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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931240/influenza-like-illness-incidence-is-not-reduced-by-influenza-vaccination-in-a-cohort-of-older-adults-despite-effectively-reducing-laboratory-confirmed-influenza-virus-infections
#1
Josine van Beek, Reinier H Veenhoven, Jacob P Bruin, Renée A J van Boxtel, Marit M A de Lange, Adam Meijer, Elisabeth A M Sanders, Nynke Y Rots, Willem Luytjes
Background: Data on the relative contribution of influenza virus and other respiratory pathogens to respiratory infections in community-dwelling older adults (≥60 years) are needed. Methods: A prospective observational cohort study was performed in the Netherlands during 2 winters. Nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal swabs were collected during influenza-like illness (ILI) episodes and from controls. Viruses and bacteria were identified by multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification assay and conventional bacterial culture...
August 15, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922613/the-etiology-of-community-acquired-pneumonia-among-children-under-5%C3%A2-years-of-age-in-mainland-china-2001-2015-a-systematic-review
#2
Guijun Ning, Xuxia Wang, Dan Wu, Zundong Yin, Yixing Li, Huaqing Wang, Weizhong Yang
BACKGROUND: The aim of this systematic review was to examine the etiology of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) among Chinese children younger than 5 years and provide evidence for further cost-effectiveness analyses for vaccine development, diagnostic strategies and empirical treatments. METHODS: The literature review followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses statement. Data were obtained by searching PubMed, Embase, Web-of Science, and the Chinese databases Wanfang Data and China National Knowledge Infrastructure...
September 18, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913991/seasonal-cycle-and-relationship-of-seasonal-rhino-and-influenza-virus-epidemics-with-episodes-of-asthma-exacerbation-in-different-age-groups
#3
Seung Won Lee, Shinhae Lee, Youn Ho Sheen, Eun Kyo Ha, Sun Hee Choi, Min Suk Yang, Sohyun Hwang, Sung Soon Kim, Jang Hoon Choi, Man Yong Han
PURPOSE: Seasonal variations in asthma exacerbation (AE) are associated with respiratory virus outbreaks and the return of children to school after vacation. This study aims to elucidate the period, phase, and amplitude of seasonal cycles of AE in 5 different age groups with regard to rhino- and influenza virus epidemics in Korea. METHODS: The number of daily emergency department (ED) visits for AE in all age groups of Korea and the nationwide weekly incidence of rhino- and influenza virus, were obtained for 2008-2012...
November 2017: Allergy, Asthma & Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913988/prevalence-of-respiratory-viral-infections-in-korean-adult-asthmatics-with-acute-exacerbations-comparison-with-those-with-stable-state
#4
Ki Hyun Seo, Da Jeong Bae, Ji Na Kim, Ho Sung Lee, Yong Hoon Kim, Jong Sook Park, Myung Shin Kim, Hun Soo Chang, Ji Hye Son, Dong Gyu Baek, Jun Suk Lee, Choon Sik Park
PURPOSE: Viral infections are involved in ~50% of exacerbations among Caucasian adult asthmatics. However, there have been few reports on the causative virus of exacerbations in Korean adult asthmatics. Thus, we compared frequencies and types of viruses between lower respiratory tract illnesses (LRTIs) with exacerbations (exacerbated LRTIs) and those without exacerbations (stable LRTIs) to evaluate contribution of respiratory viruses to exacerbations. METHODS: Viral RNA was extracted from sputum using the Viral Gene-spin™ Kit...
November 2017: Allergy, Asthma & Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912760/immunization-with-live-human-rhinovirus-hrv-16-induces-protection-in-cotton-rats-against-hrv14-infection
#5
Mira C Patel, Lioubov M Pletneva, Marina S Boukhvalova, Stefanie N Vogel, Adriana E Kajon, Jorge C G Blanco
Human rhinoviruses (HRVs) are the main cause of cold-like illnesses, and currently no vaccine or antiviral therapies against HRVs are available to prevent or mitigate HRV infection. There are more than 150 antigenically heterogeneous HRV serotypes, with ∼90 HRVs belonging to major group species A and B. Development of small animal models that are susceptible to infection with major group HRVs would be beneficial for vaccine research. Previously, we showed that the cotton rat (Sigmodon hispidus) is semi-permissive to HRV16 (major group, species HRV-A virus) infection, replicating in the upper and lower respiratory tracts with measurable pathology, mucus production, and expression of inflammatory mediators...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905531/elucidation-of-bacterial-pneumonia-causing-pathogens-in-patients-with-respiratory-viral-infection
#6
Hwa Sik Jung, Byung Ju Kang, Seung Won Ra, Kwang Won Seo, Yangjin Jegal, Jae Bum Jun, Jiwon Jung, Joseph Jeong, Hee Jeong Jeon, Jae Sung Ahn, Taehoon Lee, Jong Joon Ahn
BACKGROUND: Bacterial pneumonia occurring after respiratory viral infection is common. However, the predominant bacterial species causing pneumonia secondary to respiratory viral infections other than influenza remain unknown. The purpose of this study was to know whether the pathogens causing post-viral bacterial pneumonia vary according to the type of respiratory virus. METHODS: Study subjects were 5,298 patients, who underwent multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction for simultaneous detection of respiratory viruses, among who visited the emergency department or outpatient clinic with respiratory symptoms at Ulsan University Hospital between April 2013 and March 2016...
