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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913199/the-involvement-of-m2-macrophage-polarization-inhibition-in-fenretinide-mediated-chemopreventive-effects-on-colon-cancer
#1
Rong Dong, Yanling Gong, Wen Meng, Meng Yuan, Hong Zhu, Meidan Ying, Qiaojun He, Ji Cao, Bo Yang
Clinical studies have shown that fenretinide (4-HPR) is an attractive chemopreventive agent for cancer treatment. However, to date, few studies have demonstrated the mechanism of the preventive effect of 4-HPR. In our current study, we revealed that 4-HPR could significantly suppress IL-4/IL-13 induced M2-like polarization of macrophages, which was demonstrated by the reduced expression of M2 surface markers, the down-regulation of M2 marker genes, and the inhibition of M2-like macrophages promoted angiogenesis...
November 29, 2016: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912316/th2-cells-in-health-and-disease
#2
Toshinori Nakayama, Kiyoshi Hirahara, Atsushi Onodera, Yusuke Endo, Hiroyuki Hosokawa, Kenta Shinoda, Damon J Tumes, Yoshitaka Okamoto
Helper T (Th) cell subsets direct immune responses by producing signature cytokines. Th2 cells produce IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13, which are important in humoral immunity and protection from helminth infection and are central to the pathogenesis of many allergic inflammatory diseases. Molecular analysis of Th2 cell differentiation and maintenance of function has led to recent discoveries that have refined our understanding of Th2 cell biology. Epigenetic regulation of Gata3 expression by chromatin remodeling complexes such as Polycomb and Trithorax is crucial for maintaining Th2 cell identity...
November 28, 2016: Annual Review of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911420/-role-of-immunological-factors-in-the-development-of-myopic-choroidal-neovascularization
#3
A G Shchuko, N V Zaitseva, T N Yur'eva, E R Chernykh, I M Mikhalevich, A V Grigor'eva
AIM: To study the concentration of cytokines in the aqueous humor of the anterior chamber in patients with myopic choroidal neovascularization (mCNV) and to compare the results to their ophthalmic status. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 19 patients (19 eyes) with mCNV treated with intravitreal ranibizumab were included in the study. The control group consisted of 15 patients (15 eyes) with myopia who had cataract surgery. Age, sex, and refractive error distribution were similar to that in the study group...
2016: Vestnik Oftalmologii
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910206/balance-between-il-3-and-type-iinterferons-and-their-interrelationship-with-fasl-dictates-lifespan-and-effector-functions-of-human-basophils
#4
B R Hagmann, A Odermatt, T Kaufmann, C A Dahinden, M Fux
BACKGROUND: In contrast to eosinophils and neutrophils, the regulation of the lifespan of human basophils is poorly defined, with the exception of the potent anti-apoptotic effect of IL-3 that also promotes pro-inflammatory effector functions and phenotypic changes. Type I IFNs (IFN-α, IFN-β), which are well known for their anti-viral activities, have the capacity to inhibit allergic inflammation. OBJECTIVE: To elucidate whether type I IFNs have the potential to abrogate the lifespan and/or effector functions of human basophils...
November 5, 2016: Clinical and Experimental Allergy: Journal of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908701/inhibitory-effects-of-l-theanine-on-airway-inflammation-in-ovalbumin-induced-allergic-asthma
#5
Yong Pil Hwang, Sun Woo Jin, Jae Ho Choi, Chul Yung Choi, Hyung Gyun Kim, Se Jong Kim, Yongan Kim, Kyung Jin Lee, Young Chul Chung, Hye Gwang Jeong
L-theanine, a water-soluble amino acid isolated from green tea (Camellia sinensis), has anti-inflammatory activity, antioxidative properties, and hepatoprotective effects. However, the anti-allergic effect of L-theanine and its underlying molecular mechanisms have not been elucidated. In this study, we investigated the protective effects of L-theanine on asthmatic responses, particularly airway inflammation and oxidative stress modulation in an ovalbumin (OVA)-induced murine model of asthma. Treatment with L-theanine dramatically attenuated the extensive trafficking of inflammatory cells into bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF)...
