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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929539/refuting-the-hypothesis-that-semaphorin-3f-neuropilin-2-exclude-blood-vessels-from-the-cap-mesenchyme-in-the-developing-kidney
#1
David A D Munro, Peter Hohenstein, Thomas M Coate, Jamie A Davies
BACKGROUND: During murine kidney development, new cortical blood vessels form and pattern in cycles that coincide with cycles of collecting duct branching and the accompanying splitting of the cap mesenchyme (nephron progenitor cell populations that 'cap' collecting duct ends). At no point in the patterning cycle do blood vessels enter the cap mesenchyme. We hypothesised that the exclusion of blood vessels from the cap mesenchyme may be controlled, at least in part, by an anti-angiogenic signal expressed by the cap mesenchyme cells...
September 20, 2017: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929531/oral-administration-of-milk-derived-phospholipids-inhibits-penetration-of-cutaneous-nerve-fibres-into-epidermis-in-a-mouse-model-of-acute-dry-skin
#2
A Sakaguchi, Y Kamata, N Takahashi, H Matsuda, R Kosaka, Y Umehara, H Ogawa, M Tominaga, K Takamori
The density of intraepidermal nerve fibres has been shown to be higher in itchy dry skin than in healthy skin, suggesting that epidermal hyperinnervation is at least partly involved in peripheral itch sensitization. We investigated whether oral administration of milk-derived phospholipids (MPLs) would inhibit epidermal hyperinnervation in a mouse model of dry skin. We found that the number of intraepidermal nerve fibres was significantly lower in the MPL group than in the control group. Expression of nerve growth factor (NGF) levels in the epidermis was significantly decreased by oral administration of MPLs, whereas expression of semaphorin (Sema)3A, a nerve repulsion factor, was increased in the MPL group...
September 20, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927892/cd100-plexin-b2-promotes-the-inflammation-in-psoriasis-by-activating-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-and-inflammasome-in-keratinocytes
#3
Chen Zhang, Chunying Xiao, Erle Dang, Jiao Cao, Zhenlai Zhu, Meng Fu, Xu Yao, Yufeng Liu, Boquan Jin, Gang Wang, Wei Li
Plexin-B2 (PlxnB2) and its ligand, CD100 (Semaphorin 4D), are originally identified as axon-guidance molecules that function during neuronal development; however, studies also showed that CD100-Plexins participate in various immune responses. In the present study, we found that the expression of PlxnB2 on keratinocytes was specifically increased in lesional skin of psoriasis patients, but not atopic dermatitis. Levels of soluble CD100 (sCD100) and membrane CD100 (mCD100) were elevated in sera of psoriasis patients and on keratinocytes of psoriatic skin, respectively...
September 16, 2017: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918114/netrins-semaphorins-novel-regulators-of-the-immune-response
#4
REVIEW
Jordyn Feinstein, Bhama Ramkhelawon
Netrins and semaphorins, members of the neuronal guidance cue family, exhibit a rich biology with significant roles that extend beyond chemotactic guidance of the axons to build the neuronal patterns of the body. Screening of adult tissues and specific cellular subsets have illuminated that these proteins are also abundantly expressed under both steady state and pathological scenarios. This observation suggests that, in addition to their role in the development of the axonal tree, these proteins possess additional novel functions in adult physiopathology...
September 13, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917721/low-levels-of-the-immunoregulator-semaphorin-4d-cd100-in-sera-of-hiv-patients
#5
Z Vadas, D Elbirt, S Radian, S Bezalel-Rosenberg, K Mahlab-Guri, E Toubi, I Asher, Z Sthoeger
INTRODUCTION: Semaphorin-4D (CD100), generated by CD4/CD8 cells, plays an important role in T cells activation. It also regulates B cell differentiation via its receptor the CD72. Both have soluble forms - sCD100/sCD72. METHODS: sCD100 and sCD72 levels were determined by ELISA (MyBioSource, USA). RESULTS: 28 chronic HIV patients and 50 matched healthy volunteers participated in our study. Before treatment, CD4 cell counts were 267±216cells/mcl and viral load (VL) was 586,675±1,897,431copies/ml...