September 1, 2017: Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904980/enterovirus-human-rhinovirus-a-rare-cause-of-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome
#7
Parita Soni, Anand Rai, Nidhi Aggarwal, Stephan Kamholz, Taek Yoon, Yizhak Kupfer
A 22-year-old Asian woman presented with respiratory distress, cough, and wheezing for 1 week. Prior history included asthma and Turner syndrome. On presentation to the emergency department, the patient was hypotensive, tachycardic, tachypneic, with an oxyhemoglobin saturation in the mid 80% range while breathing ambient air. Chest radiograph revealed pulmonary vascular congestion and a left lower lobe infiltrate. Endotracheal intubation, mechanical ventilation, and vasopressors were initiated. Empiric therapy for community-acquired pneumonia was administered utilizing broad-spectrum intravenous antibiotics...
July 2017: Journal of Investigative Medicine High Impact Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870461/enhanced-plasmacytoid-dendritic-cell-antiviral-responses-after-omalizumab
#8
Michelle A Gill, Andrew H Liu, Agustin Calatroni, Rebecca Z Krouse, Baomei Shao, Allison Schiltz, James E Gern, Alkis Togias, William W Busse
BACKGROUND: Atopy and viral respiratory infections synergistically promote asthma exacerbations. IgE cross-linking inhibits critical viral-induced IFNα responses of plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs), which can be deficient in allergic asthma. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether reducing IgE in vivo with omalizumab treatment increases pDC antiviral IFNα responses in inner city children with asthma. METHODS: PBMCs and pDCs isolated from children with exacerbation-prone asthma before and during omalizumab treatment were stimulated ex vivo with rhinovirus and influenza in the presence or absence of IgE cross-linking...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28868996/comparison-of-the-luminex-nxtag-respiratory-pathogen-panel-and-a-multiplex-in-house-real-time-pcr-panel-for-the-detection-of-respiratory-viruses-in-symptomatic-patients
#9
Andrew David Sails, Gary Eltringham, Manoj Valappil, Sheila Waugh, David Saunders
PURPOSE: To evaluate the Luminex NxTAG respiratory pathogen panel (NxTAG RPP) for the detection of respiratory viruses in clinical samples from patients with the symptoms of respiratory infection. METHODOLOGY: The NxTAG RPP was compared to an in-house multiplex real-time PCR panel (LDT) for the detection of respiratory viruses in 314 clinical samples from patients with the symptoms of respiratory infection. RESULTS: Thirty-one samples were negative in both tests and 193 samples contained a single virus that was detected in both tests...
September 4, 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28864597/parvovirus-b19-infection-in-children-with-arterial-ischemic-stroke
#10
Heather J Fullerton, Jorge M Luna, Max Wintermark, Nancy K Hills, Rafal Tokarz, Ying Li, Carol Glaser, Gabrielle A DeVeber, W Ian Lipkin, Mitchell S V Elkind
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Case-control studies suggest that acute infection transiently increases the risk of childhood arterial ischemic stroke. We hypothesized that an unbiased pathogen discovery approach utilizing MassTag-polymerase chain reaction would identify pathogens in the blood of childhood arterial ischemic stroke cases. METHODS: The multicenter international VIPS study (Vascular Effects of Infection in Pediatric Stroke) enrolled arterial ischemic stroke cases, and stroke-free controls, aged 29 days through 18 years...
