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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735327/genotyping-and-clinicoepidemiological-characterization-of-rotavirus-acute-gastroenteritis-in-egyptian-children
#1
Niveen Saudy, Walaa Othman Elshabrawy, Ahmed Megahed, Mona F Foad, Aly F Mohamed
Group A rotavirus (RVA) acute gastroenteritis (AGE) is a common cause of severe childhood diarrhea. The dominant circulating RVA genotypes in a given region may vary between and within the geographic regions and from year to year. Our cross-sectional study was designed to determine the burden of RVA genotypes among children with AGE admitted to referral Children Hospital at Egypt prior to implementation of the vaccine. Stool samples with clinico-epidemiological data were collected from 92 children ≤ 3 years-old with AGE...
January 2, 2017: Polish Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733314/effects-of-an-airway-clearance-device-on-inflammation-bacteriology-and-mucus-transport-in-bronchiectasis
#2
Joana Tambascio, Hugo Celso Dutra de Souza, Roberto Martinez, José Antônio Baddini-Martinez, Peter John Barnes, Ada Clarice Gastaldi
BACKGROUND: Bronchiectasis is characterized by abnormal and permanent dilation of the bronchi, caused by the perpetuation of inflammation and impairment of mucociliary clearance. Physiotherapy techniques can help to decrease the retention of respiratory secretions. The flutter valve combines high-frequency oscillation and positive expiratory pressure to facilitate the removal of secretions. We evaluated the effects of the flutter valve on sputum inflammation, microbiology, and transport of respiratory secretions in patients with bronchiectasis...
August 2017: Respiratory Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731127/pidotimod-exacerbates-allergic-pulmonary-infection-in-an-ova-mouse-model-of-asthma
#3
Luo-Qin Fu, Ya-Li Li, Ai-Kun Fu, Yan-Ping Wu, Yuan-Yuan Wang, Sheng-Lan Hu, Wei-Fen Li
Pidotimod is a synthetic dipeptide with biological and immuno‑modulatory properties. It has been widely used for treatment and prevention of recurrent respiratory infections. However, its impact on the regulation of allergic pulmonary inflammation is still not clear. In the current study, an ovalbumin (OVA)‑induced allergic asthma model was used to investigate the immune‑modulating effects of pidotimod on airway eosinophilia, mucus metaplasia and inflammatory factor expression compared with dexamethasone (positive control)...
July 21, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730380/acute-and-chronic-effects-of-oral-erdosteine-on-ciliary-beat-frequency-cough-sensitivity-and-airway-reactivity
#4
L Pappová, I Kazimierová, M Jošková, M Šutovská, S Fraňová
Erdosteine as a mucolytic agent that decreases mucus viscosity and facilitates mucus expulsion from the airways by cough or ciliary movement. Our objective was to determine whether erdosteine can directly contribute to mucus clearance. We addressed the issue by monitoring acute and chronic effects of erdosteine on ciliary beat frequency (CBF), cough sensitivity, and airway smooth muscle reactivity. The experiments were performed in healthy guinea pigs. Erdosteine (10 mg/kg) was administrated orally in a single dose or daily through 7 days...
July 21, 2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729052/tedizolid-inhibits-muc5ac-production-induced-by-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-in-human-airway-epithelial-cells
#5
Kazuaki Takeda, Norihito Kaku, Yoshitomo Morinaga, Kosuke Kosai, Naoki Uno, Yoshifumi Imamura, Hiroo Hasegawa, Taiga Miyazaki, Koichi Izumikawa, Hiroshi Mukae, Katsunori Yanagihara
The innate immune system plays an important role in early immunity against respiratory tract infection. Although airway epithelial cells produce mucus to eliminate pathogens and irritants, hypersecretion of mucus is harmful for the host as it may cause airway obstruction and inhibit influx of antimicrobial agents. It has been reported that several antimicrobial agents have an immunomodulatory effect in vitro and in vivo, but little is known about whether tedizolid, a novel oxazolidinone, can modulate immune responses...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727997/therapeutic-intranasal-instillation-of-allergen-loaded-microbubbles-suppresses-experimental-allergic-asthma-in-mice
#6
Blaise Corthésy, Gilles Bioley
Despite proven efficiency, subcutaneous immunotherapy for aeroallergens is impaired by the duration of the protocol, the repeated injections and potential side-effects associated with the doses of allergen administered. Intranasal delivery of immunotherapeutic agents may overcome several of these drawbacks, provided that an efficient allergen delivery vehicle can be identified. This study evaluates whether intranasally delivered gas-filled microbubble (MB)-associated ovalbumin (OVA), used as a model allergen, can serve as a therapeutic treatment in a mouse model of established allergic asthma...
