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Innate lymphoid cells

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457302/innate-lymphoid-cells-at-the-human-maternal-fetal-interface-in-spontaneous-preterm-labor
#1
Yi Xu, Roberto Romero, Derek Miller, Pablo Silva, Bogdan Panaitescu, Kevin R Theis, Afrah Arif, Sonia S Hassan, Nardhy Gomez-Lopez
PROBLEM: Pathological inflammation is causally linked to preterm labor and birth, the leading cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality worldwide. Our aims were to investigate whether (i) the newly described family of innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) was present at the human maternal-fetal interface and (ii) ILC inflammatory subsets were associated with the pathological process of preterm labor. METHODS OF STUDY: Decidual leukocytes were isolated from women with preterm or term labor as well as from gestational age-matched non-labor controls...
February 19, 2018: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology: AJRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457268/the-lymphoid-cell-network-in-the-skin
#2
REVIEW
Shweta Tikoo, Rohit Jain, Angela R M Kurz, Wolfgang Weninger
Cutaneous immunity represents a crucial component of the mammalian immune response. The presence of a large array of commensal microorganisms along with a myriad of environmental stresses necessitates constant immuno-surveillance of the tissue. To achieve a perfect balance between immune-tolerance and immune-activation, the skin harbours strategically localised immune cell populations that modulate these responses. To maintain homeostasis, innate and adaptive immune cells assimilate microenvironmental cues and coordinate cellular and molecular functions in a spatiotemporal manner...
February 19, 2018: Immunology and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455358/the-use-of-biomarkers-to-predict-aero-allergen-and-food-immunotherapy-responses
#3
REVIEW
Sayantani B Sindher, Andrew Long, Swati Acharya, Vanitha Sampath, Kari C Nadeau
The incidence of allergic conditions has continued to rise over the past several decades, with a growing body of research dedicated toward the treatment of such conditions. By driving a complex range of changes in the underlying immune response, immunotherapy is the only therapy that modulates the immune system with long-term effects and is presently utilized for the treatment of several atopic conditions. Recent efforts have focused on identifying biomarkers associated with these changes that may be of use in predicting patients with the highest likelihood of positive clinical outcomes during allergen immunotherapy (AIT), providing guidance regarding AIT discontinuation, and predicting symptomatic relapse and the need for booster AIT after therapy...
February 17, 2018: Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454785/lymphoid-tissue-inducer-a-divergent-member-of-the-ilc-family
#4
REVIEW
Chao Zhong, Mingzhu Zheng, Jinfang Zhu
Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) that are capable of producing effector cytokines reminiscent of CD4+ T helper (Th) cells during infections and tissue inflammations have drawn much attention in the immunology field in recent years. Within the ILCs, the lymphoid tissue inducer (LTi) cells that play a critical role in lymphoid organogenesis were identified long before the establishment of the ILC concept. LTi cells, developed and functioning mainly at the fetal stage, and LTi-like cells, presumably generated during the adulthood, are regarded as a subset of type 3 ILCs (ILC3s) because they express the ILC3 lineage-defining transcription factor RORγt, and like other ILC3s, can produce an ILC3 signature cytokine IL-22 and initiate protective immune responses against extracellular bacteria...
February 13, 2018: Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453977/amelioration-of-progressive-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis-by-epigenetic-regulation-involves-selective-repression-of-mature-neutrophils-during-the-preclinical-phase
#5
Arathi Jayaraman, Monica Sharma, Bellur Prabhakar, Mark Holterman, Sundararajan Jayaraman
We have recently demonstrated that treatment of NOD mice with the epigenetic drug Trichostatin A (TSA) ameliorated myelin peptide induced progressive experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (P-EAE). Protection was accompanied by induction of antigen-specific T-cell tolerance in the periphery and reduced the influx of T cells into the spinal cord. In this investigation, we examined whether the epigenetic drug could impact the innate immune system as well. Whereas the mature (MHC class II + ) CD11b + Ly-6G + neutrophils expanded substantially in the peripheral lymphoid compartment during the preclinical phase, the MHC class II + , CD11b + Ly-6C + mature monocytes increased modestly throughout the disease course...
