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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222057/effects-of-toe-in-and-wider-step-width-in-stair-ascent-with-different-knee-alignments
#1
Hunter J Bennett, Songning Zhang, Guangping Shen, Joshua T Weinhandl, Max R Paquette, Jeffrey Reinbolt, Dawn P Coe
PURPOSE: Toe-in (TI) and toe-in with wider step width (TIW) gait modifications have successfully reduced the internal peak knee adduction moment (KAM) during level walking and stair ascent tasks, respectively, for healthy and knee osteoarthritis populations. However, the concurrent effects of these modifications have not previously been combined to reduce both the first and the second peak KAM during stair ascent or tested among the different knee alignment groups. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine effects of TI and TIW gait modifications on knee biomechanics during stair ascent in individuals with varus, neutral, and valgus knee alignments...
March 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196629/the-atomic-structure-of-polar-and-non-polar-ingan-quantum-wells-and-the-green-gap-problem
#2
C J Humphreys, J T Griffiths, F Tang, F Oehler, S D Findlay, C Zheng, J Etheridge, T L Martin, P A J Bagot, M P Moody, D Sutherland, P Dawson, S Schulz, S Zhang, W Y Fu, T Zhu, M J Kappers, R A Oliver
We have used high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), aberration-corrected quantitative scanning transmission electron microscopy (Q-STEM), atom probe tomography (APT) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) to study the atomic structure of (0001) polar and (11-20) non-polar InGaN quantum wells (QWs). This paper provides an overview of the results. Polar (0001) InGaN in QWs is a random alloy, with In replacing Ga randomly. The InGaN QWs have atomic height interface steps, resulting in QW width fluctuations...
February 3, 2017: Ultramicroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194225/net-a-new-framework-for-the-vectorization-and-examination-of-network-data
#3
Jana Lasser, Eleni Katifori
BACKGROUND: The analysis of complex networks both in general and in particular as pertaining to real biological systems has been the focus of intense scientific attention in the past and present. In this paper we introduce two tools that provide fast and efficient means for the processing and quantification of biological networks like Drosophila tracheoles or leaf venation patterns: the Network Extraction Tool (NET) to extract data and the Graph-edit-GUI (GeGUI) to visualize and modify networks...
2017: Source Code for Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192261/the-role-of-gait-analysis-in-the-evaluation-of-patients-with-cervical-myelopathy-a-literature-review-study
#4
REVIEW
Ioannis D Siasios, Savvas L Spanos, Asimakis K Kanellopoulos, Aggeliki Fotiadou, John Pollina, Daniel Schneider, Alexander Becker, Vassilios G Dimopoulos, Kostas N Fountas
BACKGROUND: Gait analysis represents one of the newest methodologies employed in the clinical evaluation of CM patients. OBJECTIVE: To describe the role of gait analysis in the clinical evaluation of CM patients, as well as its potential role in the evaluation of the functional outcome of any surgical intervention. METHOD: ology: A literature review was performed in the PubMed, OVID and Google Scholar medical databases, from January of 1995 to August of 2016, using the terms "analysis", "anterior", "cervical myelopathy", "gait", "posterior", "surgery"...
February 9, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187067/the-morphology-and-possible-clinical-significance-of-the-radiating-extraforaminal-ligaments-at-the-l1-l5-levels
#5
Enyi Zhong, Qinghao Zhao, Benchao Shi, Xuefeng Zheng, Qinghui Zhao, Jinchuan Tan, Zihai Ding, Wenhua Huang
STUDY DESIGN: A dissection-based study of 10 fresh-frozen human cadavers. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to identify and describe the radiating extraforaminal ligaments in the exit regions of the L1-L5 intervertebral foramina and to research their possible clinical significance. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: The transforaminal ligaments at the L1-L5 intervertebral foramina have been well studied. However, detailed descriptions of the radiating extraforaminal ligaments at L1-L5 are lacking...
