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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456676/-cordyceps-sinensis-inhibits-airway-remodeling-in-rats-with-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#1
Lei Yang, Xingai Jiao, Jinxiang Wu, Jiping Zhao, Tian Liu, Jianfeng Xu, Xiaohui Ma, Liuzao Cao, Lin Liu, Yahui Liu, Jingyu Chi, Minfang Zou, Shuo Li, Jiawei Xu, Liang Dong
Cordyceps sinensis is a traditional Chinese herbal medicine that has been used for centuries in Asia as a tonic to soothe the lung for the treatment of respiratory diseases. The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of C. sinensi s on airway remodeling in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and investigate the underlying molecular mechanisms. Rats with COPD were orally administered C. sinensis at low, moderate or high doses (2.5, 5 or 7.5 g/kg/day, respectively) for 12 weeks. Airway tissue histopathology, lung inflammation and airway remodeling were evaluated...
March 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455573/a-creb-mediated-increase-in-mirna-let-7f-during-prolonged-%C3%AE-agonist-exposure-a-novel-mechanism-of-%C3%AE-2-adrenergic-receptor-down-regulation-in-airway-smooth-muscle
#2
Donghwa Kim, Soomin Cho, Jung A Woo, Stephen B Liggett
β2 -Adrenergic receptors (β2 ARs) desensitize during continuous agonist activation, which manifests clinically as tachyphylaxis. β-Agonist desensitization of β2 ARs in human airway smooth muscle (HASM) cells is recognized in the treatment of asthma and may be related to poor outcomes. Rapid events in desensitization include receptor phosphorylation and internalization, but mechanisms responsible for the decrease in receptor protein after prolonged agonist exposure (down-regulation) are ill defined. The microRNA (miRNA) let-7f regulates β2 AR expression by translational repression...
February 13, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454752/effects-of-5-ht-2-receptor-antagonists-on-bronchoconstriction-and-pulmonary-remodeling-processes
#3
Anna Löfdahl, Christina Wenglén, Kristina Rydell-Törmänen, Gunilla Westergren-Thorsson, Anna-Karin Larsson-Callerfelt
Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) is associated with several chronic pulmonary diseases, recognizing 5-HT2 receptor antagonists as potential inhibitors of tissue remodeling. However, the effects of 5-HT2 receptors, especially, 5-HT2B receptors on airway function and remodeling, are unclear. We investigated the role of 5-HT2B receptors on airway smooth muscle contractility and remodeling processes. Murine precision-cut lung slices were pre-treated with 5-HT2B receptor antagonists; EXT5, EXT9, RS127445, and PRX08066, as well as ketanserin (5-HT2A/2C receptor antagonist) (1 μM, 10 μM), prior to addition of cumulative concentrations of 5-HT to induce bronchoconstriction...
February 15, 2018: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454302/aerobic-exercise-inhibits-obesity-induced-respiratory-phenotype
#4
Jefferson Comin Jonco Aquino-Junior, BreAnne MacKenzie, Ana Roberta Almeida-Oliveira, Ana Carolina Martins, Manoel Carneiro Oliveira-Junior, Auriléa Aparecida Britto, Fernanda Magalhaes Arantes-Costa, Nilsa Regina Damaceno-Rodrigues, Elia Garcia Caldini, Ana Paula Ligeiro de Oliveira, Dioze Guadagnini, Luiz Osorio Leiria, Djalma Rabelo Ricardo, Mario Jose Abdalla Saad, Rodolfo Paula Vieira
PURPOSE: Obesity results in decreased lung function and increased inflammation. Moderate aerobic exercise (AE) reduced lung inflammation and remodeling in a variety of respiratory disease models. Therefore, this study investigated whether AE can attenuate a diet-induced obesity respiratory phenotype; including airway hyper-responsiveness (AHR), remodeling and inflammation. METHODS: Sixty C57Bl/6 male mice were distributed into four groups: control lean (CL), exercise lean (EL), obese (O) and obese exercise (OE) groups (2 sets of 7 and 8 mice per group; n = 15)...
