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Innate lymphoid cells

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675689/natural-killer-cells-in-liver-diseases
#1
REVIEW
Meijuan Zheng, Haoyu Sun, Zhigang Tian
The liver has been characterized as a frontline lymphoid organ with complex immunological features such as liver immunity and liver tolerance. Liver tolerance plays an important role in liver diseases including acute inflammation, chronic infection, autoimmune disease, and tumors. The liver contains a large proportion of natural killer (NK) cells, which exhibit heterogeneity in phenotypic and functional characteristics. NK cell activation, well known for its role in the immune surveillance against tumor and pathogen-infected cells, depends on the balance between numerous activating and inhibitory signals...
April 19, 2018: Frontiers of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675018/contribution-to-tumor-angiogenesis-from-innate-immune-cells-within-the-tumor-microenvironment-implications-for-immunotherapy
#2
REVIEW
Adriana Albini, Antonino Bruno, Douglas M Noonan, Lorenzo Mortara
The critical role of angiogenesis in promoting tumor growth and metastasis is strongly established. However, tumors show considerable variation in angiogenic characteristics and in their sensitivity to antiangiogenic therapy. Tumor angiogenesis involves not only cancer cells but also various tumor-associated leukocytes (TALs) and stromal cells. TALs produce chemokines, cytokines, proteases, structural proteins, and microvescicles. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and inflammatory chemokines are not only major proangiogenic factors but are also immune modulators, which increase angiogenesis and lead to immune suppression...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672927/interleukin-33-contributes-to-ilc2-activation-and-early-inflammation-associated-lung-injury-during-abdominal-sepsis
#3
Hui Xu, Jing Xu, Li Xu, Shuqing Jin, Heth R Turnquist, Rosemary Hoffman, Patricia Loughran, Timothy R Billiar, Meihong Deng
Sepsis is defined as infection with organ dysfunction due to a dysregulated immune response. The lung is one of the most vulnerable organs at the onset of sepsis. Interleukin-33 (IL-33) can be released by injured epithelial and endothelial cells in the lung and regulate immune activation and infiltration. Therefore, we postulated that IL-33 would contribute to the immune response in the lung during sepsis. Using the cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) sepsis model, we show here that IL-33 contributes significantly to both sepsis-induced inflammation in the lung and systemic inflammatory response in the early phase of sepsis...
April 19, 2018: Immunology and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671873/t-cell-derived-ifn-%C3%AE-downregulates-protective-group-2-innate-lymphoid-cells-in-murine-lupus-erythematosus
#4
Mathis Düster, Martina Becker, Ann-Christin Gnirck, Malte Wunderlich, Ulf Panzer, Jan-Eric Turner
Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are important regulators of the immune response and play a crucial role in the restoration of tissue homeostasis after injury. GATA-3+ IL-13- and IL-5-producing group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) have been shown to promote tissue repair in barrier organs, but despite extensive research on ILCs in the recent years, their potential role in autoimmune diseases is still incompletely understood. In the present study, we investigate the role of ILC2s in the MRL/MpJ-Faslpr (MRL-lpr) mouse model for severe organ manifestation of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)...