February 9, 2017: Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183677/hierarchical-micro-nano-structured-ti6al4v-surface-topography-via-two-step-etching-process-for-enhanced-hydrophilicity-and-osteoblastic-responses
#6
Byeong-Seok Moon, Sungwon Kim, Hyoun-Ee Kim, Tae-Sik Jang
Hierarchical micro-nano (HMN) surface structuring of dental implants is a fascinating strategy for achieving fast and mechanically stable fixation due to the synergetic effect of micro- and nano-scale surface roughness with surrounding tissues. However, the introduction of a well-defined nanostructure on a microstructure having complex surface geometry is still challenging. As a means of fabricating HMN surface on Ti6Al4V-ELI, target-ion induced plasma sputtering (TIPS) was used onto a sand-blasted, large-grit and acid-etched substrate...
April 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183006/three-dimensional-analysis-of-eu-dopant-atoms-in-ca-%C3%AE-sialon-via-through-focus-haadf-stem-imaging
#7
Genki Saito, Fuuta Yamaki, Yuji Kunisada, Norihito Sakaguchi, Tomohiro Akiyama
Three-dimensional (3D) distributional analysis of individual dopant atoms in materials is important to development of optical, electronic, and magnetic materials. In this study, we adopted through-focus high-angle annular dark-field (HAADF) imaging for 3D distributional analysis of Eu dopant atoms in Ca-α-SiAlON phosphors. In this context, the effects of convergence semi-angle and Eu z-position on the HAADF image contrast were investigated. Multi-slice image simulation revealed that the contrast of the dopant site was sensitive to change of the defocus level...
January 31, 2017: Ultramicroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177252/three-dimensional-nanometer-features-of-direct-current-electrical-trees-in-low-density-polyethylene
#8
Love K H Pallon, Fritjof Nilsson, Shun Yu, Dongming Liu, Ana Diaz, Mirko Holler, Xiangrong R Chen, Stanislaw Gubanski, Mikael S Hedenqvist, Richard T Olsson, Ulf W Gedde
Electrical trees are one reason for the breakdown of insulating materials in electrical power systems. An understanding of the growth of electrical trees plays a crucial role in the development of reliable high voltage direct current (HVDC) power grid systems with transmission voltages up to 1 MV. A section which contained an electrical tree in low-density polyethylene (LDPE), has been visualized in three dimensions (3D) with a resolution of 92 nm by X-ray ptychographic tomography. The 3D imaging revealed pre-channel-formations with a lower density with the width of a couple of hundred nanometers formed around the main branch of the electrical tree...
February 8, 2017: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28170267/dilute-nitride-nanowire-lasers-based-on-a-gaas-ganas-core-shell-structure
#9
Shula Chen, Mattias Jansson, Jan Eric Stehr, Yuqing Huang, Fumitaro Ishikawa, Weimin M Chen, Irina A Buyanova
Nanowire (NW) lasers operating in the near-infrared spectral range are of significant technological importance for applications in telecommunications, sensing and medical diagnostics. So far lasing within this spectral range has been achieved using GaAs/AlGaAs, GaAs/GaAsP and InGaAs/GaAs core/shell NWs. Another promising III-V material, not yet explored in its lasing capacity, is the dilute nitride GaNAs. In this work we demonstrate, for the first time, optically pumped lasing from the GaNAs shell of a single GaAs/GaNAs core/shell NW...
February 7, 2017: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168051/effects-of-a-twelve-week-weight-reduction-exercise-programme-on-selected-spatiotemporal-gait-parameters-of-obese-individuals
#10
Joseph A Jegede, Babatunde O A Adegoke, Oladapo M Olagbegi
Objectives. This study was carried out to investigate the effects of twelve-week weight reduction exercises on selected spatiotemporal gait parameters of obese individuals and compare with their normal weight counterparts. Methods. Sixty participants (30 obese and 30 of normal weight) started but only 58 participants (obese = 30, normal weight = 28) completed the quasi-experimental study. Only obese group had 12 weeks of weight reduction exercise training but both groups had their walking speed (WS), cadence (CD), step length (SL), step width (SW), and stride length (SDL) measured at baseline and at the end of weeks 4, 8, and 12 of the study...