September 1, 2017: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861755/clarithromycin-decreases-rhinovirus-replication-and-cytokine-production-in-nasal-epithelial-cells-from-subjects-with-bronchial-asthma-effects-on-il-6-il-8-and-il-33
#11
Mutsuo Yamaya, Kazuhiro Nomura, Kazuya Arakawa, Mitsuru Sugawara, Xue Deng, Nadine Lusamba Kalonji, Hidekazu Nishimura, Mitsuhiro Yamada, Ryoichi Nagatomi, Tetsuaki Kawase
Rhinoviral infection is associated with an increased risk of asthma attacks. The macrolide clarithromycin decreases cytokine production in nasopharyngeal aspirates from patients with wheezing, but the effects of macrolides on cytokine production in nasal epithelial cells obtained from asthmatic subjects remain unclear. Here, human nasal epithelial cells were infected with type-14 rhinovirus (RV14), a major RV group. Titers and RNA of RV14 and cytokine concentrations, including IL-1β and IL-6, were higher in the supernatants of the cells obtained from subjects with bronchial asthma (asthmatic group) than in those from the non-asthmatic group...
August 31, 2017: Archives of Pharmacal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861088/the-unresolved-role-of-interferon-%C3%AE-in-asthma-bronchiale
#12
REVIEW
Nina Sopel, Andreas Pflaum, Julia Kölle, Susetta Finotto
Asthma bronchiale is a disease of the airways with increasing incidence, that often begins during infancy. So far, therapeutic options are mainly symptomatic and thus there is an increasing need for better treatment and/or prevention strategies. Human rhinoviruses (HRVs) are a major cause of asthma exacerbations and might cause acute wheezing associated with local production of pro-inflammatory mediators resulting in neutrophilic inflammatory response. Viral infections induce a characteristic activation of immune response, e...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859129/rhinovirus-induction-of-fractalkine-cx3cl1-in-airway-and-peripheral-blood-mononuclear-cells-in-asthma
#13
Nadine Upton, David J Jackson, Alexandra A Nikonova, Suzie Hingley-Wilson, Musa Khaitov, Ajerico Del Rosario, Stephanie Traub, Maria-Belen Trujillo-Torralbo, Max Habibi, Sarah L Elkin, Onn M Kon, Michael R Edwards, Patrick Mallia, Joseph Footitt, Jonathan Macintyre, Luminita A Stanciu, Sebastian L Johnston, Annemarie Sykes
Rhinovirus infection is associated with the majority of asthma exacerbations. The role of fractalkine in anti-viral (type 1) and pathogenic (type 2) responses to rhinovirus infection in allergic asthma is unknown. To determine whether (1) fractalkine is produced in airway cells and in peripheral blood leucocytes, (2) rhinovirus infection increases production of fractalkine and (3) levels of fractalkine differ in asthmatic compared to non-asthmatic subjects. Fractalkine protein and mRNA levels were measured in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cells and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from non-asthmatic controls (n = 15) and mild allergic asthmatic (n = 15) subjects...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28852711/enterovirus-d68-in-viet-nam-2009-2015
#14
Nguyen Thi Han Ny, Nguyen To Anh, Vu Thi Ty Hang, Lam Anh Nguyet, Tran Tan Thanh, Do Quang Ha, Ngo Ngoc Quang Minh, Do Lien Anh Ha, Angela McBride, Ha Manh Tuan, Stephen Baker, Pham Thi Thanh Tam, Tran My Phuc, Dang Thao Huong, Tran Quoc Loi, Nguyen Tran Anh Vu, Nguyen Van Hung, Tran Thi Thuy Minh, Nguyen Van Xang, Nguyen Dong, Ho Dang Trung Nghia, Nguyen Van Vinh Chau, Guy Thwaites, H Rogier van Doorn, Catherine Anscombe, Tan Le Van
BACKGROUND: Since 1962, enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) has been implicated in multiple outbreaks and sporadic cases of respiratory infection worldwide, but especially in the USA and Europe with an increasing frequency between 2010 and 2014. We describe the detection, associated clinical features and molecular characterization of EV-D68 in central and southern Viet Nam between 2009 and 2015. METHODS: Enterovirus/rhinovirus PCR positive respiratory or CSF samples taken from children and adults with respiratory/central nervous system infections in Viet Nam were tested by an EV-D68 specific PCR...
2017: Wellcome Open Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28847061/-study-on-the-classification-of-dominant-pathogens-related-to-febrile-respiratory-syndrome-based-on-the-method-of-bayes-discriminant-analysis
#15
X C Li, J S Li, L Meng, Y N Bai, D S Yu, X N Liu, X F Liu, X J Jiang, X W Ren, X T Yang, X P Shen, J W Zhang
Objective: To understand the dominant pathogens of febrile respiratory syndrome (FRS) patients in Gansu province and to establish the Bayes discriminant function in order to identify the patients infected with the dominant pathogens. Methods: FRS patients were collected in various sentinel hospitals of Gansu province from 2009 to 2015 and the dominant pathogens were determined by describing the composition of pathogenic profile. Significant clinical variables were selected by stepwise discriminant analysis to establish the Bayes discriminant function...
