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Respiratory virus

M E Vidgen, D W Edson, A F van den Hurk, H E Field, C S Smith
Hendra virus (HeV) causes potentially fatal respiratory and/or neurological disease in both horses and humans. Although Australian flying-foxes of the genus Pteropus have been identified as reservoir hosts, the precise mechanism of HeV transmission has yet to be elucidated. To date, there has been limited investigation into the role of haematophagous insects as vectors of HeV. This mode of transmission is particularly relevant because Australian flying-foxes host the bat-specific blood-feeding ectoparasites of the genus Cyclopodia (Diptera: Nycteribiidae), also known as bat flies...
October 22, 2016: Zoonoses and Public Health
J R Teijaro
Since Isaac's and Lindenmann's seminal experiments over 50 years ago demonstrating a soluble factor generated from heat killed virus-stimulated chicken embryos could inhibit live influenza virus replication, the term interferon has been synonymous with inhibition of virus replication. While the antiviral properties of type 1 interferon (IFN-I) are undeniable, recent studies have reported expanding and somewhat unexpected roles of IFN-I signaling during both acute and persistent viral infections. IFN-I signaling can promote morbidity and mortality through induction of aberrant inflammatory responses and recruitment of inflammatory innate immune cell populations during acute respiratory viral infections...
2016: Advances in Immunology
Na Li, Yunhuan Yan, Angke Zhang, Jiming Gao, Chong Zhang, Xue Wang, Gaopeng Hou, Gaiping Zhang, Jinbu Jia, En-Min Zhou, Shuqi Xiao
Many viruses encode microRNAs (miRNAs) that are small non-coding single-stranded RNAs which play critical roles in virus-host interactions. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is one of the most economically impactful viruses in the swine industry. The present study sought to determine whether PRRSV encodes miRNAs that could regulate PRRSV replication. Four viral small RNAs (vsRNAs) were mapped to the stem-loop structures in the ORF1a, ORF1b and GP2a regions of the PRRSV genome by bioinformatics prediction and experimental verification...
October 17, 2016: Oncotarget
Iuliia Gilchuk, Pavlo Gilchuk, Gopal Sapparapu, Rebecca Lampley, Vidisha Singh, Nurgun Kose, David L Blum, Laura J Hughes, Panayampalli S Satheshkumar, Michael B Townsend, Ashley V Kondas, Zachary Reed, Zachary Weiner, Victoria A Olson, Erika Hammarlund, Hans-Peter Raue, Mark K Slifka, James C Slaughter, Barney S Graham, Kathryn M Edwards, Roselyn J Eisenberg, Gary H Cohen, Sebastian Joyce, James E Crowe
Monkeypox (MPXV) and cowpox (CPXV) are emerging agents that cause severe human infections on an intermittent basis, and variola virus (VARV) has potential for use as an agent of bioterror. Vaccinia immune globulin (VIG) has been used therapeutically to treat severe orthopoxvirus infections but is in short supply. We generated a large panel of orthopoxvirus-specific human monoclonal antibodies (Abs) from immune subjects to investigate the molecular basis of broadly neutralizing antibody responses for diverse orthopoxviruses...
October 20, 2016: Cell
Ashleigh A McGirr, Kevin L Schwartz, Upton Allen, Melinda Solomon, Beate Sander
Background Children with cystic fibrosis (CF) are at higher risk of severe respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection, which can lead to a decline in lung function. A monoclonal antibody, palivizumab (PMB), effectively prevents RSV hospitalizations; however, the high cost of PMB, approximately C$10,000 per patient per RSV season, limits its widespread use. We assess the cost-effectiveness of PMB prophylaxis in CF children less than 2 years of age from the Canadian healthcare payer's perspective. Methods In 2014, a Markov cohort model of CF disease and infant RSV infections in the Canadian setting was developed based on literature data...
October 21, 2016: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Hengfei Shi, Ke Ren, Baojie Lv, Wei Zhang, Ying Zhao, Ren Xiang Tan, Erguang Li
The roots of Scutellaria baicalensis has been used as a remedy for inflammatory and infective diseases for thousands of years. We evaluated the antiviral activity against respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection, the leading cause of childhood infection and hospitalization. By fractionation and chromatographic analysis, we determined that baicalin was responsible for the antiviral activity of S. baicalensis against RSV infection. The concentration for 50% inhibition (IC50) of RSV infection was determined at 19...
October 21, 2016: Scientific Reports
Wenfei Zhu, Hong Zhang, Xingyu Xiang, Lili Zhong, Lei Yang, Junfeng Guo, Yiran Xie, Fangcai Li, Zhihong Deng, Hong Feng, Yiwei Huang, Shixiong Hu, Xin Xu, Xiaohui Zou, Xiaodan Li, Tian Bai, Yongkun Chen, Zi Li, Junhua Li, Yuelong Shu
In 2015, a novel influenza A(H1N1) virus was isolated from a boy in China who had severe pneumonia. The virus was a genetic reassortant of Eurasian avian-like influenza A(H1N1) (EA-H1N1) virus. The hemagglutinin, neuraminidase, and matrix genes of the reassortant virus were highly similar to genes in EA-H1N1 swine influenza viruses, the polybasic 1 and 2, polymerase acidic, and nucleoprotein genes originated from influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus, and the nonstructural protein gene derived from classical swine influenza A(H1N1) (CS H1N1) virus...