July 12, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726765/oleic-acid-uptake-reveals-the-rescued-enterocyte-phenotype-of-colon-cancer-caco-2-by-ht29-mtx-cells-in-co-culture-mode
#7
Emmanuelle Berger, Merian Nassra, Claude Atgié, Pascale Plaisancié, Alain Géloën
Gastrointestinal epithelium is the unique route for nutrients and for many pharmaceuticals to enter the body. The present study aimed to analyze precisely whether co-culture of two colon cancer cell lines, mucus-producing cells HT29-MTX and enterocyte-like Caco-2 cells, ameliorate differentiation into an in vitro intestinal barrier model and the signaling pathways involved. Differentiated Caco-2 cells gene datasets were compared first to intestinal or cancer phenotypes and second to signaling pathway gene datasets...
July 20, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726627/mucus-activatable-shiga-toxin-genotype-stx2d-in-escherichia-coli-o157-h7
#8
Sergio Sánchez, María Teresa Llorente, Laura Herrera-León, Raquel Ramiro, Sandra Nebreda, María Antonia Remacha, Silvia Herrera-León
We identified the mucus-activatable Shiga toxin genotype stx2d in the most common hemolytic uremic syndrome-associated Escherichia coli serotype, O157:H7. stx2d was detected in a strain isolated from a 2-year-old boy with bloody diarrhea in Spain, and whole-genome sequencing was used to confirm and fully characterize the strain.
August 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726276/the-colonic-groove-of-the-plains-viscacha-lagostomus-maximus-histochemical-evidence-of-an-abrupt-change-in-the-glycosylation-pattern-of-goblet-cells
#9
María Florencia Tano de la Hoz, Mirta Alicia Flamini, Carolina Natalia Zanuzzi, Alcira Ofelia Díaz
The ascending colon of most rodent species shows a longitudinal colonic groove that works as a retrograde transport pathway for a mixture of bacteria and mucus toward the cecum. We describe the morphology and glycosylation pattern of the colonic groove of Lagostomus maximus to analyze the role of mucins in this anatomical feature. We also studied the distribution pattern of the interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) to evaluate their regulatory influence on gut motility. The groove originated near the cecocolic junction and extended along the mesenteric side of the ascending colon, limited at both ends by nonpapillated ridges...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Morphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725216/survey-of-antibiotic-producing-bacteria-associated-with-the-epidermal-mucus-layers-of-rays-and-skates
#10
Kim B Ritchie, Melbert Schwarz, Joseph Mueller, Valeri A Lapacek, Daniel Merselis, Catherine J Walsh, Carl A Luer
Elasmobranchs represent a distinct group of cartilaginous fishes that harbor a remarkable ability to heal wounds rapidly and without infection. To date very little work has addressed this phenomenon although it is suggested that antibiotic capabilities associated with epidermal surfaces may be a factor. The study of benefits derived from mutualistic interactions between unicellular and multicellular organisms is a rapidly growing area of research. Here we survey and identify bacterial associates of three ray and one skate species in order to assess the potential for antibiotic production from elasmobranch associated bacteria as a novel source for new antibiotics...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723225/preferential-generation-of-15-hete-pe-induced-by-il-13-regulates-goblet-cell-differentiation-in-human-airway-epithelial-cells
#11
Jinming Zhao, Yoshinori Minami, Emily Etling, John M Coleman, Sarah N Lauder, Victoria Tyrrell, Maceler Aldrovandi, Valerie O'Donnell, Hans-Erik Claesson, Valerian Kagan, Sally Wenzel
RATIONALE: Type-2-associated goblet cell hyperplasia and mucus hypersecretion are well known features of asthma. 15-Lipoxygenase (15LO1) is induced by the Type-2 cytokines/IL-13 in human airway epithelial cells (HAEC) in vitro and is increased in fresh asthmatic HAECs ex vivo. 15LO1 generates a variety of products, including 15-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (15-HETE), 15-HETE-phosphatidyethanoloamine (PE) (15-HETE-PE) and 13-hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid (13-HODE). The current study investigated the 15LO1 metabolite profile at baseline and after IL-13 treatment, and the influence on goblet cell differentiation in HAECs...
