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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149778/the-changes-of-th17-treg-and-related-cytokines-il-17-il-23-il-10-and-tgf-%C3%AE-in-respiratory-syncytial-virus-bronchiolitis-rat-model
#1
Meng Gao, Liang-Xiao Liu, Fu-Ling Wu, Xuejing Zhang, Ying-Ying Li, Tao Shi, De-Zhi Li, Ting-Ting Han
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the leading cause of bronchiolitis and hospitalization that lead to high morbidity and mortality among young infants. T helper 17 (Th17) cells and regulatory T cells (Tregs) play essential roles in the pathogenesis of autoimmune, cancer, and inflammatory diseases. However, whether changes in T-cell subsets are related to the systemic immune responses in RSV-caused bronchiolitis merit further investigation. Three-week-old Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into the normal control (NC) and RSV bronchiolitis (RSV-B) groups...
October 2017: Iranian Journal of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149439/trends-in-utilization-of-outpatient-respiratory-syncytial-virus-prophylaxis-with-palivizumab-among-medicaid-and-commercially-insured-infants
#2
Melissa Pavilack, Robert A Clifford, Tara Gonzales, Amanda M Kong, Sally Wade, Kimmie K McLaurin
INTRODUCTION: Palivizumab is indicated for the prevention of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection in high-risk children. Previous palivizumab utilization studies examined prior authorization claims but did not examine utilization within insured populations as a whole. This study describes outpatient palivizumab utilization trends and characterizes high-risk infants receiving palivizumab within Medicaid- and commercially insured populations. METHODS: Infants born July 1, 2003 through June 30, 2013 were identified in the MarketScan(®) Multistate Medicaid and Commercial claims databases...
November 17, 2017: Infectious Diseases and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149338/multiplex-respiratory-virus-testing-for-antimicrobial-stewardship-a-prospective-assessment-of-antimicrobial-use-and-clinical-outcomes-among-hospitalized-adults
#3
Makeda Semret, Ian Schiller, Barbara Ann Jardin, Charles Frenette, Vivian G Loo, Jesse Papenburg, Shelly A McNeil, Nandini Dendukuri
Background: Respiratory tract infections are frequent causes of hospitalization and initiation of empirical antimicrobial therapy. Testing for a broad panel of respiratory viruses has been advocated as a useful tool for antibiotic stewardship. We conducted a prospective observational study to assess the impact of rapid viral test results on antimicrobial prescriptions and clinical outcomes among hospitalized adults. Methods: Eight hundred patients admitted with respiratory symptoms were tested by a 12-virus respiratory panel (RVP) during 3 consecutive winters in Montreal, Canada...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149199/epidemiology-and-clinical-profile-of-pathogens-responsible-for-the-hospitalization-of-children-in-sousse-area-tunisia
#4
Ines Brini, Aida Guerrero, Naila Hannachi, Jihene Bouguila, Dorothea Orth-Höller, Amira Bouhlel, Lamia Boughamoura, Benjamin Hetzer, Wegene Borena, Britta Schiela, Dorothee Von Laer, Jalel Boukadida, Heribert Stoiber
This study aimed to identify a broad spectrum of respiratory pathogens from hospitalized and not-preselected children with acute respiratory tract infections in the Farhat Hached University-hospital of Sousse, Tunisia. Between September 2013 and December 2014, samples from 372 children aged between 1 month and 5 years were collected, and tested using multiplex real-time RT-PCR by a commercial assay for 21 respiratory pathogens. In addition, samples were screened for the presence of Streptococcus pneumoniae 16S rDNA using real-time PCR...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148834/respiratory-phagocytes-are-implicated-in-enhanced-colibacillosis-in-chickens-co-infected-with-influenza-virus-h9n2-and-esherichia-coli
#5
J Wang, Y Li, Y Yin
1. The aim of this study was to determine the most likely time interval after infection with influenza virus H9N2 for co-infection with Escherichia coli to cause colibacillosis, the importance of lung load of E. coli and the involvement of respiratory phagocytes. 2. Specific pathogen free chickens were inoculated intranasally with 10(6) EID50 of influenza virus or uninfected. After specified time intervals, 10(7) CFU E. coli or phosphate-buffered saline was inoculated. The presence of lesions, the number of respiratory phagocytes in the respiratory lavage fluid and the E...