November 2016: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Somayeh Shatizadeh Malekshahi, Vahid Salimi, Ehsan Arefian, Ghazal Fatemi-Nasab, Sarvin Adjaminejad-Fard, Jila Yavarian, Talat Mokhtari-Azad
We attempted to generate siRNAs with two active strands, which can simultaneously knock down the expression of mRNA and viral genomic RNA. In this study, short hairpin RNAs (shRNAs) against N and F genes were used. Expression of F and N mRNA transcripts as well as genomic RNA was determined with relative real-time RT-PCR. The RSV load in infected cell culture supernatant was determined by absolute quantitative real-time PCR. We found that (i) in the presence of shRNA-N, a greater reduction in viral genomic RNA was found; (ii) the level of expression at MOI 0...
October 20, 2016: Molecular Biotechnology
Magda Yehia El Seify, Eman Mahmoud Fouda, Hanan Mohamed Ibrahim, Maha Muhammad Fathy, Asmaa Al Husseiny Ahmed, Walaa Shawky Khater, Noha Nagi Mohammed Salah El Deen, Heba Galal Mohamed Abouzeid, Nancy Riyad Ahmed Hegazy, Heba Salah Sayed Elbanna
BACKGROUND: While recognizing the etiology of community-acquired pneumonia is necessary for formulating local antimicrobial guidelines, limited data is published about this etiology in Egyptian pediatric patients. OBJECTIVES: To determine the frequency of bacterial and viral pathogens causing community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) among immunocompetent Egyptian infants and preschool children. METHODS: Ninety infants and preschool-age children admitted to our hospital with CAP were prospectively included in the study...
September 29, 2016: European Journal of Microbiology & Immunology
J J Wang, Y Y Xue, M Tang
With the rapid development of modern science and technology, the application of nanomaterial is ubiquitous in our daily life and medical field, in which the application related to nano-silver is more extensive. On one hand, it can make positive effects, such as anti-bacteria, anti-virus, anti-fungi, anti-parasitic infection and anti-tumor. In particular, its anti-bacterial activity in some acute or chronic treatment of infected wounds is more prominent. The application in diseases of gynecology, orthopedics, cardiovascular system, oral cavity, and ophthalmology is increasing...
October 20, 2016: Zhonghua Shao Shang za Zhi, Zhonghua Shaoshang Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Burns
Johanneke D Hemmink, Sophie B Morgan, Mario Aramouni, Helen Everett, Francisco J Salguero, Laetitia Canini, Emily Porter, Margo Chase-Topping, Katy Beck, Ronan Mac Loughlin, B Veronica Carr, Ian H Brown, Mick Bailey, Mark Woolhouse, Sharon M Brookes, Bryan Charleston, Elma Tchilian
Influenza virus infection in pigs is a major farming problem, causing considerable economic loss and posing a zoonotic threat. In addition the pig is an excellent model for understanding immunity to influenza viruses as this is a natural host pathogen system. Experimentally, influenza virus is delivered to pigs intra-nasally, by intra-tracheal instillation or by aerosol, but there is little data comparing the outcome of different methods. We evaluated the shedding pattern, cytokine responses in nasal swabs and immune responses following delivery of low or high dose swine influenza pdmH1N1 virus to the respiratory tract of pigs intra-nasally or by aerosol and compared them to those induced in naturally infected contact pigs...
October 20, 2016: Veterinary Research
Tahar Ait-Ali, Ivan Díaz, Ferran Soldevila, Esmeralda Cano, Yanli Li, Alison D Wilson, Bruno Giotti, Alan L Archibald, Enric Mateu, Laila Darwich
Little is known about the host factor in the response to PRRSV vaccination. For this purpose, piglets were immunized with a commercial PRRSV-live vaccine and classified as high responders (HR) or low responders (LR) as regards to the frequencies of virus-specific IFN-γ-secreting cells. Six weeks post vaccination, PBMCs isolated from three individuals with the most extreme responses in each HR and LR groups and 3 unvaccinated controls, were either stimulated with phytohaemagglutinin, challenged with the vaccine or mock treated for 24 h, prior conducting transcriptional studies, gene ontology and pathway analyses...