November 28, 2016: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903737/allergen-induced-cd4-t-cell-cytokine-production-within-airway-mucosal-dendritic-cell-t-cell-clusters-drives-the-local-recruitment-of-myeloid-effector-cells
#6
Tibor Z Veres, Tamás Kopcsányi, Nicholas van Panhuys, Michael Y Gerner, Zhiduo Liu, Pia Rantakari, Johannes Dunkel, Masayuki Miyasaka, Marko Salmi, Sirpa Jalkanen, Ronald N Germain
Allergic asthma develops in the mucosal tissue of small bronchi. At these sites, local cytokine production by Th2/Th17 cells is believed to be critical for the development of tissue eosinophilia/neutrophilia. Using the mouse trachea as a relevant model of human small airways, we performed advanced in vivo dynamic and in situ static imaging to visualize individual cytokine-producing T cells in the airway mucosa and to define their immediate cellular environment. Upon allergen sensitization, newly recruited CD4(+) T cells formed discrete Ag-driven clusters with dendritic cells (DCs)...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902978/the-efficacy-of-sublingual-immunotherapy-for-allergic-rhinitis-may-vary-with-the-time-of-day
#7
Satoshi Igarashi, Keisuke Suzuki, Yuki Nakamura, Kayoko Ishimaru, Chiharu Fukano, Keisuke Masuyama, Katsuyo Ohashi-Doi, Atsuhito Nakao
BACKGROUND: Sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) is a safe and effective treatment for allergic rhinitis (AR). However, many issues regarding SLIT remain to be resolved, including the optimal timing of administration. This study investigated the effect of time of day on SLIT efficacy with the goal of optimizing the therapeutic outcome. METHODS: We performed prophylactic SLIT at different times of day (10 a.m. or 10 p.m.) in 2 mouse models of AR: an ovalbumin (OVA)-induced AR model and Cry j 1-induced AR model, and compared the effects...
December 1, 2016: International Archives of Allergy and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900996/suppression-of-immunotherapy-on-group-2-innate-lymphoid-cells-in-allergic-rhinitis
#8
Da-Chuan Fan, Xiang-Dong Wang, Cheng-Shuo Wang, Yang Wang, Fei-Fei Cao, Luo Zhang
BACKGROUND: Group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) are regarded as a novel population of lineage-negative cells that induce innate Type 2 responses by producing the critical Th2-type cytokines interleukin (IL)-5 and IL-13. ILC2s as key players in the development of allergic rhinitis (AR) have been proved, however, the effect of subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT) with dermatophagoides pteronyssinus extract (Der p-SCIT) on ILC2s in AR patients is not clear. This study aimed to investigate the response of ILC2s of peripheral blood in house dust mites (HDM)-sensitized Chinese patients with AR who received SCIT with Der P extract...
2016: Chinese Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898738/receptor-type-protein-tyrosine-phosphatase-%C3%AE-and-colony-stimulating-factor-1-receptor-in-the-intestine-cellular-expression-and-cytokine-and-chemokine-responses-by-interleukin-34-and-colony-stimulating-factor-1
#9
Stephanie Zwicker, Daniela Bureik, Madeleen Bosma, Gisele Lago Martinez, Sven Almer, Elisabeth A Boström
Differential intestinal expression of the macrophage growth factors colony stimulating factor-1 (CSF-1), interleukin (IL)-34, and their shared CSF-1 receptor (CSF-1R) in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has been shown. Diverse expression between CSF-1 and IL-34, suggest that IL-34 may signal via an alternate receptor. Receptor-type protein-tyrosine phosphatase ζ (PTPRZ1, RPTP-ζ), an additional IL-34 receptor, was recently identified. Here, we aimed to assess PTPRZ1 expression in IBD and non-IBD intestinal biopsies...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897439/il-4-mrna-is-downregulated-in-the-liver-of-pancreatic-cancer-patients-suffering-from-cachexia
#10
Olga Prokopchuk, Jürgen M Steinacker, Ulrich Nitsche, Stephanie Otto, Jeannine Bachmann, Elaine C Schubert, Helmut Friess, Marc E Martignoni
BACKGROUND: Interleukin-4 (IL-4) together with interleukin-13 (IL-13) play an important role in inflammation and wound repair, and are known to be upregulated in human skeletal muscle after strenuous physical exercise. Additionally, these cytokines may act as autocrine growth factors in pancreatic cancer cells. We hypothesize that IL-4, IL-13, and their corresponding receptors are involved in mechanism of cancer cachexia. METHODS: Tissue samples from human skeletal muscle, white fat, liver, healthy pancreas, and pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma were analyzed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction for mRNA expression levels of IL-4, IL-13, IL-4 receptor α, and IL-13 receptor α1...
