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Innate lymphoid cells

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822770/regulation-of-autoimmune-myocarditis-by-host-responses-to-the-microbiome
#1
Jobert G Barin, Monica V Talor, Nicola L Diny, SuFey Ong, Julie A Schaub, Elizabeth Gebremariam, Djahida Bedja, Guobao Chen, Hee Sun Choi, Xuezhou Hou, Lei Wu, Ashley B Cardamone, Daniel A Peterson, Noel R Rose, Daniela Čiháková
The extensive, diverse communities that constitute the microbiome are increasingly appreciated as important regulators of human health and disease through inflammatory, immune, and metabolic pathways. We sought to elucidate pathways by which microbiota contribute to inflammatory, autoimmune cardiac disease. We employed an animal model of experimental autoimmune myocarditis (EAM), which results in inflammatory and autoimmune pathophysiology and subsequent maladaptive cardiac remodeling and heart failure. Antibiotic dysbiosis protected mice from EAM and fibrotic cardiac dysfunction...
August 16, 2017: Experimental and Molecular Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819104/der-f-31-a-novel-allergen-from-dermatophagoides-farinae-activates-epithelial-cells-and-enhances-lung-resident-group-2-innate-lymphoid-cells
#2
Hui Wang, Jianli Lin, Lu Zeng, Chunyan Ouyang, Pixin Ran, Pingchang Yang, Zhigang Liu
Airway epithelial cell-derived thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) and IL-33 can enhance lung-resident group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s), and they play an important role in the development of allergic diseases. This study tests the hypothesis that Der f 31 (Dermatophagoides farinae-31), an allergen, modulates airway epithelial cell functions and increases the frequency of lung ILC2s. Our previous research identified cofilin (Der f 31) as a novel allergen. In this study, we found that recombinant Der f 31 (r-Der f 31) upregulated the expression of co-stimulatory molecules in DCs and promoted Th2-skewed polarization...
August 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815219/conventional-nk-cells-and-ilc1-are-partially-ablated-in-the-livers-of-ncr1-icre-tbx21-fl-fl-mice
#3
Antonia O Cuff, Victoria Male
Mouse liver contains both Eomes-dependent conventional natural killer (cNK) cells and Tbet-dependent liver-resident type I innate lymphoid cells (ILC1). In order to better understand the role of ILC1, we attempted to generate mice that would lack liver ILC1, while retaining cNK, by conditional deletion of Tbet in NKp46+ cells. Here we report that the Ncr1 (iCre)Tbx21 (fl/fl) mouse has a roughly equivalent reduction in both the cNK and ILC1 compartments of the liver, limiting its utility for investigating the relative contributions of these two cell types in disease models...
2017: Wellcome Open Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814067/neuro-immune-interactions-in-allergic-diseases-novel-targets-for-therapeutics
#4
Tiphaine Voisin, Amélie Bouvier, Isaac M Chiu
Recent studies have highlighted an emerging role for neuro-immune interactions in mediating allergic diseases. Allergies are caused by an overactive immune response to a foreign antigen. The peripheral sensory and autonomic nervous system densely innervates mucosal barrier tissues including the skin, respiratory tract and gastrointestinal (GI) tract that are exposed to allergens. It is increasingly clear that neurons actively communicate with and regulate the function of mast cells, dendritic cells, eosinophils, Th2 cells and type 2 innate lymphoid cells in allergic inflammation...
June 1, 2017: International Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812393/innate-lymphoid-cells-the-role-in-respiratory-infections-and-lung-tissue-damage
#5
Anna Głobińska, Marek L Kowalski
Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) represent a diverse family of cells of the innate immune system, which play an important role in regulation of tissue homeostasis, immunity and inflammation. Emerging evidence has highlighted the importance of ILCs in both protective immunity to respiratory infections and their pathological roles in the lungs. Therefore, the aim of this review is to summarize the current knowledge, interpret and integrate it into broader perspective, enabling greater insight into the role of ILCs in respiratory diseases...
