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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318782/role-of-the-microbiome-in-swine-respiratory-disease
#1
REVIEW
Megan C Niederwerder
Microbiome is a term used to describe the community of microorganisms that live on the skin and mucosal surfaces of animals. The gastrointestinal microbiome is essential for proper nutrition and immunity. How the gastrointestinal microbiome impacts primary respiratory or systemic infections is an emerging area of study. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is caused by a systemic virus infection with primary lung pathology and continues to be the most costly disease of swine worldwide. Recent studies have demonstrated that improved outcome after experimental infection with PRRS virus and porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) is associated with increased fecal microbiome diversity and the presence of non-pathogenic Escherichia coli...
March 2, 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318484/domestic-pig-unlikely-reservoir-for-mers-cov
#2
Emmie de Wit, Friederike Feldmann, Eva Horne, Cynthia Martellaro, Elaine Haddock, Trenton Bushmaker, Kyle Rosenke, Atsushi Okumura, Rebecca Rosenke, Greg Saturday, Dana Scott, Heinz Feldmann
We tested the suitability of the domestic pig as a model for Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infection. Inoculation did not cause disease, but a low level of virus replication, shedding, and seroconversion were observed. Pigs do not recapitulate human MERS-CoV and are unlikely to constitute a reservoir in nature.
June 15, 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316109/airway-inflammation-and-symptoms-in-children-following-liver-and-heart-transplantation
#3
Andrew J Redmann, John C Bucuvalas, Robert E Wood, Clifford Chin, Catherine K Hart
OBJECTIVES: Describe the upper airway endoscopic findings of children with upper airway symptoms after liver transplantation (LT) or heart transplantation (HT). METHODS: Review of children undergoing airway endoscopy after LT or HT from 2011 to 2015 at a tertiary care pediatric hospital. Airway findings, biopsy results, immunosuppression and Ebstein Barr virus (EBV) levels were recorded. RESULTS: Twenty-three of 158 LT (111) and HT (47) recipients underwent endoscopy...
March 18, 2017: Clinical Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314381/dysregulation-of-alveolar-macrophage-ppar%C3%AE-nadph-oxidases-and-tgf%C3%AE-sub-1-sub-in-otherwise-healthy-hiv-infected-individuals
#4
Samantha M Yeligar, Janine M Ward, Frank L Harris, Lou Ann Brown, David Guidot, Sushma K Cribbs
<u>Rationale:</u> Despite antiretroviral therapy (ART), respiratory infections increase mortality in individuals living with chronic human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. In experimental and clinical studies of chronic HIV infection, alveolar macrophages (AMs) exhibit impaired phagocytosis and bacterial clearance. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)γ, NADPH oxidase (Nox) isoforms Nox1, Nox2, Nox4, and transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGFβ<sub>1</sub>) are critical mediators of AM oxidative stress and phagocytic dysfunction...
March 17, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306724/respiratory-dna-viruses-are-undetectable-in-nasopharyngeal-secretions-from-adenotonsillectomized-children
#5
Ronaldo Bragança Martins, Lucas Penna Rocha, Mirela Moreira Prates, Talita Bianca Gagliardi, Balduino Biasoli, Marcelo Junqueira Leite, Guilherme Buzatto, Miguel Angelo Hyppolito, Davi Casale Aragon, Edwin Tamashiro, Fabiana Cardoso Pereira Valera, Eurico Arruda, Wilma Terezinha Anselmo-Lima
Respiratory viruses are frequently detected in association with chronic tonsillar hypertrophy in the absence of symptoms of acute respiratory infection (ARI). The present analysis was done in follow-up to a previous clinical study done by this same group. Nasopharyngeal washes (NPWs) were obtained from 83 of 120 individuals at variable times post adenotonsillectomy, in the absence of ARI symptoms. A look back at virus detection results in NPWs from the same 83 individuals at the time of tonsillectomy revealed that 73...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303845/diagnostic-value-of-nasopharyngeal-aspirates-in-children-with-lower-respiratory-tract-infections
#6
Ai-Zhen Lu, Peng Shi, Li-Bo Wang, Li-Ling Qian, Xiao-Bo Zhang
BACKGROUND: The accuracy of nasopharyngeal aspirate (NPA) specimens in detecting lower respiratory pathogens remains controversial. The objective of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of aspirates (NPAs) specimen in lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) in children. METHODS: The prospective study was designed to collect the data of paired NPAs and bronchoalveolar lavage fluids from children with acute LRTIs from January 2013 to December 2015...
