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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040534/macrophages-escape-klotho-gene-silencing-in-the-mdx-mouse-model-of-duchenne-muscular-dystrophy-and-promote-muscle-growth-and-increase-satellite-cell-numbers-through-a-klotho-mediated-pathway
#1
Michelle Wehling-Henricks, Steven S Welc, Guiseppina Samengo, Chiara Rinaldi, Catherine Lindsey, Ying Wang, Jeongyoon Lee, Makoto Kuro-O, James G Tidball
Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a muscle wasting disease in which inflammation influences the severity of pathology. We found that the onset of muscle inflammation in the mdx mouse model of DMD coincides with large increases in expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines [tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα); interferon gamma (IFNγ)] and dramatic reductions of the pro-myogenic protein Klotho in muscle cells and large increases of Klotho in pro-regenerative, CD206+ macrophages. Furthermore, TNFα and IFNγ treatments reduced Klotho in muscle cells and increased Klotho in macrophages...
October 12, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040119/prospective-clinical-trial-of-corneal-reconstruction-with-biomaterial-free-cultured-oral-mucosal-epithelial-cell-sheets
#2
Yu Jeong Kim, Hyun Ju Lee, Jin Suk Ryu, Yun Hee Kim, Saewha Jeon, Joo Youn Oh, Ho Kyung Choung, Sang In Khwarg, Won Ryang Wee, Mee Kum Kim
PURPOSE: To investigate the efficacy and safety of transplantation with biomaterial-free cultured oral mucosal epithelial cell sheets (COMECs) for ocular reconstruction in subjects with total limbal stem cell deficiency. METHODS: A prospective clinical trial (NCT02149732) was conducted in 8 subjects with total limbal stem cell deficiency after approval from the institutional review board of Seoul National University Hospital (H-0707-043-213) and the Ministry of Food and Drug Safety of Korea...
October 13, 2017: Cornea
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039999/treatment-and-survival-of-childhood-neuroblastoma-evidence-from-a-population-based-study-in-the-united-states
#3
Dairmuid Coughlan, Matthew Gianferante, Charles F Lynch, Jennifer L Stevens, Linda C Harlan
BACKGROUND: Childhood neuroblastoma describes a heterogeneous group of extracranial solid tumors, that are treated per risk profile. We sought to describe treatment patterns and survival using population-based data from throughout the United States. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Using the National Cancer Institute (NCI)'s Patterns of Care data, we analyzed treatment provided to newly diagnosed, histologically confirmed neuroblastoma patients in 2010 and 2011, registered to one of 14 Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) cancer registries...
October 17, 2017: Pediatric Hematology and Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035383/extracellular-nme-proteins-a-player-or-a-bystander
#4
Patrizia Romani, Marilena Ignesti, Giuseppe Gargiulo, Tien Hsu, Valeria Cavaliere
The Nm23/NME gene family has been under intensive study since Nm23H1/NME1 was identified as the first metastasis suppressor. Inverse correlation between the expression levels of NME1/2 and prognosis has indeed been demonstrated in different tumor cohorts. Interestingly, the presence of NME proteins in the extracellular environment in normal and tumoral conditions has also been noted. In many reported cases, however, these extracellular NME proteins exhibit anti-differentiation or oncogenic functions, contradicting their canonical anti-metastatic action...
October 16, 2017: Laboratory Investigation; a Journal of Technical Methods and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033839/schisandra-chinensis-stem-ameliorates-3-nitropropionic-acid-induced-striatal-toxicity-via-activation-of-the-nrf2-pathway-and-inhibition-of-the-mapks-and-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-pathways
#5
Eun-Jeong Kim, Minhee Jang, Min Jung Lee, Jong Hee Choi, Sung Joong Lee, Sun Kwang Kim, Dae Sik Jang, Ik-Hyun Cho
The beneficial value of the stems of Schisandra chinensis (SSC) in neurological diseases is unclear. We examined whether SSC aqueous extract (SSCE) alleviates striatal toxicity in a 3-nitropropionic acid (3-NPA)-induced mouse model of Huntington's disease (HD). SSCE (75, 150, or 300 mg/kg/day, p.o.) was given daily before or after 3-NPA treatment. Pre- and onset-treatment with SSCE displayed a significant protective effect and pretreatment was more effective as assessed by neurological scores and survival rate...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033581/nanog-as-an-adverse-predictive-marker-in-advanced-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-treated-with-platinum-based-chemotherapy
#6
Boksoon Chang, Myung Jae Park, Sue In Choi, Kwang Ho In, Chul Hwan Kim, Seung Hyeun Lee
PURPOSE: NANOG is a master transcription factor that regulates stem cell pluripotency and cellular reprograming. Increased NANOG expression has been associated with poor survival in several human malignancies. However, the clinical significance of NANOG overexpression in lung cancer has been scarcely evaluated. The aim of this study was to investigate whether NANOG levels are associated with clinical outcomes of patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) who were treated with platinum-based chemotherapy...