September 13, 2017: Clinical Immunology: the Official Journal of the Clinical Immunology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912336/elevated-semaphorin-5a-in-patients-with-hashimoto-s-thyroiditis-a-case-control-study
#6
Yongping Liu, Shuo Wang, Qingling Guo, Yongze Li, Jing Qin, Na Zhao, Yushu Li, Zhongyan Shan, Weiping Teng
OBJECTIVE: Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) is characterised by elevated specific auto-antibodies, including TgAb and TPOAb. Increasing evidence has demonstrated the essential role of Th17 cells in HT. However, the underlying mechanism is still unclear. Semaphorin 5A (Sema5A) is involved in several autoimmune diseases through regulation of immune cells. The aim of this study was to explore the role of Sema5A in HT. METHODS: We measured serum Sema5A levels in HT (n = 92) and healthy controls (n = 111) by ELISA...
September 14, 2017: Endocrine Connections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904399/semaphorin-3%C3%A2-c-drives-epithelial-to-mesenchymal-transition-invasiveness-and-stem-like-characteristics-in-prostate-cells
#7
Kevin J Tam, Daniel H F Hui, Wilson W Lee, Mingshu Dong, Tabitha Tombe, Ivy Z F Jiao, Shahram Khosravi, Ario Takeuchi, James W Peacock, Larissa Ivanova, Igor Moskalev, Martin E Gleave, Ralph Buttyan, Michael E Cox, Christopher J Ong
Prostate cancer (PCa) is among the most commonly-occurring cancers worldwide and a leader in cancer-related deaths. Local non-invasive PCa is highly treatable but limited treatment options exist for those with locally-advanced and metastatic forms of the disease underscoring the need to identify mechanisms mediating PCa progression. The semaphorins are a large grouping of membrane-associated or secreted signalling proteins whose normal roles reside in embryogenesis and neuronal development. In this context, semaphorins help establish chemotactic gradients and direct cell movement...
September 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902178/tumor-inhibitory-effect-of-ircr201-a-novel-cross-reactive-c-met-antibody-targeting-the-psi-domain
#8
Hyunkyu Park, Donggeon Kim, Eunmi Kim, Jason K Sa, Hee Won Lee, Suji Yu, Jiwon Oh, Seok-Hyung Kim, Yeup Yoon, Do-Hyun Nam
Hepatocyte growth factor receptor (HGFR, c-Met) is an essential member of the receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) family that is often dysregulated during tumor progression, driving a malignant phenotypic state and modulating important cellular functions including tumor growth, invasion, metastasis, and angiogenesis, providing a strong rationale for targeting HGF/c-Met signaling axis in cancer therapy. Based on its protumorigenic potentials, we developed IRCR201, a potent antagonistic antibody targeting the plexin-semaphorin-integrin (PSI) domain of c-Met, using synthetic human antibody phage libraries...
September 13, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894005/varicose-and-cheerio-collaborate-with-pebble-to-mediate-semaphorin-1a-reverse-signaling-in-drosophila
#9
Sangyun Jeong, Da-Som Yang, Young Gi Hong, Sarah P Mitchell, Matthew P Brown, Alex L Kolodkin
The transmembrane semaphorin Sema-1a acts as both a ligand and a receptor to regulate axon-axon repulsion during neural development. Pebble (Pbl), a Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factor, mediates Sema-1a reverse signaling through association with the N-terminal region of the Sema-1a intracellular domain (ICD), resulting in cytoskeletal reorganization. Here, we uncover two additional Sema-1a interacting proteins, varicose (Vari) and cheerio (Cher), each with neuronal functions required for motor axon pathfinding...
September 11, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893946/a-radial-axis-defined-by-semaphorin-to-neuropilin-signaling-controls-pancreatic-islet-morphogenesis
#10
Philip T Pauerstein, Krissie Tellez, Kirk B Willmarth, Keon Min Park, Brian Hsueh, H Efsun Arda, Xueying Gu, Haig Aghajanian, Karl Deisseroth, Jonathan A Epstein, Seung K Kim
The islets of Langerhans are endocrine organs characteristically dispersed throughout the pancreas. During development, endocrine progenitors delaminate, migrate radially, and cluster to form islets. Despite the distinctive distribution of islets, spatially localized signals that control islet morphogenesis have not been discovered. Here we identify a radial signaling axis that instructs developing islet cells to disperse throughout the pancreas. A screen of pancreatic extracellular signals identified factors that stimulated islet cell development...