March 20, 2017: Chinese Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303835/trends-of-respiratory-syncytial-virus-sub-types-in-children-hospitalised-at-a-tertiary-care-centre-in-jaipur-during-2012-2014
#7
M Anjaneya Swamy, Bharti Malhotra, P V Janardhan Reddy, Jitendra Kumar Tiwari, Neeraj Kumar, Manohar Lal Gupta
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) causes high mortality and morbidity in infants. The study was planned to determine the trends of RSV sub-types in hospitalised children. Nasopharyngeal aspirate and throat swabs were collected from the hospitalised children up to 5 years of age. Viral nucleic acid was extracted using easyMAG automated extraction system, and real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction was performed. Total positivity for RSV was found to be 25.40%, predominantly for RSV B (20.03%), followed by RSV A (2...
January 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303593/sb-9200-a-novel-agonist-of-innate-immunity-shows-potent-antiviral-activity-against-resistant-hcv-variants
#8
Meleri Jones, Morven E Cunningham, Peter Wing, Sampath DeSilva, Rupa Challa, Anjaneyulu Sheri, Seetharamaiyer Padmanabhan, Radhakrishnan P Iyer, Brent E Korba, Nezam Afdhal, Graham R Foster
SB 9200 is a novel, first-in-class oral modulator of innate immunity that is believed to act via the activation of the RIG-I and NOD2 pathways. SB 9200 has broad-spectrum antiviral activity against RNA viruses including hepatitis C virus (HCV), norovirus, respiratory syncytial virus and influenza and has demonstrated activity against hepatitis B virus (HBV) in vitro and in vivo. In phase I clinical trials in chronically infected HCV patients, SB 9200 has been shown to reduce HCV RNA by up to 1.9 log10 . Here, we demonstrate the antiviral activity of SB 9200 against a HCV replicon system and patient derived virus...
March 17, 2017: Journal of Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302886/mycoplasma-bovis-arthritis-and-pneumonia-in-calves
#9
(no author information available yet)
Mycoplasma bovis arthritis and pneumonia in six-month-old calvesSudden deaths in housed suckler cows due to hypomagnesaemiaBovine respiratory syncytial virus infection in two-year-old heifersBovine abortion associated with Parachlamydia speciesFibrinous pericarditis due to Aeromonas hydrophila in weaner pigsThese are among matters discussed in the disease surveillance report for December 2016 from SAC Consulting: Veterinary Services (SAC C VS).
March 18, 2017: Veterinary Record
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302410/meeting-report-who-consultation-on-respiratory-syncytial-virus-rsv-vaccine-development-geneva-25-26-april-2016
#10
Birgitte K Giersing, Ruth A Karron, Johan Vekemans, David C Kaslow, Vasee S Moorthy
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a leading viral cause of respiratory morbidity and mortality in infants and young children worldwide. Low and middle income countries (LMICs) account for approximately 99% of the global mortality estimates in this population, with up to 200,000 RSV deaths per year. The vaccine product development pipeline is diverse with the most advanced clinical candidate currently in phase III efficacy testing in pregnant women. In addition, a long-acting RSV-neutralizing monoclonal antibody (mAb) to be administered at birth to prevent serious RSV-related respiratory disease is in late stage clinical development, as are additional conventional mAb for use in high-risk infants...
March 14, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302313/influenza
#11
REVIEW
Catharine Paules, Kanta Subbarao
Influenza is an acute respiratory illness, caused by influenza A, B, and C viruses, that occurs in local outbreaks or seasonal epidemics. Clinical illness follows a short incubation period and presentation ranges from asymptomatic to fulminant, depending on the characteristics of both the virus and the individual host. Influenza A viruses can also cause sporadic infections or spread worldwide in a pandemic when novel strains emerge in the human population from an animal host. New approaches to influenza prevention and treatment for management of both seasonal influenza epidemics and pandemics are desirable...