November 17, 2017: British Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144593/risk-factors-for-seasonal-influenza-virus-detection-in-stools-of-patients-consulting-in-general-practice-for-acute-respiratory-infections-in-france-2014-2016
#6
L Minodier, S Masse, L Capai, T Blanchon, P E Ceccaldi, S van der Werf, T Hanslik, N R Charrel, A Falchi
BACKGROUND: Previous studies reported detection of influenza RNA in stools of patients with seasonal influenza infection. While this detection may have a clinical significance, other factors may influence the stools positivity for influenza viruses. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to investigate demographical, clinical and microbiological factors which could favour the presence of influenza viral RNA in the stools of patients with laboratory-confirmed influenza infection...
November 16, 2017: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144446/structure-and-assembly-of-the-ebola-virus-nucleocapsid
#7
William Wan, Larissa Kolesnikova, Mairi Clarke, Alexander Koehler, Takeshi Noda, Stephan Becker, John A G Briggs
Ebola and Marburg viruses are filoviruses: filamentous, enveloped viruses that cause haemorrhagic fever. Filoviruses are within the order Mononegavirales, which also includes rabies virus, measles virus, and respiratory syncytial virus. Mononegaviruses have non-segmented, single-stranded negative-sense RNA genomes that are encapsidated by nucleoprotein and other viral proteins to form a helical nucleocapsid. The nucleocapsid acts as a scaffold for virus assembly and as a template for genome transcription and replication...
November 16, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143492/molecular-epidemiological-survey-and-phylogenetic-analysis-of-bovine-influenza-d-virus-in-japan
#8
H Mekata, M Yamamoto, S Hamabe, H Tanaka, T Omatsu, T Mizutani, B M Hause, T Okabayashi
The influenza D virus, a new member of the Orthomyxoviridae family, is predominantly found in cattle. Although viral pathology and clinical disease in cattle appear mild, this virus plays an important role as a trigger of bovine respiratory disease (BRD). BRD is a costly illness worldwide. Thus, epidemiological surveys of the influenza D virus are necessary. Here, we conducted a molecular epidemiological survey for the influenza D virus in healthy and respiratory-diseased cattle in Japan. We found that 2.1% (8/377) of the cattle were infected with influenza D...
November 16, 2017: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143374/asthma-and-lung-function-in-adulthood-after-a-viral-wheezing-episode-in-early-childhood
#9
Katri Backman, Hertta Ollikainen, Eija Piippo-Savolainen, Kirsi Nuolivirta, Matti Korppi
BACKGROUND: Viral etiology of infection has a significant role in the long-term outcome of early-childhood wheezing. OBJECTIVE: This study examines asthma and lung function in adulthood after early-childhood wheezing induced by respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and rhinovirus (RV). METHODS: A total of 100 children were hospitalized for a wheezing episode at less than 24 months of age from 1992 to 1993 in Kuopio University Hospital (Finland)...
November 16, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Allergy: Journal of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143192/middle-east-respiratory-syndrome-and-severe-acute-respiratory-syndrome-current-therapeutic-options-and-potential-targets-for-novel-therapies
#10
REVIEW
Julie Dyall, Robin Gross, Jason Kindrachuk, Reed F Johnson, Gene G Olinger, Lisa E Hensley, Matthew B Frieman, Peter B Jahrling
No specific antivirals are currently available for two emerging infectious diseases, Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). A literature search was performed covering pathogenesis, clinical features and therapeutics, clinically developed drugs for repurposing and novel drug targets. This review presents current knowledge on the epidemiology, pathogenesis and clinical features of the SARS and MERS coronaviruses. The rationale for and outcomes with treatments used for SARS and MERS is discussed...
November 15, 2017: Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142300/structure-and-immunogenicity-of-pre-fusion-stabilized-human-metapneumovirus-f-glycoprotein
#11
Michael B Battles, Vicente Más, Eduardo Olmedillas, Olga Cano, Mónica Vázquez, Laura Rodríguez, José A Melero, Jason S McLellan
Human metapneumovirus (hMPV) is a frequent cause of bronchiolitis in young children. Its F glycoprotein mediates virus-cell membrane fusion and is the primary target of neutralizing antibodies. The inability to produce recombinant hMPV F glycoprotein in the metastable pre-fusion conformation has hindered structural and immunological studies. Here, we engineer a pre-fusion-stabilized hMPV F ectodomain and determine its crystal structure to 2.6 Å resolution. This structure reveals molecular determinants of strain-dependent acid-induced fusion, as well as insights into refolding from pre- to post-fusion conformations...