November 29, 2016: Nutrition and Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895398/dysregulation-of-innate-immunity-in-ulcerative-colitis-patients-who-fail-anti-tumor-necrosis-factor-therapy
#11
Angela C Baird, Dominic Mallon, Graham Radford-Smith, Julien Boyer, Thierry Piche, Susan L Prescott, Ian C Lawrance, Meri K Tulic
AIM: To study the innate immune function in ulcerative colitis (UC) patients who fail to respond to anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) therapy. METHODS: Effects of anti-TNF therapy, inflammation and medications on innate immune function were assessed by measuring peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) cytokine expression from 18 inflammatory bowel disease patients pre- and 3 mo post-anti-TNF therapy. Toll-like receptor (TLR) expression and cytokine production post TLR stimulation was assessed in UC "responders" (n = 12) and "non-responders" (n = 12) and compared to healthy controls (n = 12)...
November 7, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895230/an-arginase-1-snp-that-protects-against-the-development-of-pulmonary-hypertension-in-bronchopulmonary-dysplasia-enhances-no-mediated-apoptosis-in-lymphocytes
#12
Jennifer K Trittmann, Yi Jin, Louis G Chicoine, Yusen Liu, Bernadette Chen, Leif D Nelin
Arginase and nitric oxide synthase (NOS) share a common substrate, l-arginine, and have opposing effects on vascular remodeling. Arginase is the first step in polyamine and proline synthesis necessary for cellular proliferation, while NO produced from NOS promotes apoptosis. Previously, we identified a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the arginase-1 (ARG1) gene, rs2781666 (T-allele) that was associated with a decreased risk for developing pulmonary hypertension (PH) in a cohort of infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD)...
November 2016: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895167/pgi2-controls-pulmonary-nk-cells-that-prevent-airway-sensitization-to-house-dust-mite-allergen
#13
Bryan Simons, Maria E Ferrini, Sophia Carvalho, David J P Bassett, Zeina Jaffar, Kevan Roberts
In allergic asthma, inhalation of airborne allergens such as the house dust mite (HDM) effectively activates both innate and adaptive immunity in the lung mucosa. To determine the role of the eicosanoid PGI2 and its receptor IP during allergic airway sensitization, HDM responses in mice lacking a functional IP receptor (i.e., PGI2 IP receptor-deficient [IP(-/-)]) were compared with wild type (WT) mice. Surprisingly, IP(-/-) mice had increased numbers of pulmonary CD3(-)NK1.1(+)Ly49b(+) NK cells producing IFN-γ that was inversely associated with the number of type 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) expressing IL-33Rα and IL-13 compared with WT animals...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886408/role-of-rock2-in-cd4-cells-in-allergic-airways-responses-in-mice
#14
David I Kasahara, Joel A Mathews, Fernanda M C Ninin, Allison P Wurmbrand, James K Liao, Stephanie A Shore
BACKGROUND: Rho kinases (ROCKs) contribute to allergic airways disease. ROCKs also play a role in lymphocyte proliferation and migration. OBJECTIVE: To determine the role of ROCK2 acting within CD4(+) cells in allergic airways responses. METHODS: ROCK2 haploinsufficient (ROCK2(+/-) ) and wildtype mice were sensitized with ovalbumin (OVA). ROCK2(+/-) mice then received either CD4(+) cells from ROCK2 sufficient OVA TCR transgenic (OT-II) mice or saline i...
November 25, 2016: Clinical and Experimental Allergy: Journal of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885827/a-mathematical-modeling-approach-to-understanding-the-effect-of-anti-interleukin-therapy-on-eosinophils
#15
T Karelina, V Voronova, O Demin, G Colice, B M Agoram
Emerging T-helper type 2 (Th2 ) cytokine-based asthma therapies, such as tralokinumab, lebrikizumab (anti-interleukin (IL)-13), and mepolizumab (anti-IL-5), have shown differences in their blood eosinophil (EOS) response. To better understand these effects, we developed a mathematical model of EOS dynamics. For the anti-IL-13 therapies, lebrikizumab and tralokinumab, the model predicted an increase of 30% and 10% in total and activated EOS in the blood, respectively, and a decrease in the total and activated EOS in the airways...
