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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508207/new-aspects-of-the-seam4d-dependent-control-of-lymphocyte-activation
#1
E M Kuklina, I V Nekrasova
Novel targets for action of the class IV semaphorin Seam4D have been identified in the immune system. The low-affinity CD72 receptor for Seam4D was detected not only on B lymphocytes, but also in a proportion of T cells, whereas the high-affinity semaphorin receptor, plexin B1, originally considered to belong to non-immune cells, proved to be in a great proportion of intact T and B cells. Seam4D is constitutively expressed in B cells, which, along with T cells, can serve as a source of both membrane and soluble semaphorin...
March 2017: Doklady Biological Sciences: Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Biological Sciences Sections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506853/expression-of-semaphorin-3e-is-suppressed-in-severe-asthma
#2
Hesam Movassagh, Lianyu Shan, Jamila Chakir, John F McConville, Andrew J Halayko, Latifa Koussih, Abdelilah S Gounni
The level of a previously unknown mediator, Semaphorin 3E, is diminished in the airways of severe allergic asthmatic patients. This study suggests a potential role of Semaphorin3E in the pathogenesis of asthma severity.
May 12, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502680/semaphorin-3a-is-a-key-player-in-the-pathogenesis-of-asthma
#3
Ronen Cozacov, Katlin Halasz, Tharwat Haj, Zahava Vadasz
Immune semaphorins are key players in regulating immune mediated inflammation. Semaphorin3A (sema3A) a secreted and membrane bound member of this family, is well reported for its properties in maintaining self-tolerance. Semaphorin3A was recognized to be a marker for T-regulatory cells (Tregs), and as such is a useful tool for assessing the status of these cells in preventing immune mediated diseases. This study was designed aiming to evaluate how sema3A is possibly involved in bronchial asthma. Here, we found sema3A serum levels and the expression of sema3A on Tregs significantly lower in patients with moderate to severe asthma when compared to healthy individuals...
May 11, 2017: Clinical Immunology: the Official Journal of the Clinical Immunology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502679/the-association-between-semaphorin-3a-levels-and-gluten-free-diet-in-patients-with-celiac-disease
#4
Aharon Kessel, Chen Lin, Zahava Vadasz, Regina Peri, Nasren Eiza, Drora Berkowitz
Celiac disease (CD) is an inflammatory disease affecting the small intestine. We aim to assess serum level and expression of semaphorin 3A (Sema3A) on T regulatory (Treg) cells in CD patients. Twenty-six newly diagnosed celiac patients, 13 celiac patients on a gluten-free diet and 16 healthy controls included in the study. Sema3A protein level in the serum of celiac patients was significantly higher compared to healthy group (7.17±1.8ng/ml vs. 5.67±1.5ng/ml, p=0.012). Sema3A expression on Treg cells was statistically lower in celiac patients compared to healthy subjects (p=0...
May 11, 2017: Clinical Immunology: the Official Journal of the Clinical Immunology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498470/novel-role-of-semaphorin%C3%A2-3a-in-the-growth-and-progression-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#5
Xuedong Li, Qing Chen, Dan Yin, Shiming Shi, Lei Yu, Shaolai Zhou, Erbao Chen, Zhengjun Zhou, Yinghong Shi, Jia Fan, Jian Zhou, Zhi Dai
Semaphorin 3A (SEMA3A), a secretory protein, is a founding member of the semaphorin family and functions in both the biological behavior of tumor cells and the modulation of tumor-associated macrophages. However, the role of SEMA3A in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is still not well established. In the present study, we investigated the expression levels of SEMA3A in 80 HCC tissues and cell lines, using RT-qPCR, western blotting and immunohistochemistry. Expression profile analysis revealed that SEMA3A was significantly overexpressed in human HCC patients and positively correlated with the metastatic potential of HCC cells...
May 2, 2017: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480592/slow-myofiber-commitment-by-semaphorin-3a-secreted-from-myogenic-stem-cells
#6
Ryuichi Tatsumi, Takahiro Suzuki, Mai-Khoi Q Do, Yuki Ohya, Judy E Anderson, Ayumi Shibata, Mai Kawaguchi, Shunpei Ohya, Hideaki Ohtsubo, Wataru Mizunoya, Shoko Sawano, Yusuke Komiya, Riho Ichitsubo, Koichi Ojima, Shin-Ichiro Nishimatsu, Tsutomu Nohno, Yutaka Ohsawa, Yoshihide Sunada, Mako Nakamura, Mitsuhiro Furuse, Yoshihide Ikeuchi, Takanori Nishimura, Takeshi Yagi, Ronald E Allen
Recently, we found that resident myogenic stem satellite cells up-regulate a multi-functional secreted protein, semaphorin 3A (Sema3A), exclusively at the early- differentiation phase in response to muscle injury; however, its physiological significance is still unknown. Here we show that Sema3A impacts slow-twitch fiber generation through a signaling pathway, cell-membrane receptor (neuropilin2-plexinA3) → myogenin-myocyte enhancer factor 2D (MEF2D) → slow myosin heavy chain. This novel axis was found by small interfering RNA (siRNA)-transfection experiments in myoblast cultures, which also revealed an additional element that Sema3A-neuropilin1/plexinA1, A2 may enhance slow-fiber formation by activating signals that inhibit fast-myosin expression...