2017: OncoTargets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033353/melanocyte-stem-cell-activation-and-translocation-initiate-cutaneous-melanoma-in-response-to-uv-exposure
#7
Hyeongsun Moon, Leanne R Donahue, Eunju Choi, Philip O Scumpia, William E Lowry, Jennifer K Grenier, Jerry Zhu, Andrew C White
Melanoma is one of the deadliest cancers, yet the cells of origin and mechanisms of tumor initiation remain unclear. The majority of melanomas emerge from clear skin without a precursor lesion, but it is unknown whether these melanomas can arise from melanocyte stem cells (MCSCs). Here we employ mouse models to define the role of MCSCs as melanoma cells of origin, demonstrate that MCSC quiescence acts as a tumor suppressor, and identify the extrinsic environmental and molecular factors required for the critical early steps of melanoma initiation...
October 4, 2017: Cell Stem Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033351/mouse-cutaneous-melanoma-induced-by-mutant-braf-arises-from-expansion-and-dedifferentiation-of-mature-pigmented-melanocytes
#8
Corinna Köhler, David Nittner, Florian Rambow, Enrico Radaelli, Fabio Stanchi, Niels Vandamme, Arianna Baggiolini, Lukas Sommer, Geert Berx, Joost J van den Oord, Holger Gerhardt, Cedric Blanpain, Jean-Christophe Marine
To identify the cells at the origin of melanoma, we combined single-cell lineage-tracing and transcriptomics approaches with time-lapse imaging. A mouse model that recapitulates key histopathological features of human melanomagenesis was created by inducing a BRafV600E-driven melanomagenic program in tail interfollicular melanocytes. Most targeted mature, melanin-producing melanocytes expanded clonally within the epidermis before losing their differentiated features through transcriptional reprogramming and eventually invading the dermis...
October 4, 2017: Cell Stem Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033320/mitophagy-controls-the-activities-of-tumor-suppressor-p53-to-regulate-hepatic-cancer-stem-cells
#9
Kai Liu, Jiyoung Lee, Ja Yeon Kim, Linya Wang, Yongjun Tian, Stephanie T Chan, Cecilia Cho, Keigo Machida, Dexi Chen, Jing-Hsiung James Ou
Autophagy is required for benign hepatic tumors to progress into malignant hepatocellular carcinoma. However, the mechanism is unclear. Here, we report that mitophagy, the selective removal of mitochondria by autophagy, positively regulates hepatic cancer stem cells (CSCs) by suppressing the tumor suppressor p53. When mitophagy is enhanced, p53 co-localizes with mitochondria and is removed by a mitophagy-dependent manner. However, when mitophagy is inhibited, p53 is phosphorylated at serine-392 by PINK1, a kinase associated with mitophagy, on mitochondria and translocated into the nucleus, where it binds to the NANOG promoter to prevent OCT4 and SOX2 transcription factors from activating the expression of NANOG, a transcription factor critical for maintaining the stemness and the self-renewal ability of CSCs, resulting in the reduction of hepatic CSC populations...
October 10, 2017: Molecular Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032727/spleen-derived-anti-inflammatory-cytokine-il-10-stimulated-by-adipose-tissue-derived-stem-cells-protects-against-type-2-diabetes
#10
JinYing Zhang, ZiHui Deng, LiYuan Jin, Chen Yang, Jiejie Liu, Haijing Song, Weidong Han, YiLing Si
Considering that spleen plays an important role in the occurrence and development of diabetes, we aimed to investigate the role of the spleen in the treatment of type 2 diabetes (T2D) with adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ADSCs). We established a T2D/splenectomy (SPX) rat model using high-fat diet/streptozotocin (STZ) administration with SPX, then assessed the therapeutic effects of ADSCs, and explored the possible mechanism. A single ADSCs infusion was found to ameliorate hyperglycemia and insulin resistance in diabetic rats, accompanied by a considerable number of ADSCs homing to the spleens in T2D rats...