February 14, 2018: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452963/chemical-sensing-in-development-and-function-of-intestinal-lymphocytes
#6
REVIEW
Luisa Cervantes-Barragan, Marco Colonna
The immune system of the intestinal tract has the challenging task of recognizing and eliminating intestinal pathogens while maintaining tolerance to dietary and commensal antigens; therefore, it must be able to sense environmental cues within the intestine and mount suitable responses dictated by their pathogenic or nonpathogenic nature. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) was originally characterized as a chemical sensor of the environmental pollutant 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) [12]. More recently, AHR has emerged as a major chemical sensor expressed in many intestinal immune cells that enables them to distinguish nutritional and microbial cues and is, therefore, important for development, maintenance and function of the intestinal immune system...
February 13, 2018: Current Opinion in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452935/e3-ligase-vhl-promotes-group-2-innate-lymphoid-cell-maturation-and-function-via-glycolysis-inhibition-and-induction-of-interleukin-33-receptor
#7
Qian Li, Dulei Li, Xian Zhang, Qingqing Wan, Wen Zhang, Mingke Zheng, Le Zou, Chris Elly, Jee H Lee, Yun-Cai Liu
Group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) are a specialized subset of lymphoid effector cells that are critically involved in allergic responses; however, the mechanisms of their regulation remain unclear. We report that conditional deletion of the E3 ubiquitin ligase VHL in innate lymphoid progenitors minimally affected early-stage bone marrow ILC2s but caused a selective and intrinsic decrease in mature ILC2 numbers in peripheral non-lymphoid tissues, resulting in reduced type 2 immune responses. VHL deficiency caused the accumulation of hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF1α) and attenuated interleukin-33 (IL-33) receptor ST2 expression, which was rectified by HIF1α ablation or inhibition...
February 6, 2018: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449864/seasonal-variation-in-circulating-group-2-innate-lymphoid-cells-in-mugwort-allergic-asthmatics-during-and-outside-pollen-season
#8
Qing Miao, Yan Wang, Yong-Ge Liu, Yi-Xin Ren, Hui Guan, Zhen Li, Wei Xu, Li Xiang
Background: Group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) are a newly identified cell population with the potent capability to produce Th2-type cytokines in a non-antigen specific manner. Previous study demonstrated that enhanced circulating ILC2s in cat-allergic patient after experimental allergen challenge, whereas the effects of natural allergen exposure on peripheral ILC2s are still unclear. We therefore examined the variations in circulating ILC2s among asthmatic patients sensitized to different allergens in- and outside- pollen season...
2018: Allergy, Asthma, and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29440650/type-2-innate-lymphocytes-actuate-immunity-against-tumours-and-limit-cancer-metastasis
#9
Iryna Saranchova, Jeffrey Han, Rysa Zaman, Hitesh Arora, Hui Huang, Franz Fenninger, Kyung Bok Choi, Lonna Munro, Cheryl G Pfeifer, Ian Welch, Fumio Takei, Wilfred A Jefferies
Type 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2) potentiate immune responses, however, their role in mediating adaptive immunity in cancer has not been assessed. Here, we report that mice genetically lacking ILC2s have significantly increased tumour growth rates and conspicuously higher frequency of circulating tumour cells (CTCs) and resulting metastasis to distal organs. Our data support the model that IL-33 dependent tumour-infiltrating ILC2s are mobilized from the lungs and other tissues through chemoattraction to enter tumours, and subsequently mediate tumour immune-surveillance by cooperating with dendritic cells to promote adaptive cytolytic T cell responses...
February 13, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29429965/mast-cells-promote-small-bowel-cancer-in-a-tumor-stage-specific-and-cytokine-dependent-manner
#10
Abdulrahman M Saadalla, Abu Osman, Michael F Gurish, Kristen L Dennis, Nichole R Blatner, Abdulmohammad Pezeshki, Kelly M McNagny, Hilde Cheroutre, Fotini Gounari, Khashayarsha Khazaie
Mast cells (MCs) are tissue resident sentinels that mature and orchestrate inflammation in response to infection and allergy. While they are also frequently observed in tumors, the contribution of MCs to carcinogenesis remains unclear. Here, we show that sequential oncogenic events in gut epithelia expand different types of MCs in a temporal-, spatial-, and cytokine-dependent manner. The first wave of MCs expands focally in benign adenomatous polyps, which have elevated levels of IL-10, IL-13, and IL-33, and are rich in type-2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s)...