February 14, 2018: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451337/eosinophil-derived-exosomes-contribute-to-asthma-remodelling-by-activating-structural-lung-cells
#5
José A Cañas, Beatriz Sastre, José M Rodrigo-Muñoz, Mar Fernández-Nieto, Pilar Barranco, Santiago Quirce, Joaquín Sastre, Victoria Del Pozo
BACKGROUND: Eosinophils, a central factor in asthma pathogenesis, have the ability to secrete exosomes. However, the precise role played by exosomes in the biological processes leading up to asthma has not been fully defined. OBJECTIVE: We hypothesised that exosomes released by eosinophils contribute to asthma pathogenesis by activating structural lung cells. METHODS: Eosinophils from asthmatic patients and healthy volunteers were purified from peripheral blood, and exosomes were isolated from eosinophils of asthmatic and healthy individuals...
February 16, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Allergy: Journal of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449621/polygonum-aviculare-l-extract-and-quercetin-attenuate-contraction-in-airway-smooth-muscle
#6
Xi Luo, Lu Xue, Hao Xu, Qing-Yang Zhao, Qian Wang, Yu-Shan She, Dun-An Zang, Jinhua Shen, Yong-Bo Peng, Ping Zhao, Meng-Fei Yu, Weiwei Chen, Li-Qun Ma, Shu Chen, Shanshan Chen, Xiangning Fu, Sheng Hu, Xiaowei Nie, Chenyou Shen, Chunbin Zou, Gangjian Qin, Jiapei Dai, Guangju Ji, Yunchao Su, Shen Hu, Jingyu Chen, Qing-Hua Liu
Because of the serious side effects of the currently used bronchodilators, new compounds with similar functions must be developed. We screened several herbs and found that Polygonum aviculare L. contains ingredients that inhibit the precontraction of mouse and human airway smooth muscle (ASM). High K+ -induced precontraction in ASM was completely inhibited by nifedipine, a selective blocker of L-type voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels (LVDCCs). However, nifedipine only partially reduced the precontraction induced by acetylcholine chloride (ACH)...
February 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448029/microrna-874-inhibits-tnf-%C3%AE-induced-remodeling-in-human-fetal-airway-smooth-muscle-cells-by-targeting-stat3
#7
Meihua Sun, Yuanyuan Huang, Feng Li, Haibo Li, Bo Zhang, Lianhua Jin
Pro-inflammatory cytokines-induced airway remodeling was a significant feature of asthma disease. The aim of the present study was to explore the functional significance of miR-874 in tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α-treated human fetal airway smooth muscle (fASM) cells. Here, we found that TNF-α treatment significantly down-regulated the expression of miR-874 in fASM cells. MiR-874 overexpression markedly inhibited cell viability and migration, suppressed the expression of PCNA and Ki67, reduced the expression of collagen I and collagen III, decreased the expression and activity of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 and MMP-2, and induced an obvious elevation of tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs)...
February 12, 2018: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446713/mitigation-of-airways-responsiveness-by-deep-inflations-of-the-lung
#8
Jason H T Bates, Vignesh Rajendran
Stretching activated strips of airway smooth muscle (ASM) significantly affects both active force and stiffness due to a temporary reduction of the proportion of cycling myosin cross-bridges that are bound to their actin binding sites. For the same reason, stretch applied to ASM in situ by a deep inflation (DI) of the lungs is one of the most potent means of reversing bronchoconstriction. When the DI is sufficiently large, however, and is applied while bronchoconstriction is in the process of developing, the subsequent depression in airway resistance is more persistent than can be attributed simply to temporary detachment of ASM cross-bridges...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29437496/essential-oil-of-croton-zehntneri-attenuates-lung-injury-in-the-ova-induced-asthma-model
#9
Daniel Silveira Serra, Maria Diana Moreira Gomes, Francisco Sales Ávila Cavalcante, José Henrique Leal-Cardoso
OBJECTIVE: Croton zehntneri Pax et Hoffm. is a Euphorbiaceae species, popularly known as "canela de cunhã," a native plant of northeastern Brazil, whose essential oil (EOCZ) shows relatively specific myorelaxant action for the smooth muscle of the airways and in the respiratory tract. Based on this information, EOCZ figures as a candidate for testing in the treatment of asthma, and the present study investigated the benefits of using EOCZ in an ovalbumin-induced asthma model. METHODS: 48 male BALB/c mice were divided into six groups (n = 8)...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Asthma: Official Journal of the Association for the Care of Asthma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428600/contraction-dependent-tgf-%C3%AE-1-activation-is-required-for-thrombin-induced-remodeling-in-human-airway-smooth-muscle-cells
#10
Zhi-Hui Yao, Hao-Jun Xie, Ya-Lu Yuan, Ya-Ting Huo, Jing Cao, Wen-Yan Lai, Rui-Jun Cai, Yuan-Xiong Cheng
AIMS: Thrombin is a serine proteinase that is not only involved in coagulation cascade, but also mediates a number of biological responses relevant to tissues repair, and induces bronchoconstriction. TGF-β plays a pivotal role in airway remodeling due to its effects on airway smooth muscle proliferation and extracellular matrix (ECM) deposition. Recently, bronchoconstriction itself is found to constitute a form of strain and is highly relevant to asthmatic airway remodeling. However, the underlying mechanisms remain unknown...