August 16, 2017: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811323/il-22-induces-reg3%C3%AE-and-inhibits-allergic-inflammation-in-house-dust-mite-induced-asthma-models
#6
Takashi Ito, Koichi Hirose, Aiko Saku, Kenta Kono, Hiroaki Takatori, Tomohiro Tamachi, Yoshiyuki Goto, Jean-Christophe Renauld, Hiroshi Kiyono, Hiroshi Nakajima
Previous studies have shown that IL-22, one of the Th17 cell-related cytokines, plays multiple roles in regulating allergic airway inflammation caused by antigen-specific Th2 cells; however, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. Here, we show that allergic airway inflammation and Th2 and Th17 cytokine production upon intratracheal administration of house dust mite (HDM) extract, a representative allergen, were exacerbated in IL-22-deficient mice. We also found that IL-22 induces Reg3γ production from lung epithelial cells through STAT3 activation and that neutralization of Reg3γ significantly exacerbates HDM-induced eosinophilic airway inflammation and Th2 cytokine induction...
August 15, 2017: Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808975/isolation-of-group-2-innate-lymphoid-cells-from-mouse-lungs
#7
Claudia U Duerr, Jörg H Fritz
The recently described group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2) exert critical roles in type 2 immune responses, epithelial repair at mucosal tissues and metabolic homeostasis. ILC2 release large amounts of type 2 cytokines such as interleukin 4 (IL-4), IL-5, and IL-13, driving type 2 immunity such as the defense against helminths. However, if not tightly regulated ILC2 can trigger unwanted type 2 immunopathologies including allergic airway inflammation, airway hyper-responsiveness, and atopic dermatitis. Viral respiratory tract infections, archetypal triggers of type 1 immune responses, often give rise to pulmonary type 2 immunopathologies such as asthma and asthma exacerbations...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805812/t-bet-dependent-nkp46-innate-lymphoid-cells-regulate-the-onset-of-th17-induced-neuroinflammation
#8
Brandon Kwong, Rejane Rua, Yuanyuan Gao, John Flickinger, Yan Wang, Michael J Kruhlak, Jinfang Zhu, Eric Vivier, Dorian B McGavern, Vanja Lazarevic
The transcription factor T-bet has been associated with increased susceptibility to systemic and organ-specific autoimmunity, but the mechanism by which T-bet expression promotes neuroinflammation remains unknown. In this study, we demonstrate a cardinal role of T-bet-dependent NKp46(+) innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) in the initiation of CD4(+) TH17-mediated neuroinflammation. Loss of T-bet specifically in NKp46(+) ILCs profoundly impaired the ability of myelin-reactive TH17 cells to invade central nervous system (CNS) tissue and protected the mice from autoimmunity...
August 14, 2017: Nature Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805251/wiskott-aldrich-syndrome-protein-emerging-mechanisms-in-immunity
#9
REVIEW
Elizabeth Rivers, Adrian J Thrasher
The Wiskott Aldrich syndrome protein (WASP) participates in innate and adaptive immunity through regulation of actin cytoskeleton-dependent cellular processes, including immune synapse formation, cell signaling, migration and cytokine release. There is also emerging evidence for a direct role in nuclear transcription programmes uncoupled from actin polymerization. A deeper understanding of some of the more complex features of Wiskott Aldrich syndrome (WAS) itself, such as the associated autoimmunity and inflammation, has come from identification of defects in the number and function of anti-inflammatory myeloid cells and regulatory T and B cells, as well as defects in positive and negative B-cell selection...
August 14, 2017: European Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805019/cd11b-gr1-dim-tolerogenic-dendritic-cell-like-cells-are-expanded-in-interstitial-lung-disease-in-skg-mice
#10
Sho Sendo, Jun Saegusa, Takaichi Okano, Soshi Takahashi, Kengo Akashi, Akio Morinobu
OBJECTIVE: SKG mice develop interstitial lung disease (ILD) resembling rheumatoid arthritis-associated ILD (RA-ILD) in human. The aim of this study is to clarify the mechanism behind the lung pathology by analyzing the lung-infiltrating cells in ILD of SKG mice. METHODS: We assessed the severity of zymosan A (ZyA)-induced ILD in SKG mice histologically, and examined lung-infiltrating cells by flow cytometry. Total lung cells and isolated monocytic myeloid-derived suppressor cells (M-MDSCs) were cultured in vitro with GM-CSF (and IL-4)...