February 13, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427987/advances-and-evolving-concepts-in-allergic-asthma
#11
Hui-Ying Tung, Evan Li, Cameron Landers, An Nguyen, Farrah Kheradmand, J Morgan Knight, David B Corry
Allergic asthma is a heterogeneous disorder that defies a unanimously acceptable definition, but is generally recognized through its highly characteristic clinical expression of dyspnea and cough accompanied by clinical data that document reversible or exaggerated airway constriction and obstruction. The generally rising prevalence of asthma in highly industrialized societies despite significant therapeutic advances suggests that the fundamental cause(s) of asthma remain poorly understood. Detailed analyses of both the indoor (built) and outdoor environments continue to support the concept that not only inhaled particulates, especially carbon-based particulate pollution, pollens, and fungal elements, but also many noxious gases and chemicals, especially biologically derived byproducts such as proteinases, are essential to asthma pathogenesis...
February 2018: Seminars in Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29424438/t-bet-and-eomes-govern-differentiation-and-function-of-mouse-and-human-nk-cells-and-ilc1
#12
REVIEW
Jiang Zhang, Marie Marotel, Sébastien Fauteux, Anne-Laure Mathieu, Sébastien Viel, Antoine Marçais, Thierry Walzer
T-bet and Eomes are T-box transcription factors that drive the differentiation and function of cytotoxic lymphocytes such as Natural Killer (NK) cells. Their DNA-binding domains are highly similar, suggesting redundant transcriptional activity. However, while these transcription factors have different patterns of expression, the phenotype of loss-of-function mouse models suggests that they play distinct roles in the development of NK cells and other innate lymphoid cells (ILCs). Recent technological advances using reporter mice and conditional knockouts were fundamental in defining the regulation and function of these factors at steady state and during pathological conditions such as various types of cancer or infection...
February 9, 2018: European Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29422795/immunological-pathogenesis-of-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#13
REVIEW
Seung Hoon Lee, Jeong Eun Kwon, Mi-La Cho
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic inflammatory state of the gastrointestinal tract and can be classified into 2 main clinical phenomena: Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC). The pathogenesis of IBD, including CD and UC, involves the presence of pathogenic factors such as abnormal gut microbiota, immune response dysregulation, environmental changes, and gene variants. Although many investigations have tried to identify novel pathogenic factors associated with IBD that are related to environmental, genetic, microbial, and immune response factors, a full understanding of IBD pathogenesis is unclear...
January 2018: Intestinal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29416538/divergent-roles-of-interferon-%C3%AE-and-innate-lymphoid-cells-in-innate-and-adaptive-immune-cell-mediated-intestinal-inflammation
#14
Jennifer Brasseit, Cheong K C Kwong Chung, Mario Noti, Daniel Zysset, Nina Hoheisel-Dickgreber, Vera Genitsch, Nadia Corazza, Christoph Mueller
Aberrant interferon gamma (IFNγ) expression is associated with the pathogenesis of numerous autoimmune- and inflammatory disorders, including inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). However, the requirement of IFNγ for the pathogenesis of chronic intestinal inflammation remains controversial. The aim of this study was thus to investigate the role of IFNγ in experimental mouse models of innate and adaptive immune cell-mediated intestinal inflammation using genetically and microbiota-stabilized hosts. While we find that IFNγ drives acute intestinal inflammation in the anti-CD40 colitis model in an innate lymphoid cell (ILC)-dependent manner, IFNγ secreted by both transferred CD4 T cells and/or cells of the lymphopenic Rag1 -/- recipient mice was dispensable for CD4 T cell-mediated colitis...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29415518/the-biology-of-monocytes-and-dendritic-cells-contribution-to-hiv-pathogenesis
#15
REVIEW
Vanessa Sue Wacleche, Cécile L Tremblay, Jean-Pierre Routy, Petronela Ancuta
Myeloid cells such as monocytes, dendritic cells (DC) and macrophages (MΦ) are key components of the innate immune system contributing to the maintenance of tissue homeostasis and the development/resolution of immune responses to pathogens. Monocytes and DC, circulating in the blood or infiltrating various lymphoid and non-lymphoid tissues, are derived from distinct bone marrow precursors and are typically short lived. Conversely, recent studies revealed that subsets of tissue resident MΦ are long-lived as they originate from embryonic/fetal precursors that have the ability to self-renew during the life of an individual...
February 6, 2018: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29408976/host-immune-responses-to-toxoplasma-gondii
#16
Miwa Sasai, Ariel Pradipta, Masahiro Yamamoto
Toxoplasma gondii can infect homoeothermic animals including humans and cause lethal toxoplasmosis in immunocompromised individuals. When hosts are infected with T. gondii, the cells induce immune responses against T. gondii. The pathogen infection is recognized by immune sensors that directly detect T. gondii structural components, leading to production of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines. Antigen-presenting cells such as macrophages and dendritic cells strongly activate T cells and induce development of Th1 cells and antigen-specific killer CD8 T cells...