September 11, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890301/antibody-recognizing-4-sulfated-chondroitin-sulfate-proteoglycans-restores-memory-in-tauopathy-induced-neurodegeneration
#11
Sujeong Yang, Sam Hilton, João Nuno Alves, Lisa M Saksida, Timothy Bussey, Russell T Matthews, Hiroshi Kitagawa, Maria Grazia Spillantini, Jessica C F Kwok, James W Fawcett
Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) are the main active component of perineuronal nets (PNNs). Digestion of the glycosaminoglycan chains of CSPGs with chondroitinase ABC or transgenic attenuation of PNNs leads to prolongation of object recognition memory and activation of various forms of plasticity in the adult central nervous system. The inhibitory properties of the CSPGs depend on the pattern of sulfation of their glycosaminoglycans, with chondroitin 4-sulfate (C4S) being the most inhibitory form. In this study, we tested a number of candidates for functional blocking of C4S, leading to selection of an antibody, Cat316, which specifically recognizes C4S and blocks its inhibitory effects on axon growth...
August 9, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28881413/low-expression-of-sema6c-accelerates-the-primordial-follicle-activation-in-the-neonatal-mouse-ovary
#12
Su Zhou, Wei Yan, Wei Shen, Jing Cheng, Yueyue Xi, Suzhen Yuan, Fangfang Fu, Ting Ding, Aiyue Luo, Shixuan Wang
The primordial follicle assembly, activation and the subsequent development are critical processes for female reproduction. A limited number of primordial follicles are activated to enter the growing follicle pool each wave, and the primordial follicle pool progressively diminishes over a woman's life-time. The number of remaining primordial follicles represents the ovarian reserve. Identification and functional investigation of the factors involved in follicular initial recruitment will be of great significance to the understanding of the female reproduction process and ovarian ageing...
September 7, 2017: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859089/flavin-monooxygenases-regulate-caenorhabditis-elegans-axon-guidance-and-growth-cone-protrusion-with-unc-6-netrin-signaling-and-rac-gtpases
#13
Mahekta R Gujar, Aubrie M Stricker, Erik A Lundquist
The guidance cue UNC-6/Netrin regulates both attractive and repulsive axon guidance. Our previous work showed that in C. elegans, the attractive UNC-6/Netrin receptor UNC-40/DCC stimulates growth cone protrusion, and that the repulsive receptor, an UNC-5:UNC-40 heterodimer, inhibits growth cone protrusion. We have also shown that inhibition of growth cone protrusion downstream of the UNC-5:UNC-40 repulsive receptor involves Rac GTPases, the Rac GTP exchange factor UNC-73/Trio, and the cytoskeletal regulator UNC-33/CRMP, which mediates Semaphorin-induced growth cone collapse in other systems...
August 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28853092/involvement-of-semaphorin-sema4d-in-t-dependent-activation-of-b-cells
#14
Е М Kuklina, I V Nekrasova, Yu V Valieva
The involvement of endogenous semaphorin (Sema4D) into the key stage of T-dependent differentiation of B cells, formation of plasmoblasts, was demonstrated in vitro in T/B cell co-culture under conditions of polyclonal activation of T cells. The effect of semaphorin was not associated with activation of high-affinity Sema4D receptor plexin B1, but involves lowaffinity receptor CD72. These data indicate that Sema4D-dependent signal regulates not only the initial stage of B-cell activation, proliferative response to the antigen, but also further differentiation of B cells into plasma cells...
August 29, 2017: Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28846083/glia-initiate-brain-assembly-through-noncanonical-chimaerin-furin-axon-guidance-in-c-elegans
#15
Georgia Rapti, Chang Li, Alan Shan, Yun Lu, Shai Shaham
Brain assembly is hypothesized to begin when pioneer axons extend over non-neuronal cells, forming tracts guiding follower axons. Yet pioneer-neuron identities, their guidance substrates, and their interactions are not well understood. Here, using time-lapse embryonic imaging, genetics, protein-interaction, and functional studies, we uncover the early events of C. elegans brain assembly. We demonstrate that C. elegans glia are key for assembly initiation, guiding pioneer and follower axons using distinct signals...
