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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087379/pegylated-liposomes-for-topical-vaginal-therapy-improve-delivery-of-interferon-alpha
#1
May Wenche Jøraholmen, Purusotam Basnet, Ganesh Acharya, Nataša Škalko-Basnet
Recent studies regarding mucosal drug delivery indicate that nanosystems with surface-available polyethylene glycol (PEG) are able to penetrate mucus barrier, assure closer contact with the epithelium, and improve drug delivery to vagina. In the present work, we developed the mucus-penetrating PEGylated liposomes containing interferon alpha-2b (IFN α-2b), destined to provide localized therapy for human papilloma virus (HPV) vaginal infections. The PEGylated liposomes were of a mean size of 181 ± 8 nm, bearing a negative zeta potential of - 13 mV and an entrapment efficiency of 81 ± 10 %...
January 10, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079627/inactivation-of-digestive-proteases-and-degradation-of-mucus-the-possible-key-factors-that-determined-the-different-effects-on-the-gut-by-antibiotics
#2
Xiaofa Qin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 6, 2017: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079624/damage-of-the-mucus-layer-the-possible-shared-critical-common-cause-for-both-inflammatory-bowel-disease-ibd-and-irritable-bowel-syndrome-ibs
#3
Xiaofa Qin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 10, 2017: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078471/effects-of-estrogen-on-esophageal-function-through-regulation-of-ca-2-related-proteins
#4
Kipung Kim, Dongoh Lee, Changhwan Ahn, Hee Young Kang, Beum-Soo An, Yeon Hee Seong, Eui-Bae Jeung
BACKGROUND: The calcium ion is important for physiological functions in all tissues and organs and essential to many vital functions, including hormone secretion and muscle contraction. The intracellular concentration of calcium is regulated by calcium related proteins such as CaBP-9k, PMCA1, and NCX1. In this study, we investigated the relationship between calcium regulation and esophageal functions such as mucin secretion and smooth muscle contraction. METHODS: To evaluate the influence of sex steroid hormones, immature rats were treated for 3 days with estradiol (E2), progesterone (P4), and their antagonists (ICI 182,780, and RU486)...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077598/notch-ligand-delta-like-4-promotes-regulatory-t-cell-identity-in-pulmonary-viral-infection
#5
Hung-An Ting, Matthew A Schaller, Denise E de Almeida Nagata, Andrew J Rasky, Ivan P Maillard, Nicholas W Lukacs
Regulatory T (Treg) cells establish tolerance, prevent inflammation at mucosal surfaces, and regulate immunopathology during infectious responses. Recent studies have shown that Delta-like ligand 4 (Dll4) was upregulated on APC after respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection, and its inhibition leads to exaggerated immunopathology. In the present study, we outline the role of Dll4 in Treg cell differentiation, stability, and function in RSV infection. We found that Dll4 was expressed on CD11b(+) pulmonary dendritic cells in the lung and draining lymph nodes in wild-type BALB/c mice after RSV infection...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077104/effects-of-treadmill-exercise-versus-flutter%C3%A2-on-respiratory-flow-and-sputum-properties-in-adults-with-cystic-fibrosis-a-randomised-controlled-cross-over-trial
#6
Tiffany J Dwyer, Rahizan Zainuldin, Evangelia Daviskas, Peter T P Bye, Jennifer A Alison
BACKGROUND: Treadmill exercise and airway clearance with the Flutter® device have previously been shown to improve mucus clearance mechanisms in people with cystic fibrosis (CF) but have not been compared. It is therefore not known if treadmill exercise is an adequate form of airway clearance that could replace established airway clearance techniques, such as the Flutter®. The aim of this study was to evaluate respiratory flow, sputum properties and subjective responses of treadmill exercise and Flutter® therapy, compared to resting breathing (control)...
January 11, 2017: BMC Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076809/a-model-for-the-transient-subdiffusive-behavior-of-particles-in-mucus
#7
Matthias Ernst, Thomas John, Marco Guenther, Christian Wagner, Ulrich F Schaefer, Claus-Michael Lehr
In this study we have applied a model to explain the reported subdiffusion of particles in mucus, based on the measured mean squared displacements (MSD). The model considers Brownian diffusion of particles in a confined geometry, made from permeable membranes. The applied model predicts a normal diffusive behavior at very short and long time lags, as observed in several experiments. In between these timescales, we find that the "subdiffusive" regime is only a transient effect, MSD∝τ(α),α<1. The only parameters in the model are the diffusion-coefficients at the limits of very short and long times, and the distance between the permeable membranes L...