August 13, 2017: Arthritis & Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804130/innate-lymphoid-cells-major-players-in-inflammatory-diseases
#11
REVIEW
Mikaël Ebbo, Adeline Crinier, Frédéric Vély, Eric Vivier
Recent years have seen a marked increase in our understanding of innate lymphoid cells (ILCs). ILCs can be classified into different groups based on their similarity to T cell subsets in terms of their expression of key transcription factors and cytokine production. Various immunological functions of ILCs have been described, and increasing numbers of studies have implicated these cells in inflammatory disorders. Here, we detail the roles of ILCs in inflammatory diseases; we cover type 2 inflammatory diseases (such as asthma, chronic rhinosinusitis and atopic dermatitis), as well as inflammatory bowel diseases, psoriasis and other systemic or organ-specific inflammatory and autoimmune diseases...
August 14, 2017: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802693/diversity-of-tissue-resident-nk-cells
#12
REVIEW
Hui Peng, Zhigang Tian
Although natural killer (NK) cells were initially named for their spontaneous tumor-killing capacity, their concept has been greatly expanded with more than 40 years of extensive investigation. Currently, NK cells are known as a heterogeneous population of innate lymphoid cell (ILC) family, consisting of different subsets with unique phenotypic and functional features. Recent studies have shown that tissue-resident NK (trNK) cells, which are distinct from conventional NK (cNK) cells, preferentially distribute in non-lymphoid tissues, such as the liver, uterus, salivary gland, and adipose...
August 9, 2017: Seminars in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796840/yes-research-matters
#13
Mari L Shinohara
My father was diagnosed with stomach cancer recently. Luckily, it was still at an early stage, and endoscopic surgery successfully took care of it. My father was fortunate; since people with stomach cancer do not show clear symptoms in the early stages, the disease is often not diagnosed until it becomes advanced. In his case, the diagnosis started from a suggestion by his doctor to check whether he had a gastric infection with Helicobacter pylori, a bacterial species found in the digestive tract. In Japan, where he lives, a majority of gastric cancer patients (more than 99%) have been infected with H...
August 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794449/il-7r%C3%AE-glutamylation-and-activation-of-transcription-factor-sall3-promote-group-3-ilc-development
#14
Benyu Liu, Buqing Ye, Xiaoxiao Zhu, Guanling Huang, Liuliu Yang, Pingping Zhu, Ying Du, Jiayi Wu, Shu Meng, Yong Tian, Zusen Fan
Group 3 innate lymphoid cells (ILC3) promote lymphoid organogenesis and potentiate immune responses against bacterial infection. However, how ILC3 cells are developed and maintained is still unclear. Here, we show that carboxypeptidase CCP2 is highly expressed in common helper-like innate lymphoid progenitors, the progenitor of innate lymphoid cells, and CCP2 deficiency increases ILC3 numbers. Interleukin-7 receptor subunit alpha (IL-7Rα) is identified as a substrate of CCP2 for deglutamylation, and IL-7Rα polyglutamylation is catalyzed by polyglutamylases TTLL4 and TTLL13 in common helper-like innate lymphoid progenitors...
August 10, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794234/deep-immune-profiling-of-an-arginine-enriched-nutritional-intervention-in-patients-undergoing-surgery
#15
Nima Aghaeepour, Cindy Kin, Edward A Ganio, Kent P Jensen, Dyani K Gaudilliere, Martha Tingle, Amy Tsai, Hope L Lancero, Benjamin Choisy, Leslie S McNeil, Robin Okada, Andrew A Shelton, Garry P Nolan, Martin S Angst, Brice L Gaudilliere
Application of high-content immune profiling technologies has enormous potential to advance medicine. Whether these technologies reveal pertinent biology when implemented in interventional clinical trials is an important question. The beneficial effects of preoperative arginine-enriched dietary supplements (AES) are highly context specific, as they reduce infection rates in elective surgery, but possibly increase morbidity in critically ill patients. This study combined single-cell mass cytometry with the multiplex analysis of relevant plasma cytokines to comprehensively profile the immune-modifying effects of this much-debated intervention in patients undergoing surgery...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792532/continuous-il-23-stimulation-drives-ilc3-depletion-in-the-upper-gi-tract-and-in-combination-with-tnf%C3%AE-induces-robust-activation-and-a-phenotypic-switch-of-ilc3
