-week, 2-month and 12-month time-points, and at first recurrence within 12 months...
December 23, 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28024227/the-role-of-outdoor-fungi-on-asthma-hospital-admissions-in-children-and-adolescents-a-5-year-time-stratified-case-crossover-analysis
#13
Rachel Tham, Constance H Katelaris, Don Vicendese, Shyamali C Dharmage, Adrian J Lowe, Gayan Bowatte, Philip Taylor, Pamela Burton, Michael J Abramson, Bircan Erbas
BACKGROUND: Some fungal spores can trigger asthma exacerbation but knowledge of which outdoor fungal spores contribute to asthma hospitalisation is limited. OBJECTIVES: To examine the role of outdoor fungal spores in child and adolescent asthma hospitalisations. METHODS: We conducted a bi-directional time-stratified case-crossover study of child and adolescent asthma hospitalisations over 5 years. Conditional logistic regression assessed the role of 20 fungi taxa (Same day [L0] and lagged [L1-3]) adjusted for maximum temperature, humidity and grass pollen...
December 23, 2016: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018453/anomalous-right-coronary-artery-from-pulmonary-artery-discovered-incidentally-in-an-asymptomatic-young-infant
#14
Kyu Seon Kim, Eun Young Jo, Jae Hyeon Yu, Hong Rang Kil
Isolated anomalous right coronary artery originating from the pulmonary artery (ARCAPA) is a rare congenital coronary anomaly that is asymptomatic and discovered incidentally in most cases. ARCAPA is generally not considered a fatal defect in infancy or childhood, although cases of sudden death have been reported. Here, we report a 2-month-old female infant who presented with a prolonged fever that was determined to be caused by rhinovirus infection. Myocardial ischemia of the left ventricular posterior wall was already seen on echocardiography, and ARCAPA was discovered incidentally...
November 2016: Korean Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018433/viral-agents-causing-acute-respiratory-infections-in-children-under-five-a-study-from-eastern-india
#15
Pravakar Mishra, Lipika Nayak, Rashmi Ranjan Das, Bhagirathi Dwibedi, Amitabh Singh
Background. Acute respiratory infections (ARIs) are important cause of mortality and morbidity in children under five in developing country. Methods. This observational study was conducted over two-year period in a tertiary care teaching hospital of Eastern India. Nasal and throat swabs were collected, transported to the laboratory at 2-8°C in viral transport media, and then processed for detection of viruses using mono/multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction. Results. A total of 300 children aged 2-60 months with ARIs were included...
2016: International Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008678/mast-cells-are-permissive-for-rhinovirus-replication-potential-implications-for-asthma-exacerbations
#16
Charlene Akoto, Donna E Davies, Emily J Swindle
BACKGROUND: Human rhinoviruses (HRVs) are a major trigger of asthma exacerbations, with the bronchial epithelium being the major site of HRV infection and replication. Mast cells (MCs) play a key role in asthma where their numbers are increased in the bronchial epithelium with increasing disease severity. OBJECTIVE: In view of the emerging role of MCs in innate immunity and increased localisation to the asthmatic bronchial epithelium, we investigated whether HRV infection of MCs generated innate immune responses which were protective against infection...
December 23, 2016: Clinical and Experimental Allergy: Journal of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28004946/fluorescent-inhibitors-as-tools-to-characterize-enzymes-case-study-of-the-lipid-kinase-phosphatidylinositol-4-kinase-iii%C3%AE-pi4kb
#17
Jana Humpolickova, Ivana Mejdrová, Marika Matousova, Radim Nencka, Evzen Boura
The lipid kinase phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase IIIβ (PI4KB) is an essential host factor for many positive-sense single-stranded RNA (+RNA) viruses including human pathogens hepatitis C virus (HCV), Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), coxsackie viruses, and rhinoviruses. Inhibitors of PI4KB are considered to be potential broad-spectrum virostatics, and it is therefore critical to develop a biochemical understanding of the kinase. Here, we present highly potent and selective fluorescent inhibitors that we show to be useful chemical biology tools especially in determination of dissociation constants...
December 22, 2016: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28004945/rational-design-of-novel-highly-potent-and-selective-phosphatidylinositol-4-kinase-iii%C3%AE-pi4kb-inhibitors-as-broad-spectrum-antiviral-agents-and-tools-for-chemical-biology
#18
Ivana Mejdrová, Dominika Chalupská, Pavla Plačková, Christin Müller, Michal Šála, Martin Klíma, Adriana Baumlová, Hubert Hřebabecký, Eliška Procházková, Milan Dejmek, Dmytro Strunin, Jan Weber, Gary Lee, Marika Matoušová, Helena Mertlíková-Kaiserová, John Ziebuhr, Gabriel Birkus, Evzen Boura, Radim Nencka
Phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase IIIβ (PI4KB) is indispensable for the replication of various positive-sense single stranded RNA viruses, which hijack this cellular enzyme to remodel intracellular membranes of infected cells to set up the functional replication machinery. Therefore, the inhibition of this PI4K isoform leads to the arrest of viral replication. Here, we report on the synthesis of novel PI4KB inhibitors, which were rationally designed based on two distinct structural types of inhibitors that bind in the ATP binding side of PI4KB...
December 22, 2016: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997520/polymorphisms-of-mannose-binding-lectin-and-toll-like-receptors-2-3-4-7-and-8-and-the-risk-of-respiratory-infections-and-acute-otitis-media-in-children
#19
Laura Toivonen, Juho Vuononvirta, Jussi Mertsola, Matti Waris, Qiushui He, Ville Peltola
BACKGROUND: Mannose-binding lectin (MBL) and toll-like receptors (TLR) are important components of the innate immune system. We assessed the susceptibility of children with genetic variants in these factors to respiratory infections, rhinovirus infections, and acute otitis media. METHODS: In a prospective cohort study, blood samples from 381 Finnish children were analyzed for polymorphisms in MBL2 at codons 52, 54, and 57, TLR2 Arg753Gln, TLR3 Leu412Phe, TLR4 Asp299Gly, TLR7 Gln11Leu, and TLR8 Leu651Leu...
December 15, 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27993295/viruses-are-prevalent-in-non-ventilated-hospital-acquired-pneumonia
#20
Andrew F Shorr, Marya D Zilberberg, Scott T Micek, Marin H Kollef
BACKGROUND: Hospital-acquired pneumonia arising in non-ventilated patients (NVHAP) is traditionally thought to be caused by bacteria, and little is known about viral etiologies in this syndrome. We sought to describe the prevalence of viruses causing NVHAP and to determine factors independently associated with the isolation of a virus. METHODS: We identified patients with NVHAP over one year and reviewed their cultures to determine etiologies. Patients with a viral process were compared to those with either negative cultures or a bacterial infection to determine variables independently associated with the recovery of a virus...
January 2017: Respiratory Medicine
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