January 10, 2017: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075489/cough-augmentation-techniques-for-extubation-or-weaning-critically-ill-patients-from-mechanical-ventilation
#8
REVIEW
Louise Rose, Neill Kj Adhikari, David Leasa, Dean A Fergusson, Douglas McKim
BACKGROUND: There are various reasons why weaning and extubation failure occur, but ineffective cough and secretion retention can play a significant role. Cough augmentation techniques, such as lung volume recruitment or manually- and mechanically-assisted cough, are used to prevent and manage respiratory complications associated with chronic conditions, particularly neuromuscular disease, and may improve short- and long-term outcomes for people with acute respiratory failure. However, the role of cough augmentation to facilitate extubation and prevent post-extubation respiratory failure is unclear...
January 11, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074021/the-assimilation-of-diazotroph-derived-nitrogen-by-scleractinian-corals-depends-on-their-metabolic-status
#9
Vanessa N Bednarz, Renaud Grover, Jean-François Maguer, Maoz Fine, Christine Ferrier-Pagès
: Tropical corals are associated with a diverse community of dinitrogen (N2)-fixing prokaryotes (diazotrophs) providing the coral an additional source of bioavailable nitrogen (N) in oligotrophic waters. The overall activity of these diazotrophs changes depending on the current environmental conditions, but to what extent it affects the assimilation of diazotroph-derived N (DDN) by corals is still unknown. Here, in a series of (15)N2 tracer experiments, we directly quantified DDN assimilation by scleractinian corals from the Red Sea exposed to different environmental conditions...
January 10, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073893/the-caecal-mucus-sign
#10
Jason Behary, Jason Minco Hui
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 10, 2017: Gut
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073549/mass-entrapment-and-lysis-of-mesodinium-rubrum-cells-in-mucus-threads-observed-in-cultures-with-dinophysis
#11
K Ojamäe, P J Hansen, I Lips
The entrapment and death of the ciliate Mesodinium rubrum in the mucus threads in cultures with Dinophysis is described and quantified. Feeding experiments with different concentrations and predator-prey ratios of Dinophysis acuta, Dinophysis acuminata and M. rubrum to study the motility loss and aggregate formation of the ciliates and the feeding behaviour of Dinophysis were carried out. In cultures of either Dinophysis species, the ciliates became entrapped in the mucus, which led to the formation of immobile aggregates of M...
May 2016: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073509/harmful-effects-of-dinophysis-to-the-ciliate-mesodinium-rubrum-implications-for-prey-capture
#12
Luiz L Mafra, Satoshi Nagai, Hajime Uchida, Camila P S Tavares, Bruno P Escobar, Toshiyuki Suzuki
Toxigenic Dinophysis spp. are obligate mixotrophic dinoflagellates that require a constant supply of prey-Mesodinium rubrum-to achieve long-term growth by means of kleptoplasty. Mesodinium rubrum is, however, a fast moving, jumping ciliate exhibiting an effective escape response from suspensivorous predators. In the present study, a series of laboratory experiments evaluating the motility and survival of M. rubrum in the presence of Dinophysis cells and/or substances contained in their culture medium was designed, in order to assess the mechanisms involved in prey capture by Dinophysis spp...
November 2016: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073502/lethal-effects-of-ichthyotoxic-raphidophytes-chattonella-marina-c-antiqua-and-heterosigma-akashiwo-on-post-embryonic-stages-of-the-japanese-pearl-oyster-pinctada-fucata-martensii
#13
Leila Basti, Kiyohito Nagai, Jiyoji Go, Sho Okano, Tatsuya Oda, Yuji Tanaka, Satoshi Nagai
The inimical effects of the ichthyotoxic harmful algal bloom (HAB)-forming raphidophytes Heterosigma akashiwo, Chattonella marina, and Chattonella antiqua on the early-life stages of the Japanese pearl oyster Pinctada fucata martensii were studied. Fertilized eggs and developing embryos were not affected following exposure to the harmful raphidophytes; however, all three algal species severely affected trochophores and D-larvae, early-stage D-larvae, and late-stage pre-settling larvae. Exposure to C. marina (5×10(2)cellsml(-1)), C...
November 2016: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073453/the-use-of-a-mucus-trap-by-dinophysis-acuta-for-the-capture-of-mesodinium-rubrum-prey-under-culture-conditions
#14
Gemma Giménez Papiol, Veronica Beuzenberg, Andrew I Selwood, Lincoln MacKenzie, Michael A Packer
A capture mechanism observed in a culture of the dinoflagellate Dinophysis acuta when preying on the ciliate Mesodinium rubrum (also sometimes referred to as Myrionecta rubra) is described. The dinoflagellate released cohesive clumps of mucilage into the culture media. When M. rubrum cells came into contact with this mucilage, they were immediately immobilized, but remained alive for a short period of time. Observations of D. acuta cells 'visiting and probing' trapped M. rubrum cells were made and at a critical point D...
