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Interferon promoter stimulator

Lorenza Tulli, Francesca Cattaneo, Juliette Vinot, Cosima T Baldari, Ugo D'Oro
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play a key role in the activation of innate immune cells, in which their engagement leads to production of cytokines and co-stimulatory molecules. TLRs signaling requires recruitment of toll/IL-1R (TIR) domain-containing adaptors, such as MyD88 and/or TRIF, and leads to activation of several transcription factors, such as NF-κB, the AP1 complex, and various members of the interferon regulatory factor (IRF) family, which in turn results in triggering of several cellular functions associated with these receptors...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Liping Qian, Yibo Zuo, Wenjun Deng, Ying Miao, Jin Liu, Yukang Yuan, Tingting Guo, Liting Zhang, Jun Jin, Jun Wang, Hui Zheng
Type-I interferons (IFN-I) are widely used for antiviral immunotherapy in clinic. Therefore, identification of the regulators of IFN-I antiviral activity is important for developing novel targets for IFN-based antiviral therapy. Monocyte chemoattractant protein 1-induced protein 1 (MCPIP1) is critical for cellular inflammatory responses. However, the roles of MCPIP1 in interferons (IFNs)-mediated antiviral immunity are unexplored. In this study, we demonstrate for the first time that MCPIP1 is an important positive regulator of IFNs antiviral activity...
March 12, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Wenting He, Shengfeng Hu, Xialin Du, Qian Wen, Xiao-Ping Zhong, Xinying Zhou, Chaoying Zhou, Wenjing Xiong, Yuchi Gao, Shimeng Zhang, Ruining Wang, Jiahui Yang, Li Ma
The mechanisms by which vitamins regulate immunity and their effect as an adjuvant treatment for tuberculosis have gradually become very important research topics. Studies have found that vitamin B5 (VB5) can promote epithelial cells to express inflammatory cytokines. We aimed to examine the proinflammatory and antibacterial effect of VB5 in macrophages infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) strain H37Rv and the therapeutic potential of VB5 in vivo with tuberculosis. We investigated the activation of inflammatory signal molecules (NF-κB, AKT, JNK, ERK, and p38), the expression of two primary inflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor and interleukin-6) and the bacterial burdens in H37Rv-infected macrophages stimulated with VB5 to explore the effect of VB5 on the inflammatory and antibacterial responses of macrophages...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Fengchao Xu, Hongxiao Song, Qingfei Xiao, Na Li, Hong Zhang, Genhong Cheng, Guangyun Tan
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and its associated chronic infection remain serious health threats worldwide. However, there is still no impactful approach for clinical treatment of hepatitis B patients. Therefore, developing a better understanding of the interactions between HBV and its host is particularly important. HBV infection has been reported to induce type-III but not type-I or type-II interferon (IFN). In this study, we identified CBFβ, an HIV enhancer, as an HBV restriction factor that is specifically induced by type-III IFN in the early stages of HBV infection...
March 9, 2018: Cellular & Molecular Immunology
Tina Markus, David Ley, Stefan R Hansson, Tadeusz Wieloch, Karsten Ruscher
BACKGROUND: Labor subjects the fetus to an hypoxic episode and concomitant adrenomodullary catecholamine surge that may provide protection against the hypoxic insult. The beta1-adrenergic agonist dobutamine protects against hypoxia/aglycemia induced neuronal damage. We aimed to identify the associated protective biological processes involved. RESULTS: Hippocampal slices from 6 days old mice showed significant changes of gene expression comparing slices with or without dobutamine (50 mM) in the following two experimental paradigms: (1) control conditions versus lipopolysacharide (LPS) stimulation and (2) oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD), versus combined LPS/OGD...
March 9, 2018: BMC Neuroscience
Chong Huang, Xiao-Hua Yu, Xi-Long Zheng, Xiang Ou, Chao-Ke Tang
Macrophage autophagy contributes to the hydrolysis of cholesteryl ester into free cholesterol mainly for ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1)-dependent efflux. Interferon-stimulated gene 15 (ISG15) has been shown to regulate autophagy in multiple types of cells. The present study aimed to examine the effects of ISG15 on autophagy and cholesterol efflux in THP-1 macrophage-derived foam cells and to explore the underlying molecular mechanisms. Our results showed that overexpression of ISG15 promoted autophagy and cholesterol efflux and inhibited lipid accumulation without impact on ABCA1 expression...
March 5, 2018: European Journal of Pharmacology
Hiroyuki Nakayama, Kinya Otsu
Mitochondria play a central role in multiple cellular functions, including energy production, calcium homeostasis, and cell death. Currently, growing evidence indicates the vital roles of mitochondria in triggering and maintaining inflammation. Chronic inflammation without microbial infection - termed sterile inflammation - is strongly involved in the development of heart failure. Sterile inflammation is triggered by the activation of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) that sense endogenous ligands called damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs)...