November 16, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142177/perinatal-exposure-to-tetrabromobisphenol-a-tbbpa-a-brominated-flame-retardant-exacerbated-the-pneumonia-in-respiratory-syncytial-virus-rsv-infected-offspring-mice
#12
Wataru Watanabe, Akihiko Hirose, Tomomi Takeshita, Seiko Hashiguchi, Kentaro Sakata, Katsuhiko Konno, Aki Miyauchi, Toshi Akashi, Hiroki Yoshida, Chihiro Sugita, Masahiko Kurokawa
To investigate the effects of perinatal exposure to tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA), a brominated flame retardant, on the immune system, a respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection mouse model was utilized. Female mice were exposed to TBBPA mixed with the diet from 10 days after conception to weaning on postnatal day 21. Offspring mice were infected intranasally with A2 strain of RSV. Although no general toxicological sign was observed, the pulmonary viral titers of offspring mice exposed to 0.1% TBBPA were significantly increased compared with the control on day 5 post-infection...
2017: Journal of Toxicological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141771/use-of-a-rapid-reverse-transcription-recombinase-aided-amplification-assay-for-respiratory-syncytial-virus-detection
#13
Chen Chen, Xin-Na Li, Gui-Xia Li, Li Zhao, Su-Xia Duan, Teng-Fei Yan, Zhi-Shan Feng, Xue-Jun Ma
In this study, a rapid reverse-transcription recombinase aided amplification (RT-RAA) assay was developed to detect respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) subgroups A and B, respectively. The reaction was performed at 39°C in less than 30min. The analytical sensitivities of RSVA and RSVB at 95% probability by probit regression analysis were 38copies per reaction and 35 copies per reaction, respectively, and no cross reactions with other related respiratory viruses were observed. The RT-RAA assay was further utilized to detect and subgroup 306 clinical specimens and the results showed that 79(25...
October 14, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140992/transcriptome-profile-of-lung-dendritic-cells-after-in-vitro-porcine-reproductive-and-respiratory-syndrome-virus-prrsv-infection
#14
Maren Julia Pröll, Christiane Neuhoff, Karl Schellander, Muhammad Jasim Uddin, Mehmet Ulas Cinar, Sudeep Sahadevan, Xueqi Qu, Md Aminul Islam, Mikhael Poirier, Marcel A Müller, Christian Drosten, Dawit Tesfaye, Ernst Tholen, Christine Große-Brinkhaus
The porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is an infectious disease that leads to high financial and production losses in the global swine industry. The pathogenesis of this disease is dependent on a multitude of factors, and its control remains problematic. The immune system generally defends against infectious diseases, especially dendritic cells (DCs), which play a crucial role in the activation of the immune response after viral infections. However, the understanding of the immune response and the genetic impact on the immune response to PRRS virus (PRRSV) remains incomplete...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139241/porcine-respiratory-disease-complex-after-the-introduction-of-h1n1-2009-influenza-virus-in-brazil
#15
R R Rech, D Gava, M C Silva, L T Fernandes, V Haach, J R Ciacci-Zanella, R Schaefer
From 2009 to 2015, 74 lungs from suckling (6.8%), nursing (70.3%), fattening (20.3%) pigs and pregnant sows (2.7%) with respiratory signs from pig farms in Southern Brazil were submitted to a diagnostic laboratory for necropsy and/or histologic examination and screening for respiratory agents by RT-qPCR, immunohistochemistry (IHC), virus isolation (VI) and subtyping for influenza A virus (IAV), IHC and nested PCR for Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (Mhyo), PCR for porcine circovirus 2 (PCV2), RT-qPCR for porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) and bacterial culture...