March 10, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302206/-relationship-between-viral-load-of-human-bocavirus-and-clinical-characteristics-in-children-with-acute-lower-respiratory-tract-infection
#12
Xiao-Fang Ding, Bing Zhang, Li-Li Zhong, Le-Yun Xie, Ni-Guang Xiao
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prevalence of human bocavirus (HBoV) in children with acute lower respiratory tract infection and to explore the relationship between the viral load of HBoV and the clinical characteristics of acute lower respiratory tract infection in children. METHODS: A total of 1 554 nasopharyngeal aspirates from children who were hospitalized due to acute lower respiratory tract infection between March 2011 and March 2014 were collected. Quantitative real-time PCR was used to detect 12 RNA and 2 DNA viruses, adenovirus (ADV) and HBoV, and to measure the viral load of HBoV in HBoV-positive children...
March 2017: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302021/cytokines-induced-during-influenza-virus-infection
#13
Tatiana Betáková, Anna Kostrabova, Veronika Lachova, Lucia Turianova
Influenza A virus is one of the major human pathogens. The influenza infection can pass out without any subclinical symptoms or infestation can appear in upper respiratory tract as well as in lower respiratory tract where it can result in lethal outcome. Both innate and adaptive immune responses are activated shortly after infection providing protection against infection. Many activities of the cells of innate and adaptive immunity are coordinated by cytokines. However, inordinate or disbalanced immune response may result in overproduction of cytokines as well as chemokines what can lead to severe inflammation, including excessive recruitment of neutrophils and mononuclear cells at the site of infection...
March 16, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301570/human-metapnuemovirus-infections-in-hospitalized-children-and-comparison-with-other-respiratory-viruses-2005-2014-prospective-study
#14
María Luz García-García, Cristina Calvo, Cristina Rey, Beatriz Díaz, Maria Del Mar Molinero, Francisco Pozo, Inmaculada Casas
BACKGROUND: Human metapneumovirus (HMPV) has an important etiological role in acute lower respiratory infections in children under five years. Our objectives were to estimate the relative contribution of HMPV to hospitalization in children with acute respiratory infection, to define the clinical and epidemiological features of HMPV single and multiple infections, and to compare HMPV infections with respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV), rhinovirus (HRV), adenovirus and human bocavirus infections in the same population...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301241/pathology-and-tissue-distribution-of-an-lpai-h5n8-of-north-american-lineage-isolated-from-an-outbreak-in-commercial-japanese-quail-coturnix-c-japonica-in-the-central-valley-of-california
#15
S Carnaccini, S T Stoute, A A Bickford, H L Shivaprasad
This report describes the pathology and tissue distribution of avian influenza (AI) antigens by immunohistochemistry (IHC) in the tissues of commercial layer quail from a natural outbreak of low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) H5N8. LPAI virus H5N8 of North American lineage was diagnosed in commercial Japanese quail hens ( Coturnix coturnix japonica) in California based on serology, reverse-transcriptase real-time polymerase chain reaction, virus isolation, and sequencing. The sudden increase in mortality in a flock of laying quail hens had prompted the submission of 15 live and 5 dead, 10- to 15-wk-old quail to the California Animal Health and Food Safety Laboratory System, Turlock branch in the beginning of April 2014...
March 2017: Avian Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299912/orf3a-deletion-in-field-strains-of-porcine-transmissible-gastroenteritis-virus-in-china-a-hint-of-association-with-porcine-respiratory-coronavirus
#16
X Zhang, Y Zhu, X Zhu, J Chen, H Shi, D Shi, H Dong, L Feng
Porcine-transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) is a pathogenic coronavirus responsible for high diarrhoea-associated morbidity and mortality in suckling piglets. We analysed the TGEV ORF3 gene using nested polymerase chain reaction and identified an ORF3a deletion in three field strains of TGEV collected from piglets in China in 2015. Eight TGEV ORF3 sequences were obtained in this study. Phylogenetic tree analysis of ORF3 showed that the eight TGEV ORF3 genes all belonged to the Miller cluster. CH-LNCT and CH-MZL were closely correlated with Miller M6, while CH-SH was correlated with Miller M60...