February 2, 2018: International Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29408330/new-human-combined-immunodeficiency-due-to-irf4-deficiency-inherited-by-uniparental-isodisomy
#17
María Bravo García-Morato, Francisco Javier Aracil Santos, Alejandro Contreras Briones, Alfonso Blázquez Moreno, Ángela Del Pozo Maté, Ángeles Domínguez-Soto, María José Beato Merino, Lucía Del Pino Molina, Juan Torres Canizales, Ana Victoria Marin, Elena Vallespín García, Marta Feito Rodríguez, Diego Plaza López Sabando, Anaïs Jiménez-Reinoso, Yasmina Mozo Del Castillo, Francisco José Sanz Santaeufemia, Raúl de Lucas-Laguna, Paula Cárdenas, Laura Casamayor Polo, María Coronel Díaz, Mar Valés-Gómez, Ernesto Roldán Santiago, Antonio Ferreira Cerdán, Julián Nevado Blanco, Ángel L Corbí, Hugh T Reyburn, José Ramón Regueiro, Eduardo López-Granados, Rebeca Rodríguez Pena
BACKGROUND: Interferon regulatory factor 4 (IRF4) is a fundamental transcription factor in adaptive and innate immunity, due to its key role in the differentiation and functional specialization of lymphoid and myeloid lineage cells. In mouse models, IRF4 participates in bone marrow central tolerance, naïve B cell activation, germinal centre formation, plasma cell differentiation, immunoglobulin secretion, T helper subset differentiation, macrophage polarization, and dendritic cell differentiation, among other processes...
February 2, 2018: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29400707/il-33-induces-immunosuppressive-neutrophils-via-a-type-2-innate-lymphoid-cell-il-13-stat6-axis-and-protects-the-liver-against-injury-in-lcmv-infection-induced-viral-hepatitis
#18
Yuejin Liang, Panpan Yi, Denley Ming Kee Yuan, Zuliang Jie, Zakari Kwota, Lynn Soong, Yingzi Cong, Jiaren Sun
Viral hepatitis is still a public health problem affecting several million people around the world. Neutrophils are polymorphonuclear cells that have a critical role in antibacterial infection. However, the role of neutrophils in viral infection is not fully understood. By using a mouse model of lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus infection-induced viral hepatitis, we observed increased neutrophil recruitment in the liver accompanied by enhanced CD8+ T-cell responses. Liver neutrophils expressed high levels of immunomodulatory cytokines, such as C-X-C chemokine ligand 2, arginase-1, inducible nitric oxide synthase and interleukin (IL)-10, demonstrating immunosuppressive properties...
February 5, 2018: Cellular & Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29399576/distinct-features-of-dendritic-cell-based-immunotherapy-as-cancer-vaccines
#19
REVIEW
Chaelin Lee, Myungmi Lee, Inmoo Rhee
Dendritic cells (DCs) are the most professional antigen presenting cells that play important roles in connection between innate and adaptive immune responses. Numerous studies revealed that the functions of DCs are related with the capture and processing of antigen as well as the migration to lymphoid tissues for the presenting antigens to T cells. These unique features of DCs allow them to be considered as therapeutic vaccines that can induce immune responses and anti-tumor activity. Here, we discuss and understand the immunological basis of DCs and presume the possibilities of DC-based vaccines for the promising cancer therapy...
January 2018: Clinical and Experimental Vaccine Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29396045/expression-of-the-b-cell-differentiation-factor-baff-and-chemokine-cxcl13-in-a-murine-model-of-respiratory-syncytial-virus-infection
#20
Wael Alturaiki, Amanda J McFarlane, Katie Rose, Rachel Corkhill, Paul S McNamara, Jürgen Schwarze, Brian F Flanagan
Innate immune responses are known to influence the subsequent development of adaptive immunity. We have previously shown that RSV infection of human airway epithelial cells results in production of the B cell growth factor, BAFF. To better understand how the airway responds to RSV infection by production of this and other factors to support or enhance local B cell responses to infection, we analysed the lung expression of BAFF and B cell homeostatic chemokines CXCL12, CXCL13, CCL19 and CCL21 in a murine model of RSV infection...
January 26, 2018: Cytokine
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