February 8, 2018: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427986/airway-inflammation-and-inflammatory-biomarkers
#11
Hui Fang Lim, Parameswaran Nair
Severe asthma is a complex disease consisting of different endotypes with different inflammatory and clinicopathological characteristics due to the heterogeneity of immune responses and smooth muscle dysfunction. There is an unmet clinical need to develop and to validate biomarkers that can differentiate between the asthma endotypes and guide clinical management, particularly since the availability of biologicals directed against T2 cytokines. The presence of a "Th2 endotype" is currently assessed in clinical practice using markers, such as eosinophil count in sputum or blood, fraction of exhaled nitric oxide, and immunoglobulin E...
February 2018: Seminars in Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427982/exercise-and-asthma
#12
Andréanne Côté, Julie Turmel, Louis-Philippe Boulet
Transient airway narrowing can occur during or following exercise, a phenomenon called exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB). The main mechanism of EIB is considered to be airway dehydration, resulting from increased ventilation during exercise. In asthma, such water loss causes an increase in airway fluid osmolarity, inducing airway smooth muscle contraction following the release of mediators from airway inflammatory cells. Asthmatics frequently experience EIB, but it may also be observed in others not reporting asthma symptoms, particularly elite endurance athletes...
February 2018: Seminars in Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29422039/nerve-ablation-after-bronchial-thermoplasty-and-sustained-improvement-in-severe-asthma
#13
N Facciolongo, A Di Stefano, V Pietrini, C Galeone, F Bellanova, F Menzella, N Scichilone, R Piro, G L Bajocchi, B Balbi, L Agostini, P P Salsi, D Formisano, M Lusuardi
BACKGROUND: Bronchial thermoplasty (BT) is a non-pharmacological intervention for severe asthma whose mechanism of action is not completely explained by a reduction of airway smooth muscle (ASM). In this study we analyzed the effect of BT on nerve fibers and inflammatory components in the bronchial mucosa at 1 year. METHODS: Endobronchial biopsies were obtained from 12 subjects (mean age 47 ± 11.3 years, 50% male) with severe asthma. Biopsies were performed at baseline (T0) and after 1 (T1), 2 (T2) and 12 (T12) months post-BT, and studied with immunocytochemistry and microscopy methods...
February 8, 2018: BMC Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29414651/high-fat-diet-induces-airway-hyperresponsiveness-partly-through-activating-cd38-signaling-pathway
#14
Lei Chong, Weixi Zhang, Gang Yu, Hailin Zhang, Lili Zhu, Haiyan Li, Youyou Shao, Changchong Li
CD38 is a plasma membrane bound multifunctional enzyme. It can be activated by inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-13, inducing calcium responses to agonist in airway smooth muscle cells (ASMC). Previous studies have found that high-fat-diet (HFD) induced obesity exhibited innate airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR). This study aimed to detect the effect of CD38 signaling pathway on the AHR of overweight/obese mice. The HFD-fed mice exhibited a significantly higher baseline airway resistance (Rn), and the increasing rates of Rn responded to increasing doses of methacholine compared with the LFD-fed mice...