March 6, 2018: Biochemical Journal
Ai-Ling Tian, MingMin Lu, Guillermo Calderón-Mantilla, Evangelia Petsalaki, Tania Dottorini, XiaoWei Tian, YuJian Wang, Si-Yang Huang, Jun-Ling Hou, XiangRui Li, Hany M Elsheikha, Xing-Quan Zhu
BACKGROUND: The molecular structure of Fasciola gigantica 14-3-3 protein has been characterized. However, the involvement of this protein in parasite pathogenesis remains elusive and its effect on the functions of innate immune cells is unknown. We report on the cloning and expression of a recombinant F. gigantica 14-3-3 epsilon protein (rFg14-3-3e), and testing its effects on specific functions of goat peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). METHODS: rFg14-3-3e protein was expressed in Pichia pastoris...
March 6, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Toshiya Takahashi, Nikhil Nitin Kulkarni, Ernest Y Lee, Ling-Juan Zhang, Gerard C L Wong, Richard L Gallo
Under homeostatic conditions the release of self-RNA from dying cells does not promote inflammation. However, following injury or inflammatory skin diseases such as psoriasis and rosacea, expression of the cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide LL37 breaks tolerance to self-nucleic acids and triggers inflammation. Here we report that LL37 enables keratinocytes and macrophages to recognize self-non-coding U1 RNA by facilitating binding to cell surface scavenger receptors that enable recognition by nucleic acid pattern recognition receptors within the cell...
March 5, 2018: Scientific Reports
Oya Cingöz, Stephen P Goff
Recognition of nucleic acids results in the production of type I IFNs, which activate the JAK/STAT pathway and promote the expression of IFN-stimulated genes. In a search for modulators of this pathway, we discovered an unexpected requirement for cyclin-dependent kinases (CDK) in the production of type I IFN following nucleic acid sensing and virus infection. Inhibition of CDK activity or knockdown of CDK levels leads to a striking block in STAT activation and IFN-stimulated gene expression. CDKs are not required for the initial nucleic acid sensing leading to IFN-β mRNA induction, nor for the response to exogenous IFN-α/β, but are critical for IFN-β release into culture supernatants, suggesting a posttranscriptional role for CDKs in type I IFN production...
March 5, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Dulshara Sachini Amarasekara, Hyeongseok Yun, Sumi Kim, Nari Lee, Hyunjong Kim, Jaerang Rho
Cytokines play a pivotal role in maintaining bone homeostasis. Osteoclasts (OCs), the sole bone resorbing cells, are regulated by numerous cytokines. Macrophage colony-stimulating factor and receptor activator of NF-κB ligand play a central role in OC differentiation, which is also termed osteoclastogenesis. Osteoclastogenic cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor-α, IL-1, IL-6, IL-7, IL-8, IL-11, IL-15, IL-17, IL-23, and IL-34, promote OC differentiation, whereas anti-osteoclastogenic cytokines, including interferon (IFN)-α, IFN-β, IFN-γ, IL-3, IL-4, IL-10, IL-12, IL-27, and IL-33, downregulate OC differentiation...
February 2018: Immune Network
Saba Valadkhan, Puri Fortes
The interferon (IFN) response is a critical component of the innate immunity antiviral pathways in mammalians. IFN signaling results in increased expression of cellular factors that block key steps in the viral replication cycle. Many IFN-induced antiviral factors act through decreasing viral entry, replication, transcription, translation, packaging and release. However, these effects are also deleterious for the viability of the cell, which necessitates a tight control over the magnitude and duration of the IFN response...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Elisa Fanunza, Aldo Frau, Marco Sgarbanti, Roberto Orsatti, Angela Corona, Enzo Tramontano
The interferon (IFN) system is the first line of defense against viral infections. Evasion of IFN signaling by Ebola viral protein 24 (VP24) is a critical event in the pathogenesis of the infection and, hence, VP24 is a potential target for drug development. Since no drugs target VP24, the identification of molecules able to inhibit VP24, restoring and possibly enhancing the IFN response, is a goal of concern. Accordingly, we developed a dual signal firefly and Renilla luciferase cell-based drug screening assay able to quantify IFN-mediated induction of Interferon Stimulated Genes (ISGs) and its inhibition by VP24...
