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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905101/a-review-on-antiviral-activity-of-the-himalayan-medicinal-plants-traditionally-used-to-treat-bronchitis-and-related-symptoms
#1
REVIEW
Rahila Amber, Muhammad Adnan, Akash Tariq, Sakina Mussarat
OBJECTIVES: Bronchitis is a common respiratory tract infection of humans mainly caused by influenza virus, rhinovirus, adenovirus, coronavirus and respiratory syncytial virus. The aim of this review was to gather fragmented literature on ethnomedicinal plants used against bronchitis in the Himalayan region and their in-vitro validation against bronchitis causing viral pathogens. KEY FINDINGS: Present review contains ethnomedicines of total 55 plants from different countries of the Himalayas...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904883/interactions-of-respiratory-viruses-and-the-nasal-microbiota-during-the-first-year-of-life-in-healthy-infants
#2
Insa Korten, Moana Mika, Shkipe Klenja, Elisabeth Kieninger, Ines Mack, Maria Teresa Barbani, Meri Gorgievski, Urs Frey, Markus Hilty, Philipp Latzin
Traditional culture techniques have shown that increased bacterial colonization is associated with viral colonization; however, the influence of viral colonization on the whole microbiota composition is less clear. We thus aimed to understand the interaction of viral infections and the nasal microbiota in early life to appraise their roles in disease development. Thirty-two healthy, unselected infants were included in this prospective longitudinal cohort study within the first year of life. Biweekly nasal swabs (n = 559) were taken, and the microbiota was analyzed by 16S rRNA pyrosequencing, and 10 different viruses and 2 atypical bacteria were characterized by real-time PCR (combination of seven duplex samples)...
November 2016: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902347/the-conserved-n-terminus-of-human-rhinovirus-capsid-protein-vp4-contains-membrane-pore-forming-activity-and-is-a-target-for-neutralising-antibodies
#3
Anusha Panjwani, Amin S Asfor, Tobias J Tuthill
Human rhinovirus is the causative agent of the common cold and belongs to the non-enveloped picornavirus family. A trigger such as receptor binding or low pH initiates conformational changes in the capsid that allow the virus to attach to membranes and form a pore for the translocation of viral RNA into the cytoplasm. We previously showed that recombinant capsid protein VP4 was able to form membrane pores. In this study, we show the N-terminus but not C-terminus of VP4, formed pores with properties similar to full-length VP4 and consistent with the size required for transfer of RNA...
October 11, 2016: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902331/the-plasma-virome-of-febrile-adult-kenyans-shows-frequent-parvovirus-b19-infections-and-a-novel-arbovirus-kadipiro-virus
#4
Carolyne Ngoi, Juliana Siqueira, Linlin Li, Xutao Deng, Peter Mugo, Susan Graham, Matt Price, Eduard Sanders, Eric Delwart
Viral nucleic acids present in the plasma of 498 Kenyan adults with unexplained fever were characterized by metagenomics analysis of 51 sample pools. The highest to lowest fraction of plasma pools was positive for parvovirus B19 (75%), pegivirus C (GBV-C) (67%), alpha anellovirus (59%), gamma anellovirus (55%), beta anellovirus (41%), Dengue virus genotype 2 (DENV-2) (16%), HIV-1 (6%), HHV-6 (6%), HBV (4%), rotavirus (4%), norovirus (4%), rhinovirus C (2%), Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV)(2%) and Kadipiro virus (2%)...
October 24, 2016: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895690/rhinovirus-and-childhood-asthma-an-update
#5
REVIEW
Dae Jin Song
Asthma is recognized as a complex disease resulting from interactions between multiple genetic and environmental factors. Accumulating evidence suggests that respiratory viral infections in early life constitute a major environmental risk factor for the development of childhood asthma. Respiratory viral infections have also been recognized as the most common cause of asthma exacerbation. The advent of molecular diagnostics to detect respiratory viruses has provided new insights into the role of human rhinovirus (HRV) infections in the pathogenesis of asthma...
November 2016: Korean Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893998/influenza-and-rhinovirus-viral-load-and-disease-severity-in-upper-respiratory-tract-infections
#6
Andrea Granados, Adriana Peci, Allison McGeer, Jonathan B Gubbay
BACKGROUND: The role of viral load in respiratory viral infection is unclear. It is proposed that the viral load of some, but not all respiratory viruses correlate with disease severity. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to determine if an association exists between viral loads among patients in ambulatory settings, compared to those requiring hospitalization/intensive care unit (ICU) admission with influenza A/H3N2, influenza B, or human rhinovirus (HRV); we also explored the impact of age, gender and co-detection of Streptococcus pneumoniae on patient setting...