#16
Amanda M Schmidt Paustian, Jesus Paez-Cortez, Shaughn Bryant, Susan Westmoreland, Wendy Waegell, Gillian Kingsbury
Mutations in the Interleukin (IL)-23/IL-23 receptor loci are associated with increased inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) susceptibility, and IL-23 neutralization has shown efficacy in early clinical trials. To better understand how an excess of IL-23 affects the gastrointestinal tract, we investigated chronic systemic IL-23 exposure in healthy wildtype mice. As expected, IL-23 exposure resulted in early activation of intestinal type 3 innate lymphoid cells (ILC3), followed by infiltration of activated RORγt+ T helper cells...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791025/the-ido-ahr-axis-controls-th17-treg-immunity-in-a-pulmonary-model-of-fungal-infection
#17
Eliseu Frank de Araújo, Claudia Feriotti, Nayane Alves de Lima Galdino, Nycolas Willian Preite, Vera Lúcia Garcia Calich, Flávio Vieira Loures
In infectious diseases, the enzyme indoleamine 2,3 dioxygenase-1 (IDO1) that catalyzes the tryptophan (Trp) degradation along the kynurenines (Kyn) pathway has two main functions, the control of pathogen growth by reducing available Trp and immune regulation mediated by the Kyn-mediated expansion of regulatory T (Treg) cells via aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). In pulmonary paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) caused by the dimorphic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, IDO1 was shown to control the disease severity of both resistant and susceptible mice to the infection; however, only in resistant mice, IDO1 is induced by TGF-β signaling that confers a stable tolerogenic phenotype to dendritic cells (DCs)...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783701/ppar-%C3%AE-promotes-type-2-immune-responses-in-allergy-and-nematode-infection
#18
Ting Chen, Christopher A Tibbitt, Xiaogang Feng, Julian M Stark, Leona Rohrbeck, Lisa Rausch, Saikiran K Sedimbi, Mikael C I Karlsson, Bart N Lambrecht, Gunilla B Karlsson Hedestam, Rudi W Hendriks, Benedict J Chambers, Susanne Nylén, Jonathan M Coquet
A hallmark of immunity to worm infections and many allergies is a strong type 2 immune response. This is characterized by the production of cytokines interleukin-5 (IL-5) and IL-13 by adaptive T helper 2 (TH2) cells and/or type 2 innate lymphoid cells. Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ) is typically regarded as an anti-inflammatory factor. We report that TH2 cells express high levels of PPAR-γ in response to the allergen house dust mite and after infection with the parasite Heligmosomoides polygyrus Mice lacking PPAR-γ in T cells failed to effectively differentiate into IL-5- and IL-13-secreting cells and, hence, did not develop TH2 cell-associated pathologies, including goblet cell metaplasia and eosinophilia, in response to allergen challenge...
March 10, 2017: Science Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783693/primary-immunodeficiencies-suggest-redundancy-within-the-human-immune-system
#19
REVIEW
Alain Fischer, Antonio Rausell
Pathogen-driven evolution has shaped the complexity of the human immune system. Our genome contains at least 1854 gene products involved in immune responses. However, the redundancy and robustness of the immune system need further characterization. One way to examine this redundancy is through the study of monogenic primary immunodeficiencies (PIDs) associated with infections. Causal mutations affecting innate immunity genes are, in relative terms, close to seven times less frequent than those affecting adaptive immunity genes in PIDs...
December 23, 2016: Science Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783681/the-orphan-nuclear-receptor-ror%C3%AE-and-group-3-innate-lymphoid-cells-drive-fibrosis-in-a-mouse-model-of-crohn-s-disease
#20
Bernard C Lo, Matthew J Gold, Michael R Hughes, Frann Antignano, Yanet Valdez, Colby Zaph, Kenneth W Harder, Kelly M McNagny
Fibrosis is the result of dysregulated tissue regeneration and is characterized by excessive accumulation of matrix proteins that become detrimental to tissue function. In Crohn's disease, this manifests itself as recurrent gastrointestinal strictures for which there is no effective therapy beyond surgical intervention. Using a model of infection-induced chronic gut inflammation, we show that Rora-deficient mice are protected from fibrosis; infected intestinal tissues display diminished pathology, attenuated collagen deposition, and reduced fibroblast accumulation...
September 2, 2016: Science Immunology
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