November 2016: CPT: Pharmacometrics & Systems Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882241/immune-profile-of-honduran-schoolchildren-with-intestinal-parasites-the-skewed-response-against-geohelminths
#16
José Antonio Gabrie, María Mercedes Rueda, Carol Anahelka Rodríguez, Maritza Canales, Ana Lourdes Sanchez
Soil-transmitted helminth infections typically induce a type-2 immune response (Th2), but no immunoepidemiological studies have been undertaken in Honduras, an endemic country where the main control strategy is children's annual deworming. We aimed to characterize the immune profile of Honduran schoolchildren harbouring these parasitoses. Demographic and epidemiological data were obtained through a survey; nutritional status was assessed through anthropometry; intestinal parasites were diagnosed by formol-ether and Kato-Katz; and blood samples were collected to determine immunological markers including Th1/Th2 cytokines, IgE, and eosinophil levels...
2016: Journal of Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881684/conformational-flexibility-of-an-anti-il-13-darpin%C3%A2
#17
Alexey Teplyakov, Thomas J Malia, Galina Obmolova, Steven A Jacobs, Karyn T O'Neil, Gary L Gilliland
Designed ankyrin repeat proteins (DARPin(®)) are artificial non-immunoglobulin binding proteins with potential applications as therapeutic molecules. DARPin 6G9 binds interleukin-13 with high affinity and blocks the signaling pathway and as such is promising for the treatment of asthma and other atopic diseases. The crystal structures of DARPin 6G9 in the unbound form and in complex with IL-13 were determined at high resolution. The DARPin competes for the same epitope as the IL-13 receptor chain 13Rα1 but does not interfere with the binding of the other receptor chain, IL-4Rα...
November 23, 2016: Protein Engineering, Design & Selection: PEDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876570/characterization-of-the-anti-inflammation-mechanism-for-the-ao-herbal-extract
#18
Hong Ye, Yali Wang, Jun Yan, A Bennett Jenson
A broad range of cytokines are secreted during the inflammatory response by the immune system. Some cytokines promote inflammation, while others inhibit inflammation. Inflammatory cytokines work in harmony when they encounter external pathogens or internal dangers. Inflammation is resolved after the cause is eliminated. However, if the cause persists, it can lead to significant diseases. The pro-inflammatory cytokine TNFα is a biomarker for the inflammatory response. The AO herbal mixture extracted from 10 medicinal herbs has been investigated for its ability to control the inflammatory process and to inhibit TNFα activity...
November 19, 2016: Experimental and Molecular Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876552/long-term-altered-immune-responses-following-fetal-priming-in-a-non-human-primate-model-of-maternal-immune-activation
#19
Destanie R Rose, Milo Careaga, Judy Van de Water, Kim McAllister, Melissa D Bauman, Paul Ashwood
Infection during pregnancy can lead to activation of the maternal immune system and has been associated with an increased risk of having an offspring later diagnosed with a neurodevelopmental disorders (NDD) such as autism spectrum disorder (ASD) or Schizophrenia (SZ). Most maternal immune activation (MIA) studies to date have been in rodents and usually involve the use of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (poly I:C). However, since NDD are based on behavioral changes, a model of MIA in non-human primates could potentially provide data that helps illuminate complex behavioral and immune outputs in human NDD...
November 19, 2016: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872607/disparate-changes-in-plasma-and-brainstem-cytokine-levels-in-adult-and-ageing-rats-associated-with-age-related-changes-in-facial-motor-neuron-number-snout-muscle-morphology-and-exploratory-behavior
#20
Viythia Katharesan, Martin David Lewis, Robert Vink, Ian Paul Johnson
An overall increase in inflammatory cytokines with age in both the blood and the central nervous system (CNS) has been proposed to explain many aspects of ageing, including decreased motor function and neurodegeneration. This study tests the hypothesis that age-related increases in inflammatory cytokines in the blood and CNS lead to facial motor neuron degeneration. Groups of 3-5 female Sprague-Dawley rats aged 3, 12-18, and 24 months were used. Twelve cytokines interleukin (IL)-1α, IL-β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12p70, IL-13, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα), interferon-γ, and granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor were measured in blood plasma and compared with those in the brainstem after first flushing blood from its vessels...
2016: Frontiers in Neurology
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