April 19, 2018: European Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670611/advances-in-biomarker-guided-therapy-for-pediatric-and-adult-onset-neuroinflammatory-disorders-targeting-chemokines-cytokines
#5
REVIEW
Michael R Pranzatelli
The concept and recognized components of "neuroinflammation" are expanding at the intersection of neurobiology and immunobiology. Chemokines (CKs), no longer merely necessary for immune cell trafficking and positioning, have multiple physiologic, developmental, and modulatory functionalities in the central nervous system (CNS) through neuron-glia interactions and other mechanisms affecting neurotransmission. They issue the "help me" cry of neurons and astrocytes in response to CNS injury, engaging invading lymphoid cells (T cells and B cells) and myeloid cells (dendritic cells, monocytes, and neutrophils) (adaptive immunity), as well as microglia and macrophages (innate immunity), in a cascade of events, some beneficial (reparative), others destructive (excitotoxic)...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661825/nkp46-calibrates-tumoricidal-potential-of-type-1-innate-lymphocytes-by-regulating-trail-expression
#6
Gleb Turchinovich, Stefan Ganter, Anne Bärenwaldt, Daniela Finke
NK cells are a subset of group 1 innate lymphocytes that recognize and eliminate virus-infected and transformed cells. During the course of their development, NK cells acquire a repertoire of activating and inhibitory receptors, which ultimately define their reactivity against target cells. The array of receptors and their specificity during early developmental stages will control and imprint functional properties of NK cells, a process known as "NK cell education." Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are a diverse group of lymphocytes, which, like NK cells, do not rely on somatically rearranged Ag receptors for recognition...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661806/daclizumab-therapy-for-multiple-sclerosis
#7
Bibiana Bielekova
Daclizumab is a humanized monoclonal antibody that prevents formation of high-affinity interleukin (IL)-2 receptor (IL-2R). Because activated T cells up-regulate high-affinity IL-2R and IL-2 is used to grow activated T cells in vitro, daclizumab was envisioned to selectively inhibit activated T cells. However, the mechanism of action (MOA) of daclizumab is surprisingly broad and it includes many unanticipated effects on innate immunity. Specifically, daclizumab modulates the development of innate lymphoid cells, leading to expansion of immunoregulatory CD56bright natural killer (NK) cells...
April 16, 2018: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29648628/the-serosal-immune-system-of-the-thorax-in-toxicology
#8
C Frieke Kuper, Jolanda van Bilsen, Marcel V W Wijnands
The thoracic cavities receive increasing attention in toxicology, because inhaled fibers and (nano)particles can reach these cavities and challenge the local lymphoid tissues. The thoracic and abdominopelvic cavities are controlled by the serosal immune system with its special, loosely organized lymphoid clusters, namely the fat-associated lymphoid clusters (FALCs) and milky spots, which together can be denoted as serosa-associated lymphoid clusters (SALCs). These clusters house numerous innate lymphoid cells, namely the B1 and ILC2 populations...
April 10, 2018: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29645082/soluble-st2-sst2-regulation-by-rhinovirus-rv-and-25-oh-vitamin-d3-in-the-blood-of-asthmatic-children
#9
Patricia Haag, Himanshu Sharma, Manfred Rauh, Theodor Zimmermann, Tytti Vuorinen, Nikolaos G Papadopoulos, Scott T Weiss, Susetta Finotto
Paediatric asthma exacerbations are often caused by Rhinovirus (RV). Moreover, 25(OH)-Vitamin D3 (=25(OH) VitD3) deficiency during infancy was found associated with asthma. Here, we investigated the innate immune responses to RV and their possible modulation by 25(OH) VitD3 serum levels in a preschool cohort of children with and without asthma. The innate lymphoid cell type 2 (ILC2)-associated marker, ST2 was found upregulated in the blood cells of asthmatic children with low serum levels of 25(OH)VitD3 in the absence of RV in their airways...
April 12, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628464/-development-of-the-next-generation-humanized-mouse-for-drug-discovery
#10
Ryoji Ito
A humanized mouse, which is efficiently engrafted human cells and tissues, is an important tool to mimic human physiology for biomedical researches. Since 2000s, severe combined immunodeficient mouse strains such as NOG, BRG, and NSG mice have been generated. They are great recipients to create humanized mouse models compared to previous other immunodeficient strains due to their multiple dysfunctions of innate and acquired immunity. Especially, the transfer of human hematopoietic stem cells into these immunodeficient mice has been enabled to reconstitute human immune systems, because the mice show high engraftment level of human leukocyte in peripheral blood (~50%), spleen and bone marrow (60~90%) and generate well-differentiated multilineage human immune cells including lymphoid and myeloid lineage cells...