May 7, 2017: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469004/sprouting-strategies-and-dead-ends-in-anti-angiogenic-targeting-of-nets
#7
Patricia Carrasco, Iratxe Zuazo-Gaztelu, Oriol Casanovas
Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) are a heterogeneous group of neoplasms that arise from cells of the neuroendocrine system. NETs are characterized by being highly vascularized tumors that produce large amounts of proangiogenic factors. Due to their complexity and heterogeneity, progress in the development of successful therapeutic approaches has been limited. For instance, standard chemotherapy-based therapies have proven to be poorly selective for tumor cells and toxic for normal tissues. Considering the urge to develop an efficient therapy to treat NET patients, vascular targeting has been proposed as a new approach to block tumor growth...
May 3, 2017: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467912/plexin-b2-and-semaphorin-4c-guide-t-cell-recruitment-and-function-in-the-germinal-center
#8
Hu Yan, Longyan Wu, Changming Shih, Shiyue Hou, Jingwen Shi, Tianyang Mao, Wenbin Chen, Bhavani Melvin, Robert J Rigby, Yingjia Chen, Haochen Jiang, Roland H Friedel, Carola G Vinuesa, Hai Qi
Follicular T helper (TFH) cells orchestrate the germinal center (GC) response locally. TFH localization in GCs is controlled by chemo-guidance cues and antigen-specific adhesion. Here. we define an antigen-independent, contact-dependent, adhesive guidance system for TFH cells. Unusual for amoeboid cell migration, the system is composed of transmembrane plexin B2 (PlxnB2) molecule, which is highly expressed by GC B cells, and its transmembrane binding partner semaphorin 4C (Sema4C), which is upregulated on TFH cells...
May 2, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28459435/brown-adipose-tissue-macrophages-control-tissue-innervation-and-homeostatic-energy-expenditure
#9
Yochai Wolf, Sigalit Boura-Halfon, Nina Cortese, Zhana Haimon, Hadas Sar Shalom, Yael Kuperman, Vyacheslav Kalchenko, Alexander Brandis, Eyal David, Yifat Segal-Hayoun, Louise Chappell-Maor, Avraham Yaron, Steffen Jung
Tissue macrophages provide immunological defense and contribute to the establishment and maintenance of tissue homeostasis. Here we used constitutive and inducible mutagenesis to delete the nuclear transcription regulator Mecp2 in macrophages. Mice that lacked the gene encoding Mecp2, which is associated with Rett syndrome, in macrophages did not show signs of neurodevelopmental disorder but displayed spontaneous obesity, which was linked to impaired function of brown adipose tissue (BAT). Specifically, mutagenesis of a BAT-resident Cx3Cr1(+) macrophage subpopulation compromised homeostatic thermogenesis but not acute, cold-induced thermogenesis...
June 2017: Nature Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453731/shear-stress-regulated-mir-27b-controls-pericyte-recruitment-by-repressing-sema6a-and-sema6d
#10
Shemsi Demolli, Anuradha Doddaballapur, Kavi Devraj, Konstantin Stark, Yosif Manavski, Annekathrin Eckart, Christoph M Zehendner, Tina Lucas, Thomas Korff, Markus Hecker, Steffen Massberg, Stefan Liebner, David Kaluza, Reinier A Boon, Stefanie Dimmeler
Aims: Vessel maturation involves the recruitment of mural cells such as pericytes and smooth muscle cells. Laminar shear stress is a major trigger for vessel maturation, but the molecular mechanisms by which shear stress affects recruitment of pericytes are unclear. MicroRNAs (miRs) are small non-coding RNAs, which post-transcriptionally control gene expression. The aim of the present study was to unveil the mechanism by which shear stress-regulated microRNAs contribute to vessel maturation...