March 15, 2017: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298903/apoptosis-toll-like-rig-i-like-and-nod-like-receptors-are-pathways-jointly-induced-by-diverse-respiratory-bacterial-and-viral-pathogens
#17
Isidoro Martínez, Juan C Oliveros, Isabel Cuesta, Jorge de la Barrera, Vicente Ausina, Cristina Casals, Alba de Lorenzo, Ernesto García, Belén García-Fojeda, Junkal Garmendia, Mar González-Nicolau, Alicia Lacoma, Margarita Menéndez, David Moranta, Amelia Nieto, Juan Ortín, Alicia Pérez-González, Cristina Prat, Elisa Ramos-Sevillano, Verónica Regueiro, Ariel Rodriguez-Frandsen, Dolores Solís, José Yuste, José A Bengoechea, José A Melero
Lower respiratory tract infections are among the top five leading causes of human death. Fighting these infections is therefore a world health priority. Searching for induced alterations in host gene expression shared by several relevant respiratory pathogens represents an alternative to identify new targets for wide-range host-oriented therapeutics. With this aim, alveolar macrophages were independently infected with three unrelated bacterial (Streptococcus pneumoniae, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Staphylococcus aureus) and two dissimilar viral (respiratory syncytial virus and influenza A virus) respiratory pathogens, all of them highly relevant for human health...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298902/global-distribution-and-evolutionary-history-of-enterovirus-d68-with-emphasis-on-the-2014-outbreak-in-ontario-canada
#18
Alireza Eshaghi, Venkata R Duvvuri, Sandra Isabel, Philip Banh, Aimin Li, Adriana Peci, Samir N Patel, Jonathan B Gubbay
Despite its first appearance in 1962, human enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) has been recognized as an emerging respiratory pathogen in the last decade when it caused outbreaks and clusters in several countries including Japan, the Philippines, and the Netherlands. The most recent and largest outbreak of EV-D68 associated with severe respiratory illness took place in North America between August 2014 and January 2015. Between September 1 and October 31 2014, EV-D68 infection was laboratory confirmed among 153/907 (16...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298602/a-single-dose-recombinant-piv5-expressing-respiratory-syncytial-virus-f-and-g-proteins-protected-cotton-rats-and-african-green-monkeys-from-rsv-challenge
#19
Dai Wang, Shannon Phan, Daniel J DiStefano, Michael P Citron, Cheryl L Callahan, Lani Indrawati, Sheri A Dubey, Gwendolyn J Heidecker, Dhanasekaran Govindarajan, Xiaoping Liang, Biao He, Amy S Espeseth
Human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a common cause of severe respiratory disease among infants, immunocompromised individuals and the elderly. No licensed vaccine is currently available. In this study, we evaluated two parainfluenza virus 5 (PIV5)-vectored vaccines expressing RSV F (PIV5/F) or G (PIV5/G) proteins in the cotton rat and African green monkey models for their replication, immunogenicity and efficacy of protection against RSV challenge. Following a single intranasal inoculation, both animal species shed the vaccine viruses for a limited time but without noticeable clinical symptoms...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298229/a-novel-benzo-heterocyclic-amine-derivative-n30-inhibits-influenza-virus-replication-by-depression-of-inosine-5-monophospate-dehydrogenase-activity
#20
Jin Hu, Linlin Ma, Huiqiang Wang, Haiyan Yan, Dajun Zhang, Zhuorong Li, Jiandong Jiang, Yuhuan Li
BACKGROUD: Influenza virus is still a huge threat to the world-wide public health. Host inosine-5'- monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH) involved in the synthesis of guanine nucleotides, is known to be a potential target to inhibit the replication of viruses. Herein, we evaluated antiviral activity of a benzo-heterocyclic amine derivative N30, which was designed to inhibit IMPDH. RESULTS: The results demonstrated that N30 inhibited the replication of H1N1, H3N2, influenza B viruses, including oseltamivir and amantadine resistant strains in vitro...
March 15, 2017: Virology Journal
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