October 15, 2017: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032648/kaposi-s-sarcoma-associated-herpesvirus-infection-modulates-the-proliferation-of-glioma-stem-like-cells
#11
Hyungtaek Jeon, Yun Hee Kang, Seung-Min Yoo, Myung-Jin Park, Jong Bae Park, Seung-Hoon Lee, Myung-Shin Lee
Glioblastoma multiforme is the most lethal malignant brain tumor. Despite many intensive studies, the prognosis of glioblastoma multiforme is currently very poor, with a median overall survival duration of 14 months and 2-year survival rates of less than 10%. Although viral infections have been emphasized as potential cofactors, their influences on pathways that support glioblastoma progression are not known. Some previous studies indicated that human Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) was detected in healthy brains, and its microRNA was also detected in glioblastoma patients' plasma...
October 14, 2017: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032274/assessment-of-impact-of-human-leukocyte-antigen-hla-type-on-outcomes-of-allogeneic-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplant-for-chronic-lymphocytic-leukemia-cll
#12
Brian T Hill, Kwang Woo Ahn, Zhen-Huan Hu, Mahmoud Aljurf, Amer Beitinjaneh, Jean-Yves Cahn, Jan Cerny, Mohamed A Kharfan-Dabaja, Siddhartha Ganguly, Nilanjan Ghosh, Michael R Grunwald, Yoshihiro Inamoto, Tamila Kindwall-Keller, Taiga Nishihori, Richard F Olsson, Ayman Saad, Matthew Seftel, Sachiko Seo, Jeffrey Szer, Martin Tallman, Celalettin Ustun, Peter H Wiernik, Richard T Maziarz, Matt Kalaycio, Edwin Alyea, Uday Popat, Ronald Sobecks, Wael Saber
Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is a common hematologic malignancy with many highly effective therapies. Chemorefractory disease, often characterized by deletion of chromosome 17p, has historically been associated with very poor outcomes, leading to the application of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (allo-HCT) for medically fit patients. Although the use of allo-HCT has reduced since the introduction of novel targeted therapy for the treatment of CLL, there remains significant interest in understanding factors that may influence the efficacy of allo-HCT as it represents the only known curative treatment for CLL...
October 12, 2017: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031565/quantified-postsurgical-small-cell-size-ctcs-and-epcam-circulating-tumor-stem-cells-with-cytogenetic-abnormalities-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma-patients-determine-cancer-relapse
#13
Liang Wang, Yilin Li, Jing Xu, Aiqun Zhang, Xuedong Wang, Rui Tang, Xinjing Zhang, Hongfang Yin, Manting Liu, Daisy Dandan Wang, Peter Ping Lin, Lin Shen, Jiahong Dong
Detection of hepatocellular carcinoma circulating tumor cells performed with conventional strategies, is significantly limited due to inherently heterogeneous and dynamic expression of EpCAM, as well as degradation of cytokeratins during epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, which inevitably lead to non-negligible false negative detection of such "uncapturable and invisible" CTCs. A novel SE-iFISH strategy, improved and optimized for detection of HCC-CTCs in this study, was applied to comprehensively detect, phenotypically and karyotypically characterize hepatocellular and cholangiocarcinoma CTCs in patients subjected to surgical resection...
October 12, 2017: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031516/growth-of-adult-spinal-cord-in-knifefish-development-and-parametrization-of-a-distributed-model
#14
Iulian Ilieş, Rifat Sipahi, Günther K H Zupanc
The study of indeterminate-growing organisms such as teleost fish presents a unique opportunity for improving our understanding of central nervous tissue growth during adulthood. Integrating the existing experimental data associated with this process into a theoretical framework through mathematical or computational modeling provides further research avenues through sensitivity analysis and optimization. While this type of approach has been used extensively in investigations of tumor growth, wound healing, and bone regeneration, the development of nervous tissue has been rarely studied within a modeling framework...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030823/a-facile-in-vitro-384-well-plate-system-to-model-disseminated-tumor-cells-in-the-bone-marrow-microenvironment
#15
Johanna M Buschhaus, Kathryn E Luker, Gary D Luker
Bone marrow disseminated tumor cells (DTCs) are dormant cancer cells that harbor themselves in a bone marrow niche for years after patient remission before potentially returning to a proliferative state, causing recurrent cancer. DTCs reside in bone marrow environments with physiologically important mesenchymal stem cells that are often negatively affected by chemotherapy treatments. Currently, there are very few models of DTCs that recapitulate their dormant phenotype while producing enough samples to accurately quantify cancer and surrounding stromal cell behaviors...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030812/using-carboxy-fluorescein-succinimidyl-ester-cfse-to-identify-quiescent-glioblastoma-stem-like-cells