2018: Nihon Yakurigaku Zasshi. Folia Pharmacologica Japonica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627479/classical-swine-fever-virus-induces-pyroptosis-in-the-peripheral-lymphoid-organs-of-infected-pigs
#11
Jin Yuan, Mengjiao Zhu, Shaofeng Deng, Shuangqi Fan, Hailuan Xu, Jiedan Liao, Peng Li, Jingfang Zheng, Mingqiu Zhao, Jinding Chen
Classical swine fever virus (CSFV) causes a highly lethal disease in pigs, which is characterized by immunosuppression. Leukopenia is known to be a possible mechanism of immunosuppression during CSFV infection. As a new and specialized form of cell death, pyroptosis is the key response of the innate immune system to pathogens, and is widely involved in the occurrence and development of infectious diseases. However, the relationship between CSFV and pyroptosis has not been explored. In this study, we investigated the occurrence of pyroptosis in pigs following CSFV infection...
April 5, 2018: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626211/targeting-cytokines-to-treat-asthma-and-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#12
REVIEW
Peter J Barnes
Cytokines play a key role in orchestrating and perpetuating the chronic airway inflammation in asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), making them attractive targets for treating these disorders. Asthma and some cases of COPD are mainly driven by type 2 immune responses, which comprise increased airway eosinophils, T helper 2 (TH 2) cells and group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) and the secretion of IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13. Clinical trials of antibodies that block these interleukins have shown reduced acute exacerbations and oral corticosteroid use and improvements in lung function and symptoms in selected patients...
April 6, 2018: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625134/il-17-producing-st2-ilc2-plays-a-pathogenic-role-in-lung-inflammation
#13
Ting Cai, Jinxin Qiu, Yan Ji, Wenjing Li, Zhaoyun Ding, Caixia Suo, Jiali Chang, Jingjing Wang, Rui He, Youcun Qian, Xiaohuan Guo, Liang Zhou, Huiming Sheng, Lei Shen, Ju Qiu
BACKGROUND: IL-17 plays a pathogenic role in asthma. ST2- iILC2s (inflammatory group 2 innate lymphoid cells) driven by IL-25 can produce IL-17, while ST2+ nILC2s (natural ILC2s) produce few IL-17. OBJECTIVE: We characterized the ST2+ IL-17+ ILC2s during lung inflammation and determined the pathogenesis and molecular regulation of ST2+ IL-17+ ILC2s. METHODS: Lung inflammation was induced by papain or IL-33. IL-17 production by lung ILC2s from wild-type, Rag1-/- , Rorcgfp/gfp and Ahr-/- mice was examined by flow cytometry...
April 3, 2018: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623414/ilc2s-in-infectious-diseases-and-organ-specific-fibrosis
#14
REVIEW
Markus Kindermann, Lisa Knipfer, Imke Atreya, Stefan Wirtz
Type 2 immune responses evolved to provide host protection against parasitic infections and to support the repair of infection-induced tissue injury. However, persistent chronic organ damage can result in dysregulated production of critical type 2 cytokines supporting tissue remodeling and fibrosis development. Recently, group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) were newly described as central innate mediators of type 2 responses. In particular, by secretion of the cytokines IL-5, IL-9, and IL-13 and the growth factor amphiregulin in response to the release of tissue-derived alarmins, ILC2s have been shown to substantially contribute to both the dismissal of metazoan parasites and the repair of infection-dependent or sterile tissue damage...