October 20, 2016: Veterinary Research
Wenkuan Liu, Dehui Chen, Weiping Tan, Duo Xu, Shuyan Qiu, Zhiqi Zeng, Xiao Li, Rong Zhou
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is one of the most important pathogenic infections of children and requires in-depth research worldwide, and especially in developing countries. We used a novel multiplex real-time PCR to test 5483 patients (≤ 14 years old) hospitalized with respiratory illness in Guangzhou, China, over a 3-year period. Of these patients, 729 were positive for RSV-A (51.2%, 373/729) or RSV-B (48.8%, 356/729), but none was infected with both viruses. Two seasonal peaks in total RSV were detected at the changes from winter to spring and from summer to autumn...
2016: PloS One
Jessica A Flynn, Eberhard Durr, Ryan Swoyer, Pedro J Cejas, Melanie S Horton, Jennifer D Galli, Scott A Cosmi, Amy S Espeseth, Andrew J Bett, Lan Zhang
Infection with Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) causes both upper and lower respiratory tract disease in humans, leading to significant morbidity and mortality in both young children and older adults. Currently, there is no licensed vaccine available, and therapeutic options are limited. During the infection process, the type I viral fusion (F) glycoprotein on the surface of the RSV particle rearranges from a metastable prefusion conformation to a highly stable postfusion form. In people naturally infected with RSV, most potent neutralizing antibodies are directed to the prefusion form of the F protein...
2016: PloS One
Katherine Zukor, Hong Wang, Brett L Hurst, Venkatraman Siddharthan, Arnaud Van Wettere, Paul M Pilowsky, John D Morrey
Neurological respiratory deficits are serious outcomes of West Nile virus (WNV) disease. WNV patients requiring intubation have a poor prognosis. We previously reported that WNV-infected rodents also appear to have respiratory deficits when assessed by whole-body plethysmography and diaphragmatic electromyography. The purpose of this study was to determine if the nature of the respiratory deficits in WNV-infected rodents is neurological and if deficits are due to a disorder of brainstem respiratory centers, cervical spinal cord (CSC) phrenic motor neuron (PMN) circuitry, or both...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Neurovirology
Anna L Funk, Flavie Luce Goutard, Eve Miguel, Mathieu Bourgarel, Veronique Chevalier, Bernard Faye, J S Malik Peiris, Maria D Van Kerkhove, Francois Louis Roger
Nearly 4 years after the first report of the emergence of Middle-East respiratory syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) and nearly 1800 human cases later, the ecology of MERS-CoV, its epidemiology, and more than risk factors of MERS-CoV transmission between camels are poorly understood. Knowledge about the pathways and mechanisms of transmission from animals to humans is limited; as of yet, transmission risks have not been quantified. Moreover the divergent sanitary situations and exposures to animals among populations in the Arabian Peninsula, where human primary cases appear to dominate, vs...
2016: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
Y Wang, J Guo, S Qiao, Q Li, J Yang, Q Jin, G Zhang
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is an important swine pathogen, causing huge economic losses each year worldwide. Immunization with vaccines containing the glycoprotein 5 (GP5) of PRRSV is the main measure to induce neutralizing antibodies and control the disease. Here, we developed a GP5 protein-based ELISA for detecting antibodies against PRRSV. The overall yield of purified GP5 in E. coli flask culture was more than 45 mg/L cell culture. Western blot and IFA indicated that the GP5 protein was highly immunogenic...
September 1, 2016: Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences
M Formánek, D Jančatová, P Komínek, P Matoušek, K Zeleník
OBJECTIVE: The human papillomavirus causes recurrent respiratory papillomatosis. Although human papillomavirus prevalence is high, the incidence of papillomatosis is low. Thus, factors other than human papillomavirus infection probably contribute to recurrent respiratory papillomatosis. This study investigated whether patients with papillomatosis are more often infected with herpes simplex virus type 2 and chlamydia trachomatis and whether laryngopharyngeal reflux occurs in this group of patients more often...
October 19, 2016: Clinical Otolaryngology
Vishwanatha R A P Reddy, Ivan Trus, Hans J Nauwynck
Although it has been speculated that the tracheal obstructions and asphyxiation during acute infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) are due to mucoid plugs/casts formed by mucus hypersecretion, there are no reports demonstrating this. Hence, in the present study, we first examined if the main respiratory mucins, MUC5AC and MUC5B, are expressed in the mucosae of larynx, trachea and bronchi of mock-inoculated and ILTV infected chickens. Second, the tracheas with plugs/casts were stained for mucins (MUC5AC and MUC5B) and nuclear material (traps)...
October 15, 2016: Virus Research
Neli Korsun, Svetla Angelova, Ani Teodosieva
AIM: Influenza virological surveillance is an essential tool for studying the evolution of influenza viruses as well as for annual updating of the vaccine composition. The aim of the present study is to analyse the circulation of the influenza viruses in Bulgaria during the four recent post-pandemic seasons. METHODS: A total of 3,681 respiratory samples from patients with influenza like illness (ILI) or acute respiratory illness (ARI) were tested for influenza viruses using Real Time RT-PCR...
September 2016: Central European Journal of Public Health
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