November 22, 2016: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886635/multiplex-pcr-reveals-that-viruses-are-more-frequent-than-bacteria-in-children-with-cystic-fibrosis
#7
Sílvia Miró-Cañís, Sílvia Capilla-Rubio, Laura Marzo-Checa, Dionisia Fontanals-Aymerich, Isabel Sanfeliu-Sala, Mateu Espasa-Soley, Oscar Asensio-de-la-Cruz
BACKGROUND: Cystic fibrosis is a degenerative disease characterized by progressive epithelial secretory gland dysfunction associated with repeated respiratory infections. Bacterial infections are very frequent in children with cystic fibrosis, but because rapid METHODS: for screening for the wide variety of potentially involved viruses were unavailable until recently, the frequency of viral presence is unknown. Multiplex PCR enables screening for many viruses involved in respiratory infections...
November 13, 2016: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883373/clinical-impact-of-mixed-respiratory-viral-infection-in-children-with-adenoviral-infection
#8
Hyun Jun Lee, Young Eun Seo, Seung Beom Han, Dae Chul Jeong, Jin Han Kang
BACKGROUND: Although adenovirus (ADV) infection occurs steadily all year round in Korea and the identification of respiratory viral coinfections has been increasing following the introduction of multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction tests, the clinical impact of viral coinfection in children with ADV infection has rarely been reported. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Medical records of children diagnosed with ADV infection were retrospectively reviewed. The enrolled children were divided into two groups based on the identified respiratory viruses: ADV group and coinfection group...
November 21, 2016: Infection & Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881615/superiority-of-digital-rt-pcr-over-real-time-rt-pcr-for-quantitation-of-highly-divergent-human-rhinoviruses
#9
Ruth Hall Sedlak, Thuy Nguyen, Isabel Palileo, Keith R Jerome, Jane Kuypers
Human rhinoviruses (HRV) are comprised of 3 species, represented by over 150 genotypes. As an important human respiratory pathogen, molecular detection is an indispensable tool for diagnosis and surveillance. However, the sequence diversity of HRV genotypes poses challenges for the development of robust molecular methods that detect all genotypes with equal efficiency. This study compares the accuracy of reverse transcription-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) and reverse transcription-digital PCR (RT-dPCR) for quantification of HRV RNA using genotype-specific primers and probes and a consensus primer/probe set targeting the 5' non-coding region of HRV...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875593/enterovirus-d68-in-hospitalized-children-sequence-variation-viral-loads-and-clinical-outcomes
#10
Katherine Moyer, Huanyu Wang, Douglas Salamon, Amy Leber, Asuncion Mejias
BACKGROUND: An outbreak of enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) caused severe respiratory illness in 2014. The disease spectrum of EV-D68 infections in children with underlying medical conditions other than asthma, the role of EV-D68 loads on clinical illness, and the variation of EV-D68 strains within the same institution over time have not been described. We sought to define the association between EV-D68 loads and sequence variation, and the clinical characteristic in hospitalized children at our institution from 2011 to 2014...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871304/respiratory-viral-infections-and-host-responses-insights-from-genomics
#11
REVIEW
Niamh M Troy, Anthony Bosco
Respiratory viral infections are a leading cause of disease and mortality. The severity of these illnesses can vary markedly from mild or asymptomatic upper airway infections to severe wheezing, bronchiolitis or pneumonia. In this article, we review the viral sensing pathways and organizing principles that govern the innate immune response to infection. Then, we reconstruct the molecular networks that differentiate symptomatic from asymptomatic respiratory viral infections, and identify the underlying molecular drivers of these networks...
November 21, 2016: Respiratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27854115/an-investigation-into-respiratory-tract-viruses-in-children-with-acute-lower-respiratory-tract-infection-or-wheezing
#12
Demet Dabaniyasti, Fahriye Eksi, Özlem Keskin, Mehmet Y Özkars, Tekin Karsligil, Iclal Balci
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to determine the frequencies of respiratory tract viruses in patient (acute lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) or wheezing) and control (history of asthma without symptoms) groups. METHODS: Using multiplex-PCR, respiratory tract viruses were investigated in the respiratory tract specimens from patient and control groups followed in the Pediatric Clinic. RESULTS: The viruses detected in the patient and control groups (p=0...
November 17, 2016: Minerva Pediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853256/mucosal-vaccination-with-a-live-recombinant-rhinovirus-followed-by-intradermal-dna-administration-elicits-potent-and-protective-hiv-specific-immune-responses
#13
Khamis Tomusange, Danushka Wijesundara, Jason Gummow, Steve Wesselingh, Andreas Suhrbier, Eric J Gowans, Branka Grubor-Bauk
Mucosal immunity is deemed crucial to control sexual transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Herein we report the efficacy of a mucosal HIV vaccine strategy comprising intranasal (IN) vaccination with a cocktail of live recombinant human rhinoviruses (HRVs) encoding overlapping fragments of HIV Gag and full length Tat (rHRV-Gag/Tat) followed by intradermal (ID) vaccination with DNA vaccines encoding HIV Gag and Tat (pVAX-Gag-Tat). This heterologous prime-boost strategy will be referred to hereafter as rHRV-DNA...