August 28, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28835374/low-affinity-binding-in-cis-to-p2y2r-mediates-force-dependent-integrin-activation-during-hantavirus-infection
#16
Virginie Bondu, Chenyu Wu, Wenpeng Cao, Peter C Simons, Jennifer Gillette, Jieqing Zhu, Laurie Erb, X Frank Zhang, Tione Buranda
Pathogenic hantaviruses bind to the Plexin Semaphorin Integrin (PSI) domain of inactive, β3 integrins. Previous studies have implicated a cognate cis interaction between the bent conformation β5/β3 integrins and an RGD sequence in the first extracellular loop of P2Y2R (Erb et al., 2001). With single-molecule atomic force microscopy, we show a cognate interaction between (RGD)P2Y2R and an AFM tip decorated with recombinant αIIbβ3 integrins expressed on cell membranes. Mutation of the RGD sequence to RGE in the P2Y2R removes this interaction...
August 23, 2017: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817310/semaphorins-and-their-roles-in-airway-biology-potential-as-therapeutic-targets
#17
Hesam Movassagh, Forough Khadem, Abdelilah S Gounni
Semaphorins are a large family of proteins originally identified as axon guidance cues which play a crucial role in neural development. They are also ubiquitously expressed beyond the nervous system and contribute to regulation of essential cell functions such as cell migration, proliferation, and adhesion. Binding of semaphorins to their receptors, including plexins and neuropilins, triggers diverse signaling pathways which are involved in the pathogenesis of various diseases from cancer to autoimmune and allergic disorders...
August 17, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806446/sema3a-reduces-sprouting-of-adult-rod-photoreceptors-in-vitro
#18
Frank Kung, Weiwei Wang, Tracy S Tran, Ellen Townes-Anderson
Purpose: Rod photoreceptor terminals respond to retinal injury with retraction and sprouting. Since the guidance cue Semaphorin3A (Sema3A) is observed in the retina after injury, we asked whether Sema3A contributes to structural plasticity in rod photoreceptors. Methods: We used Western blots and alkaline phosphatase (AP)-tagged neuropilin-1 (NPN-1) to detect the expression of Sema3A in an organotypic model of porcine retinal detachment. We then examined Sema3A binding to cultured salamander rod photoreceptors using AP-tagged Sema3A...
August 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805479/on-variants-and-disease-causing-mutations-case-studies-of-a-sema4a-variant-identified-in-inherited-blindness
#19
Laura Bryant, Olga Lozynska, Grace Han, Jessica I W Morgan, Xiaowu Gai, Albert M Maguire, Tomas Aleman, Jean Bennett
The p.R713Q variant of the semaphorin-4a-encoding gene, SEMA4a, has been reported to cause autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa. Here we show three families with retinal degeneration in which unaffected family members are either homozygous or heterozygous for the variant. The p.R713Q variant in SEMA4A is insufficient to cause either autosomal recessive or autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa and is unlikely to be pathogenic.
August 14, 2017: Ophthalmic Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804523/tri-methylation-of-h3k79-is-decreased-in-tgf-%C3%AE-1-induced-epithelial-to-mesenchymal-transition-in-lung-cancer
#20
Emilie Evanno, Julie Godet, Nathalie Piccirilli, Joëlle Guilhot, Serge Milin, Jean Marc Gombert, Benoit Fouchaq, Joëlle Roche
BACKGROUND: The epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) enables epithelial cancer cells to acquire mesenchymal features and contributes to metastasis and resistance to treatment. This process involves epigenetic reprogramming for gene expression. We explored global histone modifications during TGF-β1-induced EMT in two non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines and tested different epigenetic treatment to modulate or partially reverse EMT. RESULTS: Loss of classical epithelial markers and gain of mesenchymal markers were verified in A549 and H358 cell lines during TGF-β1-induced EMT...
2017: Clinical Epigenetics
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