August 10, 2017: Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Liuxingbingxue Zazhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28843814/interaction-of-2a-proteinase-of-human-rhinovirus-genetic-group-a-with-eif4e-is-required-for-eif4g-cleavage-during-infection
#16
Martina Aumayr, Anna Schrempf, Öykü Üzülmez, Karin M Olek, Tim Skern
In enteroviruses, the inhibition of protein synthesis from capped host cell mRNA is catalyzed by the virally encoded 2A proteinase (2A(pro)), which cleaves eukaryotic initiation factors (eIF) 4GI and 4GII. Despite much investigation, the exact mechanism of 2A(pro) cleavage remains however unclear. Here, we identify the domains responsible for the eIF4E/HRV2 2A(pro) interaction using molecular modelling and describe mutations that impair this interaction and delay in vitro cleavage of eIF4G isoforms. Furthermore, we produced HRV1A viruses bearing the mutation L17R, Y32A or Y86A in the 2A(pro) sequence...
August 24, 2017: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28829151/validation-of-an-immunohistochemistry-assay-for-detection-of-cd155-the-poliovirus-receptor-in-malignant-gliomas
#17
Vidyalakshmi Chandramohan, Jeffrey D Bryant, Hailan Piao, Stephen T Keir, Eric S Lipp, Michaela Lefaivre, Kathryn Perkinson, Darell D Bigner, Matthias Gromeier, Roger E McLendon
CONTEXT: - The oncolytic polio-rhinovirus recombinant (PVSRIPO) has demonstrated promise in currently ongoing phase I/II clinical trials against recurrent glioblastoma and was granted breakthrough therapy designation by the Food and Drug Administration/Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research. A reliable clinical assay to document expression of the poliovirus receptor, CD155, in routinely available patient tumor samples is needed for continued clinical development of PVSRIPO oncolytic immunotherapy in primary brain tumors and beyond...
August 22, 2017: Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28827284/rhinovirus-infection-of-ormdl3-transgenic-mice-is-associated-with-reduced-rhinovirus-viral-load-and-airway-inflammation
#18
Dae Jin Song, Marina Miller, Andrew Beppu, Peter Rosenthal, Sudipta Das, Maya Karta, Christine Vuong, Amit Kumar Mehta, Michael Croft, David H Broide
Orosomucoid like 3 (ORMDL3), a gene localized to chromosome 17q21, has been linked in epidemiologic studies to childhood asthma and rhinovirus (RV) infections. As the single nucleotide polymorphisms linking ORMDL3 to asthma are associated with increased expression of ORMDL3, we have used hORMDL3(zp3-Cre) mice (which have universal increased expression of human ORMDL3) to determine whether infection of these transgenic mice with RV influences levels of airway inflammation or RV viral load. RV infection of hORMDL3(zp3-Cre) mice resulted in reduced RV viral load assessed by quantitative real-time PCR (lung and airway epithelium), as well as reduced airway inflammation (total bronchoalveolar lavage cells, neutrophils, macrophages, and lymphocytes) compared with RV-infected wild-type mice...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822736/-rhinovirus-underestimated-pathogens-in-patients-during-the-neonatal-period
#19
S Zacharie, A Vabret, B Guillois, C Dupont, J Brouard
INTRODUCTION: In recent years, developments in virological tools have led to the easy detection of rhinoviruses and enteroviruses (E/RV). Their detection is very frequent in cases of airway involvement in children and their demonstrated causality. But the morbidity of E/RV in the neonatal period is unknown due to lack of epidemiological data. The objective of this study was to evaluate the incidence and clinical characteristics of these infections in hospitalized neonates. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the virology specimens of all neonates hospitalized at the Caen University Hospital between 2006 and 2011...
September 2017: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801725/optimization-of-soluble-expression-and-purification-of-recombinant-human-rhinovirus-type-14-3c-protease-using-statistically-designed-experiments-isolation-and-characterization-of-the-enzyme
#20
Georgia Antoniou, Irineos Papakyriacou, Christos Papaneophytou
Human rhinovirus (HRV) 3C protease is widely used in recombinant protein production for various applications such as biochemical characterization and structural biology projects to separate recombinant fusion proteins from their affinity tags in order to prevent interference between these tags and the target proteins. Herein, we report the optimization of expression and purification conditions of glutathione S-transferase (GST)-tagged HRV 3C protease by statistically designed experiments. Soluble expression of GST-HRV 3C protease was initially optimized by response surface methodology (RSM), and a 5...
August 11, 2017: Molecular Biotechnology
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