May 1, 2017: Cardiovascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448523/semaphorin-1a-prevents-drosophila-olfactory-projection-neuron-dendrites-from-mis-targeting-into-select-antennal-lobe-regions
#11
Hung-Chang Shen, Sao-Yu Chu, Tsai-Chi Hsu, Chun-Han Wang, I-Ya Lin, Hung-Hsiang Yu
Elucidating how appropriate neurite patterns are generated in neurons of the olfactory system is crucial for comprehending the construction of the olfactory map. In the Drosophila olfactory system, projection neurons (PNs), primarily derived from four neural stem cells (called neuroblasts), populate their cell bodies surrounding to and distribute their dendrites in distinct but overlapping patterns within the primary olfactory center of the brain, the antennal lobe (AL). However, it remains unclear whether the same molecular mechanisms are employed to generate the appropriate dendritic patterns in discrete AL glomeruli among PNs produced from different neuroblasts...
April 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440030/-identification-of-target-genes-downstream-of-semaphorin6a-plexina2-signaling-in-zebrafish
#12
Sarah E Emerson, Riley M St Clair, Ashley L Waldron, Sierra R Bruno, Anna Duong, Heather E Driscoll, Bryan A Ballif, Sarah McFarlane, Alicia M Ebert
BACKGROUND: Semaphorin (Sema)/Plexin (Plxn) signaling is important for many aspects of neuronal development, however the transcriptional regulation imposed by this signaling pathway is unknown. Previously, we identified an essential role for Sema6A/PlxnA2 signaling in regulating proliferation and cohesion of retinal precursor cells (RPCs) during early eye development. This study used RNA isolated from control, Sema6A-deficient, and PlxnA2-deficient zebrafish embryos in a microarray analysis to identify genes that were differentially expressed when this signaling pathway was disrupted...
April 25, 2017: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438183/semaphorin-plexin-signaling-influences-early-ventral-telencephalic-development-and-thalamocortical-axon-guidance
#13
Manuela D Mitsogiannis, Graham E Little, Kevin J Mitchell
BACKGROUND: Sensory processing relies on projections from the thalamus to the neocortex being established during development. Information from different sensory modalities reaching the thalamus is segregated into specialized nuclei, whose neurons then send inputs to cognate cortical areas through topographically defined axonal connections. Developing thalamocortical axons (TCAs) normally approach the cortex by extending through the subpallium; here, axonal navigation is aided by distributed guidance cues and discrete cell populations, such as the corridor neurons and the internal capsule (IC) guidepost cells...
April 24, 2017: Neural Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416516/semaphorin-4d-inhibits-neutrophil-activation-and-is-involved-in-the-pathogenesis-of-neutrophil-mediated-autoimmune-vasculitis
#14
Masayuki Nishide, Satoshi Nojima, Daisuke Ito, Hyota Takamatsu, Shohei Koyama, Sujin Kang, Tetsuya Kimura, Keiko Morimoto, Takashi Hosokawa, Yoshitomo Hayama, Yuhei Kinehara, Yasuhiro Kato, Takeshi Nakatani, Yoshimitsu Nakanishi, Takeshi Tsuda, Jeong Hoon Park, Toru Hirano, Yoshihito Shima, Masashi Narazaki, Eiichi Morii, Atsushi Kumanogoh
OBJECTIVES: Inappropriate activation of neutrophils plays a pathological role in antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis (AAV). The aim of this study was to investigate the functions of semaphorin 4D (SEMA4D) in regulation of neutrophil activation, and its involvement in AAV pathogenesis. METHODS: Serum levels of soluble SEMA4D were evaluated by ELISA. Blood cell-surface expression of membrane SEMA4D was evaluated by flow cytometry. To determine the functional interactions between neutrophil membrane SEMA4D and endothelial plexin B2, wild-type and SEMA4D(-/-) mice neutrophils were cultured with an endothelial cell line (MS1) stained with SYTOX green, and subjected to neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) formation assays...
April 17, 2017: Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373097/sema3f-protects-against-subretinal-neovascularization-in-vivo
#15
Ye Sun, Raffael Liegl, Yan Gong, Anima Bühler, Bertan Cakir, Steven S Meng, Samuel B Burnim, Chi-Hsiu Liu, Tristan Reuer, Peipei Zhang, Johanna M Walz, Franziska Ludwig, Clemens Lange, Hansjürgen Agostini, Daniel Böhringer, Günther Schlunck, Lois E H Smith, Andreas Stahl
Pathological neovascularization of the outer retina is the hallmark of neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD). Building on our previous observations that semaphorin 3F (Sema3f) is expressed in the outer retina and demonstrates anti-angiogenic potential, we have investigated whether Sema3f can be used to protect against subretinal neovascularization in two mouse models. Both in the very low-density lipid-receptor knockout (Vldlr(-/-)) model of spontaneous subretinal neovascularization as well as in the mouse model of laser-induced choroidal neovascularization (CNV), we found protective effects of Sema3f against the formation of pathologic neovascularization...
