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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773683/adaptive-control-of-dynamic-balance-in-human-gait-on-a-split-belt-treadmill
#1
Tom J W Buurke, Claudine J C Lamoth, Danique Vervoort, Lucas H V van der Woude, Rob den Otter
Human bipedal gait is inherently unstable and staying upright requires adaptive control of dynamic balance. Little is known about adaptive control of dynamic balance in reaction to long-term, continuous perturbations. We examined how dynamic balance control adapts to a continuous perturbation in gait, by letting people walk faster with one leg than the other on a treadmill with two belts (i.e. split-belt walking). In addition, we assessed whether changes in mediolateral dynamic balance control coincide with changes in energy use during split-belt adaptation...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768858/green-synthesis-of-silver-nano-particles-by-use-of-edible-oils
#2
Anuraj Kshirsagar, Tanaya Khanna, Vaishali Dhanwe, Kunal H Kate, Pawan K Khanna
Avoiding use of environmentally hazardous reducing agents and surfactants like sodium borohydride, hydrazine hydrate, alkyl amines and alkyl phosphines, the current article describes successful synthesis of silver nanoparticles via green synthesis by employing coconut, Indian gooseberry (amla), almond and mustard oils as capping as well as reducing agents. The presence of various fatty acids in such edible oils act as capping agents through their carboxylic acid functionality and control the growth of nanoparticles...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765798/heterostuctures-of-4-chloromethyl-phenyltrichlorosilane-and-5-10-15-20-tetra-4-pyridyl-21-h-23-h-porphine-prepared-on-si-111-using-particle-lithography-nanoscale-characterization-of-the-main-steps-of-nanopatterning
#3
Phillip C Chambers, Jayne C Garno
Nanostructures of 4-(chloromethyl)phenyltrichlorosilane (CMPS) were used as a foundation to attach and grow heterostructures of porphyrins and organosilanes. A protocol was developed with particle lithography using steps of immersion in organosilane solutions to selectively passivate the surface of Si(111) with octadecyltrichlorosilane (OTS). A methyl-terminated matrix was chosen to direct the growth of CMPS nanostructures to fill the uncovered sites of Si(111) to enable spatial confinement of the surface reaction...
2018: Beilstein Journal of Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765604/deciphering-mineralogical-changes-and-carbonation-development-during-hydration-and-ageing-of-a-consolidated-ternary-blended-cement-paste
#4
Francis Claret, Sylvain Grangeon, Annick Loschetter, Christophe Tournassat, Wout De Nolf, Nicholas Harker, Faiza Boulahya, Stéphane Gaboreau, Yannick Linard, Xavier Bourbon, Alejandro Fernandez-Martinez, Jonathan Wright
To understand the main properties of cement, a ubiquitous material, a sound description of its chemistry and mineralogy, including its reactivity in aggressive environments and its mechanical properties, is vital. In particular, the porosity distribution and associated sample carbonation, both of which affect cement's properties and durability, should be quantified accurately, and their kinetics and mechanisms of formation known both in detail and in situ . However, traditional methods of cement mineralogy analysis ( e...
March 1, 2018: IUCrJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756833/universal-broadening-of-the-light-cone-in-low-temperature-transport
#5
Bruno Bertini, Lorenzo Piroli, Pasquale Calabrese
We consider the low-temperature transport properties of critical one-dimensional systems that can be described, at equilibrium, by a Luttinger liquid. We focus on the prototypical setting where two semi-infinite chains are prepared in two thermal states at small but different temperatures and suddenly joined together. At large distances x and times t, conformal field theory characterizes the energy transport in terms of a single light cone spreading at the sound velocity v. Energy density and current take different constant values inside the light cone, on its left, and on its right, resulting in a three-step form of the corresponding profiles as a function of ζ=x/t...
April 27, 2018: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746965/spine-and-lower-extremity-kinematics-during-gait-in-cervical-spondylotic-myelopathy-patients
#6
Ram Haddas, Sujal Patel, Raj Arakal, Akwasi Boah, Theodore Belanger, Kevin L Ju
BACKGROUND CONTEXT: CSM typically manifests with a slow, progressive stepwise decline in neurologic function, including hand clumsiness and balance difficulties. Gait disturbances are frequently seen in CSM patients, with more advanced cases exhibiting a stiff, spastic gait. PURPOSE: To evaluate the spatiotemporal parameters and spine and lower extremity kinematics during the gait cycle of adult cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) patients prior to surgical intervention...