September 2016: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069817/quorum-sensing-regulators-are-required-for-metabolic-fitness-in-vibrio-parahaemolyticus
#15
Sai Siddarth Kalburge, Megan R Carpenter, Sharon Rozovsky, E Fidelma Boyd
Quorum sensing (QS) is a process by which bacteria alter gene expression in response to cell density changes. In Vibrio species, at low cell density, the sigma 54-dependent response regulator LuxO, is active, and regulates the two QS master regulators AphA, which is induced and OpaR, which is repressed. At high cell density the opposite occurs, LuxO is inactive, therefore OpaR is induced and AphA is repressed. In V. parahaemolyticus, a significant enteric pathogen of humans, the role of these regulators in pathogenesis is less known...
January 9, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069814/muc2-mucin-and-butyrate-contribute-to-the-synthesis-of-the-antimicrobial-peptide-cathelicidin-in-response-to-e-histolytica-and-dss-induced-colitis
#16
Eduardo R Cobo, Vanessa Kissoon-Singh, France Moreau, Ravi Holani, Kris Chadee
Embedded in the colonic mucus are cathelicidins, small cationic peptides secreted by colonic epithelial cells. Humans and mice have one cathelicidin-related antimicrobial peptide (CRAMP), LL-37/hCAP-18 and Cramp respectively, with related structure and functions. Altered production of MUC2 mucin and antimicrobial peptides is characteristic of intestinal amebiasis. The interactions between MUC2 mucin and cathelicidins in conferring innate immunity against Entamoeba histolytica (Eh) are not well characterized...
January 9, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069333/villous-adenoma-in-renal-pelvis-with-manifestation-of-percutaneous-fistula-and-mucus-secretion
#17
Danqi Liu, Jing Tan, Kai Huang, Zhiqiang Jiang, Leye He, Guangming Yin
A 70-year-old man, complaining of percutaneous fistula with jelly-like yellow mucus in right kidney for a month, was admitted to our department. From computer tomography, stones and severe hydronephrosis but no suspicious mass was found in right kidney. Nephrectomy of right kidney was performed and pathological examination revealed a villous adenoma in renal pelvis with moderate to severe atypical hyperplasia of glandular epithelium. Primary villous adenoma in renal pelvis is rare and believed to be related to chronic irritation of stone and inflammation...
January 6, 2017: Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068894/strain-differences-in-a-murine-model-of-air-pollutant-induced-nonatopic-asthma-and-rhinitis
#18
Jack R Harkema, Lucas A Hotchkiss, Nicholas A Vetter, Daven N Jackson-Humbles, Ryan P Lewandowski, James G Wagner
Ozone is an irritating gas found in photochemical smog. Epidemiological associations have been made between the onset of asthma and childhood exposures to increasing levels of ambient ozone (i.e., air pollutant-induced nonatopic asthma). Individuals, however, vary in their susceptibility to this outdoor air pollutant, which may be due, in part, to their genetic makeup. The present study was designed to test the hypothesis that there are murine strain-dependent differences in pulmonary and nasal pathologic responses to repeated ozone exposures...
January 2017: Toxicologic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062699/cathelicidin-wa-improves-intestinal-epithelial-barrier-function-and-enhances-host-defense-against-enterohemorrhagic-escherichia-coli-o157-h7-infection
#19
Hongbo Yi, Wangyang Hu, Shan Chen, Zeqing Lu, Yizhen Wang
Impaired epithelial barrier function disrupts immune homeostasis and increases inflammation in intestines, leading to many intestinal diseases. Cathelicidin peptides suppress intestinal inflammation and improve intestinal epithelial barrier function independently of their antimicrobial activity. In this study, we investigated the effects of Cathelicidin-WA (CWA) on intestinal epithelial barrier function, as well as the underlying mechanism, by using enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC)-infected mice and intestinal epithelial cells...
January 6, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062580/hidden-female-physiological-resistance-to-male-accessory-gland-substances-in-a-simultaneous-hermaphrodite
#20
Monica Lodi, Joris M Koene
To increase fertilization chances compared to rivals, males are favoured to transfer accessory gland proteins to females during mating. These substances, by influencing female physiology, cause alteration of her sperm usage and remating rate. Simultaneously hermaphroditic land snails with love-darts are a case in point. During courtship, a love-dart is pierced through the partner's body wall, thereby introducing accessory mucous gland products. This mucus physiologically increases paternity by inhibiting the digestion of donated sperm...
January 6, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
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