April 2017: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350837/semaphorin-3f-expression-is-reduced-in-pregnancy-complicated-by-preeclampsia-an-observational-clinical-study
#16
Giovanni Stallone, Maria Matteo, Giuseppe Stefano Netti, Barbara Infante, Adelaide Di Lorenzo, Clelia Prattichizzo, Stefania Carlucci, Federica Trezza, Loreto Gesualdo, Pantaleo Greco, Giuseppe Grandaliano
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Preeclampsia is a systemic disorder, affecting 2-10% of pregnancies, characterized by a deregulated pro- and anti-angiogenic balance. Semaphorin 3F is an angiogenesis inhibitor. We aimed to investigate whether semaphorin 3F expression is modulated in preeclampsia. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, AND MEASUREMENTS: We performed two observational single center cohort studies between March 2013 and August 2014. In the first we enrolled 110 consecutive women, undergoing an elective cesarean section; in the second we included 150 consecutive women undergoing amniocentesis for routine clinical indications at 16-18 week of gestation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28348255/the-temporal-basis-of-angiogenesis
#17
REVIEW
Katie Bentley, Shilpa Chakravartula
The process of new blood vessel growth (angiogenesis) is highly dynamic, involving complex coordination of multiple cell types. Though the process must carefully unfold over time to generate functional, well-adapted branching networks, we seldom hear about the time-based properties of angiogenesis, despite timing being central to other areas of biology. Here, we present a novel, time-based formulation of endothelial cell behaviour during angiogenesis and discuss a flurry of our recent, integrated in silico/in vivo studies, put in context to the wider literature, which demonstrate that tissue conditions can locally adapt the timing of collective cell behaviours/decisions to grow different vascular network architectures...
May 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28347780/semaphorin4d-promotes-axon-regrowth-and-swimming-ability-during-recovery-following-zebrafish-spinal-cord-injury
#18
Shi-Xiao Peng, Li Yao, Chun Cui, Hou-de Zhao, Chun-Jie Liu, Yu-Hong Li, Lin-Fang Wang, Shu-Bing Huang, Yan-Qin Shen
Semaphorins comprise a family of proteins involved in axon guidance during development. Semaphorin4D (Sema4D) has both neuroregenerative and neurorepressive functions, being able to stimulate both axonal outgrowth and growth cone collapse during development, and therefore could play an important role in neurological recovery from traumatic injury. Here, we used a zebrafish spinal cord transection model to study the role of Sema4D in a system capable of neuroregeneration. Real-time qPCR and in situ hybridization showed upregulated Sema4D expression in the acute response phase (within 3days post SCI), and downregulated levels in the chronic response phase (11-21days after SCI)...
March 25, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339741/shear-stress-regulated-mir-27b-controls-pericyte-recruitment-by-repressing-sema6a-and-sema6d
#19
Shemsi Demolli, Anuradha Doddaballapur, Kavi Devraj, Konstantin Stark, Yosif Manavski, Annekathrin Eckart, Christoph Zehendner, Tina Lucas, Thomas Korff, Markus Hecker, Steffen Massberg, Stefan Liebner, David Kaluza, Reinier A Boon, Stefanie Dimmeler
Aims: Vessel maturation involves the recruitment of mural cells such as pericytes and smooth muscle cells. Laminar shear stress is a major trigger for vessel maturation, but the molecular mechanisms by which shear stress affects recruitment of pericytes are unclear. MicroRNAs (miRs) are small non-coding RNAs, which post-transcriptionally control gene expression. The aim of the present study was to unveil the mechanism by which shear stress-regulated microRNAs contribute to vessel maturation...
February 23, 2017: Cardiovascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338957/regulation-of-tgf-%C3%AE-mediated-endothelial-mesenchymal-transition-by-microrna-27
#20
Hiroshi I Suzuki, Akihiro Katsura, Hajime Mihira, Masafumi Horie, Akira Saito, Kohei Miyazono
Multiple microRNAs (miRNAs) regulate epithelial-mesenchymal transition and endothelial-mesenchymal transition (EndMT). Here we report that microRNA-27b (miR-27b) positively regulates transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β)-induced EndMT of MS-1 mouse pancreatic microvascular endothelial cells. TGF-β induced miR-23b/24-1/27b expression, and inhibition of miR-27 suppressed TGF-β-mediated induction of mesenchymal genes. Genome-wide miRNA target analysis revealed that miR-27 targets Elk1, which acts as a competitive inhibitor of myocardin-related transcription factor-serum response factor signalling and as a myogenic repressor...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Biochemistry
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