February 1, 2018: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29414243/the-underlying-physiological-mechanisms-whereby-anti-cholinergics-alleviate-asthma
#15
Morgan Gazzola, Samuel Mailhot-Larouche, Clémentine Beucher, Ynuk Bossé
The mechanisms whereby anti-cholinergics improve asthma outcomes, such as lung function, symptoms and rate of exacerbation, can be numerous. The most obvious is by affecting the contraction of airway smooth muscle (ASM). The acetylcholine released from the cholinergic nerves is the most important bronchoconstrictor that sets the baseline degree of contractile activation of ASM in healthy individuals. Although the degree of ASM's contractile activation can also be fine-tuned by a plethora of other bronchoconstrictors and bronchodilators in asthma, blocking the ceaseless effect of acetylcholine on ASM by anti-cholinergics reduces, at any given moment, the overall degree of contractile activation...
February 7, 2018: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29411715/evaluation-of-fractioned-nitric-oxide-in-chronic-cough-patients
#16
Y Yildiz, M Igde
INTRODUCTION: Cough exceeding 3-8 weeks was defined as chronic cough in various guides. Asthma is the most common cause of chronic-specific cough. Causes other than asthma include prolonged bacterial bronchitis and upper airway cough syndrome (UACS). Nitric oxide (NO) causes vascular smooth muscle relaxation, bronchodilation, and oxidant effects via its metabolite, peroxynitrite. An increase in NO results in inflammation, vasodilatation, and bronchial edema. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study group included 90 patients aged 6-17 years selected from individuals presenting to the Pediatric Immunology and Allergic Diseases Clinic with cough persisting for 4 weeks and 30 other patients representing to the control group...
January 2018: Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29408536/vasoactive-intestinal-peptide-inhibits-airway-smooth-muscle-cell-proliferation-in-a-mouse-model-of-asthma-via-the-erk1-2-signaling-pathway
#17
Juan Wang, Yun-Xiao Shang, Xu-Xu Cai, Li-Yun Liu
Asthma is a heterogeneous clinical syndrome characterized by airway inflammation, hyper-responsiveness and remodeling. Airway remodeling is irreversible by current antiasthmatic drugs, and it is the main cause of severe asthma. Airway smooth muscle cells (ASMCs) act as the main effector cells for airway remodeling; the proliferation and hypertrophy of which are involved in airway remodeling. Caveolin (Cav)-1 is present on the surface of ASMCs, which is involved in cell cycle and signal transduction regulation, allowing ASMCs to change from proliferation to apoptosis...
February 1, 2018: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29408043/selectively-targeting-prostanoid-e-ep-receptor-mediated-cell-signalling-pathways-implications-for-lung-health-and-disease
#18
REVIEW
Leonard F Lebender, Laura Prünte, Nowshin N Rumzhum, Alaina J Ammit
Arachidonic acid is metabolized by cyclooxygenases (COX-1 and COX-2) into various prostanoids which exert different functions in mammalian physiology. One of these prostanoids, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), interacts with four different G protein-coupled receptors, named EP1, EP2, EP3 and EP4, to initiate different downstream signalling pathways. Prostanoid receptors are diversely expressed throughout different tissues all over the body and PGE2 is responsible for a large variety of beneficial and disadvantageous effects...
January 30, 2018: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29401446/a-distribution-moment-approximation-for-coupled-dynamics-of-the-airway-wall-and-airway-smooth-muscle
#19
Anand K Rampadarath, Graham M Donovan
Asthma is fundamentally a disease of airway constriction. Due to a variety of experimental challenges, the dynamics of airways are poorly understood. Of specific interest is the narrowing of the airway due to forces produced by the airway smooth muscle wrapped around each airway. The interaction between the muscle and the airway wall is crucial for the airway constriction that occurs during an asthma attack. Although cross-bridge theory is a well-studied representation of complex smooth muscle dynamics, and these dynamics can be coupled to the airway wall, this comes at significant computational cost-even for isolated airways...
January 23, 2018: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29399129/efficacy-of-salmeterol-and-formoterol-combination-treatment-in-mice-with-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#20
Zhiyuan Wang, Chunyan Wang, Xiaoli Yang
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a severe lung disease characterized by progressive airflow limitation. Salmeterol and formoterol are two commonly used drugs in COPD therapy, which act as β2-receptor agonists. In the current study, a mouse model of COPD induced by airway lipopolysaccharide inhalation was established. The therapeutic efficacy of salmeterol and formoterol co-treatment was investigated in this model over a 56-day-long observation period. It was also identified that functional residual capacity and inspiratory resistance were significantly improved after salmeterol and/or formoterol treatment compared with the control group (all P<0...
February 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
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