2017: Journal of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28114732/efficient-modeling-of-liquid-phase-photoemission-spectra-and-reorganization-energies-difficult-case-of-multiply-charged-anions
#11
Martina Rubešová, Veronika Jurásková, Petr Slavíček
An efficient approach for quantitative modeling of liquid phase photoelectron spectra, reorganization energies, and redox potentials with DFT-based molecular dynamics simulations is presented. The method is based on a large scale cluster-continuum approach combined with the so-called reflection principle (RP). Finite size clusters of solute molecules with solvating water molecules are at first generated using either classical molecular dynamics or molecular dynamics with a quantum thermostat which accounts for nuclear quantum effects...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Computational Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28113623/2d-ultrasound-sparse-arrays-multi-depth-radiation-optimization-using-simulated-annealing-and-spiral-array-inspired-energy-functions
#12
Emmanuel Roux, Alessandro Ramalli, Piero Tortoli, Christian Cachard, Marc Robini, Herve Liebgott
Full matrix arrays are excellent tools for 3D ultrasound imaging, but the required number of active elements is too high to be individually controlled by an equal number of scanner channels. The number of active elements is significantly reduced by the sparse array techniques, but the position of the remaining elements must be carefully optimized. This issue is here faced by introducing novel energy functions in the simulated annealing algorithm. At each iteration step of the optimization process, one element is freely translated and the associated radiated pattern is simulated...
August 24, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110146/enhanced-arm-swing-alters-interlimb-coordination-during-overground-walking-in-individuals-with-traumatic-brain-injury
#13
Ksenia I Ustinova, Joseph E Langenderfer, Nilanthy Balendra
The current study investigated interlimb coordination in individuals with traumatic brain injury (TBI) during overground walking. The study involved 10 participants with coordination, balance, and gait abnormalities post-TBI, as well as 10 sex- and age-matched healthy control individuals. Participants walked 12m under two experimental conditions: 1) at self-selected comfortable walking speeds; and 2) with instructions to increase the amplitude and out-of-phase coordination of arm swinging. The gait was assessed with a set of spatiotemporal and kinematic parameters including the gait velocity, step length and width, double support time, lateral displacement of the center of mass, the amplitude of horizontal trunk rotation, and angular motions at shoulder and hip joints in sagittal plane...
January 19, 2017: Human Movement Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106007/atomic-layer-deposition-of-1d-and-2d-nickel-nanostructures-on-graphite
#14
Seung Wook Ryu, Jaehong Yoon, Hyoung-Seok Moon, Bonggeun Shong, Hyungjun Kim, Han-Bo-Ram Lee
One-dimensional (1D) nanowires (NWs) and two-dimensional (2D) thin films of Ni were deposited on highly ordered pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) by atomic layer deposition (ALD), using NH3 as a counter reactant. Thermal ALD using NH3 gas forms 1D NWs along step edges, while NH3 plasma enables the deposition of a continuous 2D film over the whole surface. The lateral and vertical growth rates of the Ni NWs are numerically modeled as a function of the number of ALD cycles. Pretreatment with NH3 gas promotes selectivity in deposition by the reduction of oxygenated functionalities on the HOPG surface...
January 20, 2017: Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103405/altered-walking-strategy-and-increased-unsteadiness-in-participants-with-impaired-glucose-tolerance-and-type-2-diabetes-relates-to-small-fibre-neuropathy-but-not-vitamin-d-deficiency
#15
M M Almurdhi, S J Brown, F L Bowling, A J M Boulton, M Jeziorska, R A Malik, N D Reeves
AIMS: To investigate alterations in walking strategy and dynamic sway (unsteadiness) in people with impaired glucose tolerance and people with Type 2 diabetes in relation to severity of neuropathy and vitamin D levels. METHODS: A total of 20 people with Type 2 diabetes, 20 people with impaired glucose tolerance and 20 people without either Type 2 diabetes or impaired glucose tolerance (control group) underwent gait analysis using a motion analysis system and force platforms, and detailed assessment of neuropathy and serum 25 hydroxy-vitamin D levels...