November 14, 2017: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138994/molecular-characterization-and-recombination-analysis-of-porcine-reproductive-and-respiratory-syndrome-virus-emerged-in-southwestern-china-during-2012-2016
#16
Long Zhou, Runmin Kang, Gaosheng Ji, Yiming Tian, Mengyun Ge, Bo Xie, Xin Yang, Hongning Wang
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is an important swine pathogen causing tremendous economic losses to the swine industry. To investigate the prevalence of PRRSV of genotype 2 (North American type, NA-type) in southwestern China, the Nsp2 hypervariable region (Nsp2 HV) and ORF5 of 61 PRRS viruses collected during 2012-2016 were sequenced and analyzed. All the virus detected clustered into the JXA1-like (52/61), VR-2332-like (7/61), and NADC30-like (2/61) sub-genotypes. Five deletions in Nsp2 HV were detected in addition to the typical 30aa discontinuous deletion in HP-PRRSV, and two of these five were not reported previously...
November 14, 2017: Virus Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138299/induction-of-antiviral-immune-response-through-recognition-of-the-repeating-subunit-pattern-of-viral-capsids-is-toll-like-receptor-2-dependent
#17
Kelly M Shepardson, Benjamin Schwarz, Kyle Larson, Rachelle V Morton, John Avera, Kimberly McCoy, Alayna Caffrey, Ann Harmsen, Trevor Douglas, Agnieszka Rynda-Apple
Although viruses and viral capsids induce rapid immune responses, little is known about viral pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) that are exhibited on their surface. Here, we demonstrate that the repeating protein subunit pattern common to most virus capsids is a molecular pattern that induces a Toll-like-receptor-2 (TLR2)-dependent antiviral immune response. This early antiviral immune response regulates the clearance of subsequent bacterial superinfections, which are a primary cause of morbidities associated with influenza virus infections...
November 14, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138128/will-participatory-syndromic-surveillance-work-in-latin-america-piloting-a-mobile-approach-to-crowdsource-influenza-like-illness-data-in-guatemala
#18
José Tomás Prieto, Jorge H Jara, Juan Pablo Alvis, Luis R Furlan, Christian Travis Murray, Judith Garcia, Pierre-Jean Benghozi, Susan Cornelia Kaydos-Daniels
BACKGROUND: In many Latin American countries, official influenza reports are neither timely nor complete, and surveillance of influenza-like illness (ILI) remains thin in consistency and precision. Public participation with mobile technology may offer new ways of identifying nonmedically attended cases and reduce reporting delays, but no published studies to date have assessed the viability of ILI surveillance with mobile tools in Latin America. We implemented and assessed an ILI-tailored mobile health (mHealth) participatory reporting system...
November 14, 2017: JMIR Public Health and Surveillance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135343/effects-of-influenza-immunization-on-pneumonia-in-the-elderly
#19
Jung Yeon Heo, Joon Young Song, Ji Yun Noh, Min Joo Choi, Jin Gu Yoon, Saem Na Lee, Hee Jin Cheong, Woo Joo Kim
Influenza virus is a common pathogen implicated in respiratory tract infections, annually affecting up to 20% of the general population, and pneumonia is a leading cause of death after influenza infection. Post-influenza pneumonia is especially common in the elderly and chronically ill patients. The risk of post-influenza pneumonia is significantly increased according to the number of concurrent comorbidities. Vaccination is the primary measure used to abate influenza epidemics and associated complications...
November 14, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133946/whole-genomic-analysis-of-two-potential-recombinant-strains-within-human-mastadenovirus-species-c-previously-found-in-beijing-china
#20
Naiying Mao, Zhen Zhu, Pierre Rivailler, Meng Chen, Qin Fan, Fang Huang, Wenbo Xu
Human mastadenovirus species C (HAdV-C) are the most common etiologic agents of respiratory disease in young children and are frequently detected worldwide including China. Two recombinant HAdV-C strains (BJ04 and BJ09) were isolated from infants with acute respiratory infection (ARI) in Beijing in 2012-2013. The whole genome sequences (WGS) of BJ04 and BJ09 were generated and compared to other 35 HAdV-C WGSs publicly available. Phylogenetic analyses showed that the BJ04 strain might be the result of three homologous recombination events involving the parental strains JX173086 (HAdV-1), NC_001405 (HAdV-2) and LC068718 (HAdV-6), whereas BJ09 viral genome might be made of genetic elements from JX173083 (HAdV-1), KF268199 (HAdV-5), and KR699642 (strain CBJ113)...
November 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
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