July 19, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721502/mucin-cross-feeding-of-infant-bifidobacteria-and-eubacterium-hallii
#12
Vera Bunesova, Christophe Lacroix, Clarissa Schwab
Mucus production is initiated before birth and provides mucin glycans to the infant gut microbiota. Bifidobacteria are the major bacterial group in the feces of vaginally delivered and breast milk-fed infants. Among the bifidobacteria, only Bifidobacterium bifidum is able to degrade mucin and to release monosaccharides which can be used by other gut microbes colonizing the infant gut. Eubacterium hallii is an early occurring commensal that produces butyrate and propionate from fermentation metabolites but that cannot degrade complex oligo- and polysaccharides...
July 18, 2017: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721124/association-between-exercise-induced-pulmonary-hemorrhage-and-inflammatory-airway-disease-in-polo-ponies
#13
Katia Moreira da Silva, Juliana Nabuco Pereira Otaka, Carlos Alexandre Paula Gonçalves, Estevão Grossi Aguiar Silva, Nayro Xavier de Alencar, Daniel Augusto Barroso Lessa
The respiratory system is essential for health and high athletic performance in horses. Respiratory diseases have been recognized as having a major impact on training equine animals and are commonly cited as the second most common cause of wasted training time. Inflammatory airway disease (IAD) is an important cause of poor performance in young racehorses. Exercise-induced pulmonary hemorrhage (EIPH) is considered a major issue for the equine industry because of its high prevalence and association with reduced athletic performance...
2017: Journal of Equine Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720732/pseudomonas-aeruginosa-alters-staphylococcus-aureus-sensitivity-to-vancomycin-in-a-biofilm-model-of-cystic-fibrosis-infection
#14
Giulia Orazi, George A O'Toole
The airways of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients have thick mucus, which fosters chronic, polymicrobial infections. Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus are two of the most prevalent respiratory pathogens in CF patients. In this study, we tested whether P. aeruginosa influences the susceptibility of S. aureus to frontline antibiotics used to treat CF lung infections. Using our in vitro coculture model, we observed that addition of P. aeruginosa supernatants to S. aureus biofilms grown either on epithelial cells or on plastic significantly decreased the susceptibility of S...
July 18, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717520/modeling-chronic-dacryocystitis-in-rabbits-by-nasolacrimal-duct-obstruction-with-self-curing-resin
#15
Kai Hou, Tao Ai, Rong Liu, Nan Xiang, Jing Jin, Weikun Hu, Ban Luo
We established a chronic dacryocystitis model by injecting of 0.05, 0.1, and 0.15 ml self-curing resin via the lacrimal punctum in rabbits. Animals were randomized into four groups (n = 11 animals/group). The control group received 0.15 ml normal saline. Within three months postinjection, epiphora and eye discharge were observed. At the 90th day postlacrimal passage irrigation, CT dacryocystography was performed to find changes in the lacrimal image, and hematoxylin and eosin staining was made to identify pathological changes of the lacrimal sac...