February 24, 2018: Viruses
Mihyun Hwang, Cornelia C Bergmann
The contribution of distinct central nervous system (CNS) resident cells to protective IFNα/β function following viral infections is poorly understood. Based on numerous immune regulatory functions of astrocytes, we evaluated the contribution of astrocyte-IFNα/β signaling towards protection against a non-lethal glia- and neurono-tropic mouse hepatitis virus (MHV-A59). Analysis of gene expression associated with IFNα/β function, e.g. pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) and interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs) revealed lower basal mRNA levels in brain derived astrocytes compared to microglia...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Virology
Yamato Sajiki, Satoru Konnai, Tomohiro Okagawa, Asami Nishimori, Naoya Maekawa, Shinya Goto, Ryoyo Ikebuchi, Reiko Nagata, Satoko Kawaji, Yumiko Kagawa, Shinji Yamada, Yukinari Kato, Chie Nakajima, Yasuhiko Suzuki, Shiro Murata, Yasuyuki Mori, Kazuhiko Ohashi
Johne's disease, caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis , is a bovine chronic infection endemic in Japan and many other countries. The expression of immunoinhibitory molecules is upregulated in cattle with Johne's disease, but the mechanism of immunosuppression is poorly understood. Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 ) is immunosuppressive in humans, but few veterinary data are available. In this study, functional and kinetic analyses of PGE2 were performed to investigate the immunosuppressive effect of PGE2 during Johne's disease...
February 26, 2018: Infection and Immunity
Lei Li, Rongli Yang, Meijiang Feng, YiChen Guo, YuXuan Wang, Jun Guo, Xiang Lu
The retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I) is a crucial cytoplasmic pathogen recognition receptor involved in neuroinflammation in degenerative diseases. In the present study, in vitro human astrocytes were subjected to a chemical hypoxia model using cobalt chloride pretreatment. Chemical hypoxia induces the up-regulation of RIG-I in astrocytes and results in the expression of inflammatory cytokines IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α in an NF-κB dependent manner. Elevated RIG-I modulates the interaction of interferon-β promoter stimulator-1 (IPS-1) and TNF receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6) following chemical hypoxia...
February 20, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
Noriyuki Toji, Katsuo Koshi, Tadashi Furusawa, Toru Takahashi, Toshina Ishiguro-Oonuma, Keiichiro Kizaki, Kazuyoshi Hashizume
Interferon-tau (IFNT) is known as an early pregnancy recognition signal in ruminants. An accurate and convenient IFNT detection system is desirable for the diagnosis of endometrial and trophoblastic functions, including gestation status, in cows. The aim of this study was to develop a new cell-based assay, which involved the stable introduction of an interferon-stimulated gene promoter to a luciferase reporter system. The reactivity of four interferon-stimulated genes to IFNT in Madin-Darby bovine kidney (MDBK) cells was confirmed using reverse transcription-quantitative PCR...
2018: Biomedical Research
Anne Oberson, Lorenzo Spagnuolo, Viola Puddinu, Winfried Barchet, Karola Rittner, Carole Bourquin
Novel adjuvants are needed to increase the efficacy of vaccine formulations and immune therapies for cancer and chronic infections. In particular, adjuvants that promote a strong type I IFN response are required, since this cytokine is crucial for the development of efficient anti-tumoral and anti-viral immunity. Nucleic acid band 2 (NAB2) is a double-stranded RNA molecule isolated from yeast and identified as an agonist of the pattern-recognition receptors TLR3 and MDA-5. We compared the ability of NAB2 to activate innate immunity with that of poly(I:C), a well-characterized TLR3 and MDA-5 agonist known for the induction of type I IFN...
January 19, 2018: Oncotarget
Latifa Al-Haj, Khalid S A Khabar
The enzyme pyrimidine 5'-nucleotidase (NT5C3A), which mediates nucleotide catabolism, was previously thought to be restricted to blood cells. We showed that expression of the gene encoding NT5C3A was induced by type I interferons (IFNs) in multiple cell types and that NT5C3A suppressed cytokine production through inhibition of the nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) pathway. NT5C3A expression required both an intronic IFN-stimulated response element and the IFN-stimulated transcription factor IRF1. Overexpression of NT5C3A, but not of its catalytic mutants, suppressed IL-8 production by HEK293 cells...
February 20, 2018: Science Signaling
Ji-Seon Kang, Yune-Sahng Hwang, Lark Kyun Kim, Sujung Lee, Wook-Bin Lee, Jeongsil Kim-Ha, Young-Joon Kim
Oligoadenylate synthetase (OAS) protein family is the major interferon (IFN)-stimulated genes responsible for the activation of RNase L pathway upon viral infection. OAS-like (OASL) is also required for inhibition of viral growth in human cells, but the loss of one of its mouse homolog, OASL1, causes a severe defect in termination of type I interferon production. To further investigate the antiviral activity of OASL1, we examined its subcellular localization and regulatory roles in IFN production in the early and late stages of viral infection...
February 21, 2018: Molecules and Cells
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