March 26, 2018: Seminars in Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623077/influenza-activated-ilc1s-contribute-to-antiviral-immunity-partially-influenced-by-differential-gitr-expression
#15
Neha Vashist, Stephanie Trittel, Thomas Ebensen, Benedict J Chambers, Carlos A Guzmán, Peggy Riese
Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) represent diversified subsets of effector cells as well as immune regulators of mucosal immunity and are classified into group 1 ILCs, group 2 ILCs, and group 3 ILCs. Group 1 ILCs encompass natural killer (NK) cells and non-NK ILCs (ILC1s) and mediate their functionality via the rapid production of IFN-γ and TNF-α. The current knowledge of ILC1s mainly associates them to inflammatory processes. Much less is known about their regulation during infection and their capacity to interact with cells of the adaptive immune system...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29619025/mast-cells-and-innate-lymphoid-cells-underappreciated-players-in-cns-autoimmune-demyelinating-disease
#16
REVIEW
Melissa A Brown, Rebecca B Weinberg
Multiple sclerosis (MS) and its mouse model, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, are autoimmune CNS inflammatory diseases. As a result of a breakdown in the relatively impermeable blood-brain barrier (BBB) in affected individuals, myelin-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cells gain entry into the immune privileged CNS and initiate myelin, oligodendrocyte, and nerve axon destruction. However, despite the absolute requirement for T cells, there is increasing evidence that innate immune cells also play critical amplifying roles in disease pathogenesis...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29617184/targeting-interleukin-22-for-cancer-therapy
#17
Anamarija Markota, Stefan Endres, Sebastian Kobold
Interleukin-22 (IL-22) is a member of IL-10 family of cytokines. IL-22 induces proliferative and anti-apoptotic signaling pathways and production of anti-microbial molecules that enhance tissue regeneration and host defense. IL-22 has also been identified as a cancer-promoting cytokine since deregulation of the IL-22-IL-22R1 system is linked to different cancer entities including lung, breast, gastric, pancreatic and colon cancers. T cells and innate lymphoid cells are the main cellular sources of IL-22. Expression of its specific receptor IL-22R1 is restricted to the non-hematopoietic cells which makes the IL-22-IL-22R1 pathway an attractive target for anti-cancer therapy...
April 4, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29616220/the-role-of-immune-and-inflammatory-cells-in-idiopathic-pulmonary-fibrosis
#18
REVIEW
Omkar Desai, Julia Winkler, Maksym Minasyan, Erica L Herzog
The contribution of the immune system to idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) remains poorly understood. While most sources agree that IPF does not result from a primary immunopathogenic mechanism, evidence gleaned from animal modeling and human studies suggests that innate and adaptive immune processes can orchestrate existing fibrotic responses. This review will synthesize the available data regarding the complex role of professional immune cells in IPF. The role of innate immune populations such as monocytes, macrophages, myeloid suppressor cells, and innate lymphoid cells will be discussed, as will the activation of these cells via pathogen-associated molecular patterns derived from invading or commensural microbes, and danger-associated molecular patterns derived from injured cells and tissues...
2018: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29607331/receptors-that-inhibit-macrophage-activation-mechanisms-and-signals-of-regulation-and-tolerance
#19
REVIEW
Ranferi Ocaña-Guzman, Luis Vázquez-Bolaños, Isabel Sada-Ovalle
A variety of receptors perform the function of attenuating or inhibiting activation of cells in which they are expressed. Examples of these kinds of receptors include TIM-3 and PD-1, among others that have been widely studied in cells of lymphoid origin and, though to a lesser degree, in other cell lines. Today, several studies describe the function of these molecules as part of the diverse mechanisms of immune tolerance that exist in the immune system. This review analyzes the function of some of these proteins in monocytes and macrophages and as well as their participation as inhibitory molecules or elements of immunological tolerance that also act in innate defense mechanisms...
2018: Journal of Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29606855/benralizumab-in-the-treatment-of-severe-asthma-design-development-and-potential-place-in-therapy
#20
REVIEW
Corrado Pelaia, Alessandro Vatrella, Andrea Bruni, Rosa Terracciano, Girolamo Pelaia
Asthma is a widespread and heterogeneous inflammatory disease of the airways, which is characterized by several different phenotypes and endotypes. In particular, eosinophilic airway inflammation is a common pathologic trait of both allergic and nonallergic asthma. The key cytokine responsible for maturation, activation, recruitment, and survival of eosinophils is interleukin (IL)-5, which is mainly produced by T helper 2 (Th2) lymphocytes and group 2 innate lymphoid cells. Therefore, for uncontrolled patients with severe eosinophilic asthma, who are not fully responsive to corticosteroids, IL-5 represents a very important molecular target for add-on biological therapies...
2018: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
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