2017: Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716644/muc5ac-and-a-glycosylated-variant-of-muc5b-alter-mucin-composition-in-children-with-acute-asthma
#16
Kathryn G Welsh, Karine Rousseau, Gemma Fisher, Luke R Bonser, Peter Bradding, Chris E Brightling, David J Thornton, Erol A Gaillard
BACKGROUND: Diffuse airway mucus obstruction is an important feature of severe and fatal asthma. MUC5AC and MUC5B are the principal gel-forming mucins found in airway mucus. The mucin composition of airway mucus likely affects its functional properties. METHODS: We quantified the principal airway mucins MUC5AC and MUC5B in the sputum of age-matched children with acute and stable asthma and healthy controls using Western blotting. RESULTS: Sputum samples from 38 children (13 acute asthma, 15 stable asthma, 10 controls) were obtained...
July 14, 2017: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713812/the-biology-of-eosinophils-and-their-role-in-asthma
#17
REVIEW
Claire N McBrien, Andrew Menzies-Gow
This review will describe the structure and function of the eosinophil. The roles of several relevant cell surface molecules and receptors will be discussed. We will also explore the systemic and local processes triggering eosinophil differentiation, maturation, and migration to the lungs in asthma, as well as the cytokine-mediated pathways that result in eosinophil activation and degranulation, i.e., the release of multiple pro-inflammatory substances from eosinophil-specific granules, including cationic proteins, cytokines, chemokines growth factors, and enzymes...
2017: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713373/15-deoxy-delta-12-14-prostaglandin-j2-inhibits-lung-inflammation-and-remodeling-in-distinct-murine-models-of-asthma
#18
Diego S Coutinho, Edna A Anjos-Valotta, Caio V M F do Nascimento, Ana Lucia A Pires, Marcelo H Napimoga, Vinícius F Carvalho, Rafael C Torres, Patrícia M R E Silva, Marco A Martins
15-deoxy-Δ-12,14-prostaglandin J2 (15d-PGJ2) has been described as an anti-inflammatory lipid mediator in several in vitro and in vivo studies, but its effect on allergic pulmonary inflammation remains elusive. The aim of this study was to investigate the therapeutic potential of 15d-PGJ2 based on distinct murine models of allergic asthma triggered by either ovalbumin (OVA) or house dust mite extract (HDM). Characteristics of lung inflammation, airway hyper-reactivity (AHR), mucus exacerbation, and lung remodeling in sensitized A/J mice treated or not with 15d-PGJ2 were assessed...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713349/the-gut-microbiota-of-healthy-chilean-subjects-reveals-a-high-abundance-of-the-phylum-verrucomicrobia
#19
Sayaka Fujio-Vejar, Yessenia Vasquez, Pamela Morales, Fabien Magne, Patricia Vera-Wolf, Juan A Ugalde, Paola Navarrete, Martin Gotteland
The gut microbiota is currently recognized as an important factor regulating the homeostasis of the gastrointestinal tract and influencing the energetic metabolism of the host as well as its immune and central nervous systems. Determining the gut microbiota composition of healthy subjects is therefore necessary to establish a baseline allowing the detection of microbiota alterations in pathologic conditions. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to characterize the gut microbiota of healthy Chilean subjects using 16S rRNA gene sequencing...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712704/impact-of-perioperative-voice-therapy-on-outcomes-in-the-surgical-management-of-vocal-fold-cysts
#20
Kathleen M Tibbetts, Laura M Dominguez, C Blake Simpson
INTRODUCTION: Vocal fold cysts are benign mid-membranous lesions of the true vocal fold, classified as mucus retention or epidermal inclusion cysts. Treatment is surgical excision with or without postoperative voice therapy. METHODS: A retrospective review was performed of the demographics, treatment approach, and outcomes of patients treated for vocal fold cysts between 2009 and 2014. Voice Handicap Index (VHI)-10 scores before and after treatment were compared using the Wilcoxon Rank-Sum test and the two-tailed Student's t test...
July 13, 2017: Journal of Voice: Official Journal of the Voice Foundation
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