November 17, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27851428/1793-enterovirus-human-rhinovirus-a-rare-cause-of-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome
#14
Parita Soni, Anand Kumar Rai, Nidhi Aggarwal, Taek Yoon, Yizhak Kupfer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27850330/691-resource-utilization-from-rhinovirus-enterovirus-in-the-picu
#15
Jenna Fine, Amelia Bray-Aschenbrenner, Jason Werner, Howard Williams
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27849508/rates-of-microbiologically-diagnosed-infection-and-pathogen-detection-in-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplant-patients
#16
Lauren E Lee, Alice E Barsoumian, Alexander W Brown, Michael A Wiggins, John S Renshaw, Michael B Osswald, Clinton K Murray
Infections remain a significant cause of mortality in hematopoietic stem cell transplant patients. Evaluations of causes of infection are often unrevealing, and at some sites, increasing rates of antimicrobial resistance have been noticed. We performed a retrospective analysis of infection rates and microbiologic testing yield, or percent of tests ordered to diagnose an infection, in the first 100 days of 30 allogeneic and 56 autologous stem cell transplants performed at San Antonio Military Medical Center from July 2011 to April 2014...
November 2016: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836955/ifn-%C3%AE-ifn-%C3%AE-responses-to-respiratory-viruses-in-paediatric-asthma
#17
Annika Bergauer, Nina Sopel, Bettina Kroß, Tytti Vuorinen, Paraskevi Xepapadaki, Scott T Weiss, Ashley Blau, Himanshu Sharma, Cornelia Kraus, Rebekka Springel, Manfred Rauh, Susanne Mittler, Anna Graser, Theodor Zimmermann, Volker O Melichar, Alexander Kiefer, Marek L Kowalski, Anna Sobanska, Tuomas Jartti, Heikki Lukkarinen, Nikolaos G Papadopoulos, Susetta Finotto
We analysed the influence of rhinovirus (RV) in nasopharyngeal fluid (NPF) on type I and III interferon (IFN) responses (e.g. IFN-α and IFN -: λ) and their signal transduction, at baseline and during disease exacerbation, in cohorts of pre-school children with and without asthma.At the time of recruitment into the Europe-wide study PreDicta, and during symptoms, NPF was collected and the local RV colonisation was analysed. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were challenged in vitro with RV or not...
November 11, 2016: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836899/trail-signaling-is-pro-inflammatory-and-pro-viral-in-a-murine-model-of-rhinovirus-1b-infection
#18
Jason L Girkin, Luke Hatchwell, Adam M Collison, Malcolm R Starkey, Philip M Hansbro, Hideo Yagita, Paul S Foster, Joerg Mattes
The aim of this study is to elucidate the role of TRAIL during rhinovirus (RV) infection in vivo. Naïve wild type and TRAIL-deficient (Tnfsf10-/-) BALB/c mice were infected intranasally with RV1B. In separate experiments, Tnfsf10-/- mice were sensitized and challenged via the airway route with house dust mite (HDM) to induce allergic airways disease and then challenged with RVIB or UV-RVIB. Airways hyperreactivity (AHR) was invasively assessed as total airways resistance in response to increasing methacholine challenge and inflammation assessed in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) at multiple time points post infection...
November 11, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832233/lack-of-association-between-viral-load-and-severity-of-acute-bronchiolitis-in-infants
#19
Ana Paula Duarte de Souza, Lidiane Alves de Azeredo Leitão, Fernanda Luisi, Rodrigo Godinho Souza, Sandra Eugênia Coutinho, Jaqueline Ramos da Silva, Rita Mattiello, Paulo Márcio Condessa Pitrez, Renato Tetelbom Stein, Leonardo Araújo Pinto
Objective: To investigate the correlation between respiratory syncytial viral load and length of hospitalization in infants with acute wheezing episodes. Methods: This was a two-year, cross-sectional study of infants ≤ 12 months of age with bronchiolitis at the time of admission to a tertiary hospital. For the identification of respiratory viruses, nasopharyngeal secretions were collected. Samples were analyzed (throughout the study period) by direct immunofluorescence and (in the second year of the study) by quantitative real-time PCR...
July 2016: Jornal Brasileiro de Pneumologia: Publicaça̋o Oficial da Sociedade Brasileira de Pneumologia e Tisilogia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27817772/-an-epidemiological-study-on-human-rhinovirus-c-in-hospitalized-children-with-respiratory-tract-infections
#20
Li Li, Wei Ji, Xue-Jun Shao, Jun Xu, Wu-Jun Jiang, Zheng-Rong Chen, Yong-Dong Yan
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the detection rates, epidemical characteristics, and clinical features of human rhinovirus C (HRV-C) in hospitalized children with respiratory tract infections (RTIs) in Suzhou, China. METHODS: A total of 1 702 hospitalized children with RTIs from January to December, 2014 were enrolled, and 1 702 nasopharyngeal aspirate samples were collected from all children. RT-PCR was used to measure HRV mRNA, and quantitative real-time PCR combined with high-resolution melting curve was used to measure HRV-C...
November 2016: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
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