#16
Hassan Azari, Loic P Deleyrolle, Brent A Reynolds
Tumor resistance to conventional therapies is a major challenge toward the eradication of cancer, a life-threatening disease. This resistance mainly results from tumor heterogeneity and more specifically from the existence of "stem-like" cells that remain in a quiescent state for long periods of time and thus escape commonly used anti-cancer drugs resulting in treatment failure. Therefore, targeting this subpopulation would present a viable strategy to overcome tumor burden. This daunting task requires a deep and thorough understanding of the biology of the quiescent stem-cell population, their interaction with tumor microenvironments, and mechanisms used to sustain themselves despite aggressive therapies...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030596/mesenchymal-stem-cells-from-tumor-microenvironment-favour-breast-cancer-stem-cell-proliferation-cancerogenic-and-metastatic-potential-via-ionotropic-purinergic-signalling
#17
A Maffey, C Storini, C Diceglie, C Martelli, L Sironi, C Calzarossa, N Tonna, R Lovchik, E Delamarche, L Ottobrini, F Bianco
Interaction between tumor cells and the microenvironment is key in initiation, progression, and invasiveness of cancer. In particular, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are recruited to the sites of developing tumors, thus promoting metastasis formation. Although it is well known that MSCs migrate and integrate in the tumor microenvironment (TME), their fate and function inside the tumor is still not clear. In this study, we analyzed the role played by MSCs in breast cancer oncogenesis. Data indicate that interaction of breast cancer cells with MSCs results in an increased proliferation and metabolic activity of breast cancer cells, partially due to MSC-derived microvesicles that are shed in the TME...
October 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029402/notch-signaling-regulates-metabolic-heterogeneity-in-glioblastoma-stem-cells
#18
N Sumru Bayin, Joshua D Frenster, Rajeev Sen, Sheng Si, Aram S Modrek, Nataliya Galifianakis, Igor Dolgalev, Valerio Ortenzi, Irineu Illa-Bochaca, Anadjeet Khahera, Jonathan Serrano, Luis Chiriboga, David Zagzag, John G Golfinos, Werner Doyle, Aristotelis Tsirigos, Adriana Heguy, Mitch Chesler, Mary Helen Barcellos-Hoff, Matija Snuderl, Dimitris G Placantonakis
Glioblastoma (GBM) stem cells (GSCs) reside in both hypoxic and vascular microenvironments within tumors. The molecular mechanisms that allow GSCs to occupy such contrasting niches are not understood. We used patient-derived GBM cultures to identify GSC subtypes with differential activation of Notch signaling, which co-exist in tumors but occupy distinct niches and match their metabolism accordingly. Multipotent GSCs with Notch pathway activation reside in perivascular niches, and are unable to entrain anaerobic glycolysis during hypoxia...
September 12, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029400/rat-embryonic-fibroblasts-immortalized-by-mrps18-2-protein-are-target-for-nk-cells
#19
Muhammad Mushtaq, Pradeepa N Pangigadde, Suhas Darekar, Erik Dissen, Elena Kashuba
Overexpression of the human mitochondrial ribosomal protein MRPS18-2 (S18-2) led to immortalization of primary rat embryonic fibroblasts (REFs). The derived cells (18IM) expressed embryonic stem cell markers. Noteworthy, genes encoding the COX family proteins were up-regulated significantly. It is known that the COX family proteins are involved in the regulation of immune response. In the present work we demonstrate that 18IM cells behave like stem cells when subjected to directed differentiation in vitro. However, unlike stem cells, 18IM cells do not develop tumors in vivo, in SCID mice...
September 12, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028833/merkel-cell-polyomavirus-recruits-mycl-to-the-ep400-complex-to-promote-oncogenesis
#20
Jingwei Cheng, Donglim Esther Park, Christian Berrios, Elizabeth A White, Reety Arora, Rosa Yoon, Timothy Branigan, Tengfei Xiao, Thomas Westerling, Alexander Federation, Rhamy Zeid, Benjamin Strober, Selene K Swanson, Laurence Florens, James E Bradner, Myles Brown, Peter M Howley, Megha Padi, Michael P Washburn, James A DeCaprio
Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) frequently contains integrated copies of Merkel cell polyomavirus DNA that express a truncated form of Large T antigen (LT) and an intact Small T antigen (ST). While LT binds RB and inactivates its tumor suppressor function, it is less clear how ST contributes to MCC tumorigenesis. Here we show that ST binds specifically to the MYC homolog MYCL (L-MYC) and recruits it to the 15-component EP400 histone acetyltransferase and chromatin remodeling complex. We performed a large-scale immunoprecipitation for ST and identified co-precipitating proteins by mass spectrometry...
October 2017: PLoS Pathogens
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