January 19, 2017: Diabetic Medicine: a Journal of the British Diabetic Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103299/walking-through-apertures-in-individuals-with-stroke
#16
Daisuke Muroi, Yasuhiro Hiroi, Teruaki Koshiba, Yohei Suzuki, Masahiro Kawaki, Takahiro Higuchi
OBJECTIVE: Walking through a narrow aperture requires unique postural configurations, i.e., body rotation in the yaw dimension. Stroke individuals may have difficulty performing the body rotations due to motor paralysis on one side of their body. The present study was therefore designed to investigate how successfully such individuals walk through apertures and how they perform body rotation behavior. METHOD: Stroke fallers (n = 10), stroke non-fallers (n = 13), and healthy controls (n = 23) participated...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091721/influence-of-tooth-dimension-on-the-initial-mobility-based-on-plaster-casts-and-x-ray-images-a-numerical-study
#17
Martin Hartmann, Cornelius Dirk, Susanne Reimann, Ludger Keilig, Anna Konermann, Andreas Jäger, Christoph Bourauel
AIMS: The goal was to determine the influence of different geometric parameters of the tooth on the initial tooth mobility and the position of the center of resistance employing numerical models based on scaled X-ray images and plaster casts. METHODS: The dimensions of tooth 21 were measured in 21 patients, using radiographs and dental casts. Length and mesiodistal width of the tooth were obtained from the X-ray image and the orovestibular diameter from the plaster cast...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Orofacial Orthopedics, Fortschritte der Kieferorthopädie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074204/surfactants-adsorption-on-crossing-stripes-and-steps
#18
Manaswee Suttipong, Brian P Grady, Alberto Striolo
Using coarse-grained dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) simulations, we systematically study the effect of surface heterogeneity on surfactant adsorption. Here we investigate the adsorption and aggregation of surfactants on hydrophobic stripes crossing each other perpendicularly (i.e., crossing stripes) and on hydrophobic steps. The results are compared with those obtained for isolated stripes. We find that on crossing stripes of moderate stripe widths (e.g., L = 0.61LS, 1.22LS and 1.83LS, where LS is the length of one surfactant molecule) the crossing region hinders the formation of defect-free adsorbed surfactant structures...
January 11, 2017: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073261/insulating-nanomagnets-driven-by-spin-torque
#19
Matthias B Jungfleisch, Junjia Ding, Wei Zhang, Wanjun Jiang, John E Pearson, Valentine Novosad, Axel Hoffmann
Magnetic insulators, such as yttrium iron garnet (Y3Fe5O12), are ideal materials for ultralow power spintronics applications due to their low energy dissipation and efficient spin current generation and transmission. Recently, it has been realized that spin dynamics can be driven very effectively in micrometer-sized Y3Fe5O12/Pt heterostructures by spin-Hall effects. We demonstrate here the excitation and detection of spin dynamics in Y3Fe5O12/Pt nanowires by spin-torque ferromagnetic resonance. The nanowires defined via electron-beam lithography are fabricated by conventional room temperature sputtering deposition on Gd3Ga5O12 substrates and lift-off...
January 11, 2017: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073085/effect-of-investigator-observation-on-gait-parameters-in-individuals-with-and-without-chronic-low-back-pain
#20
Joshua Vickers, Austin Reed, Robert Decker, Bryan P Conrad, Marissa Olegario-Nebel, Heather K Vincent
Despite the ubiquity of gait assessment in clinic and research, it is unclear how observation impacts gait, particularly in persons with chronic pain and psychological stress. We compared temporal spatial gait patterns in people with and without chronic low back pain (CLBP) when they were aware and unaware of being observed. This was a repeated-measures, deception study in 55 healthy persons (32.0±12.4 yr, 24.2±2.7kg/m(2)) and persons with CLBP (51.9±17.9 yr, 27.8±4.4kg/m(2)). Participants performed one condition in which they were unaware of observation (UNW), and three conditions under investigator observation: (1) aware of observation (AWA), (2) investigators watching cadence, (3) investigators watching step length...
January 3, 2017: Gait & Posture
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