May 7, 2018: Spine Journal: Official Journal of the North American Spine Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743434/alternative-patterning-methods-for-paper-based-analytical-devices-using-nail-polish-as-a-hydrophobic-reagent
#7
Thiphol Satarpai, Atitaya Siripinyanond
A rapid, easy, and cost effective fabrication method for paper-based analytical devices (PADs) is described. This newly developed method is based on the use of nail polish as an alternative hydrophobic reagent, and the nail polish was resistant to basic and organic solvents. Three approaches for fabrication of paper-based analytical devices (PADs) were investigated, namely writing, stamping, and spraying. The writing approach was carried out by drawing the hydrophobic area of a pre-designed pattern on filter paper with a simple lab-made pen filled with nail polish as the hydrophobic agent...
2018: Analytical Sciences: the International Journal of the Japan Society for Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738957/performance-of-an-attention-demanding-task-during-treadmill-walking-shifts-the-noise-qualities-of-step-to-step-variation-in-step-width
#8
Mark D Grabiner, Jane R Marone, Marilynn Wyatt, Pinata Sessoms, Kenton R Kaufman
BACKGROUND: The fractal scaling evident in the step-to-step fluctuations of stepping-related time series reflects, to some degree, neuromotor noise. RESEARCH QUESTION: The primary purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which the fractal scaling of step width, step width and step width variability are affected by performance of an attention-demanding task. We hypothesized that the attention-demanding task would shift the structure of the step width time series toward white, uncorrelated noise...
April 30, 2018: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29726500/prospective-use-of-a-normally-dispersive-step-index-chalcogenide-fiber-in-nonlinear-pulse-reshaping
#9
Binoy Krishna Ghosh, Dipankar Ghosh, Mousumi Basu
In this work, several normally dispersive highly nonlinear chalcogenide optical fibers (NDHNCFs) with a step-index profile have been designed and optimized in view of efficient parabolic pulse (PP) generation. A typical NDHNCF is selected such that the group velocity dispersion is highest among them and the corresponding nonlinearity is also very high. The input pulse parameters are optimized to find the lowest possible optimum length (Lopt ) of the fiber where the linearly chirped PP is obtained. Further, it is found that for a shorter input pulse width, PP can be generated at a sufficiently smaller length of the NDHNCF with a slight compromise for its misfit parameter...
May 1, 2018: Applied Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29724263/toward-the-understanding-of-micro-tlc-behavior-of-various-dyes-on-silica-and-cellulose-stationary-phases-using-a-data-mining-approach
#10
Jorge C Pereira, Jorge M C Marques, Elżbieta Włodarczyk, Bożena Fenert, Paweł K Zarzycki
Planar chromatography and related techniques [micro-planar chromatography, micro-TLC, or paper-based microfluidic devices (μPADs)] present several advantages in analytical applications, such as simplicity, low cost of analysis, and the ability to work with raw complex samples without the involvement of time-consuming prepurification steps. By using commonly applied planar chromatographic systems and μPADs devices, stationary phases (silica and cellulose based), different solvent mixtures (methanol-water and dichloromethane-methanol), and proportions varying from 0 to 100% (v/v), micro-TLC migration profiles of several dyes described in terms of characteristic of chromatographic parameters (retardation factor, peak base width, and asymmetry factor) were investigated...
May 3, 2018: Journal of AOAC International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29721617/the-effect-of-cyclic-heat-treatment-on-the-physicochemical-properties-of-bio-hydroxyapatite-from-bovine-bone
#11
S M Londoño-Restrepo, R Jeronimo-Cruz, E Rubio-Rosas, M E Rodriguez-García
This paper focus on physicochemical changes in bio-hydroxyapatite (BIO-HAp) from bovine femur obtained by calcination at high temperatures: 520-620 (each 20 °C) at 7.4 °C/min and from 700 to 1100 °C (each 100 °C) at three heating rates: 7.4, 9.9, and 11.1 °C/min. BIO-HAp samples were obtained using a multi-step process: cleaning, milling, hydrothermal process, calcination in an air atmosphere, and cooling in furnace air. Inductively Couple Plasma (ICP) showed that the presence of Mg, K, S, Ba, Zn, and Na, is not affected by the annealing temperature and heating rate...
May 2, 2018: Journal of Materials Science. Materials in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29705643/exemplar-based-inpainting-as-a-solution-to-the-missing-wedge-problem-in-electron-tomography
#12
Patrick Trampert, Wu Wang, Delei Chen, Raimond B G Ravelli, Tim Dahmen, Peter J Peters, Christian Kübel, Philipp Slusallek
A new method for dealing with incomplete projection sets in electron tomography is proposed. The approach is inspired by exemplar-based inpainting techniques in image processing and heuristically generates data for missing projection directions. The method has been extended to work on three dimensional data. In general, electron tomography reconstructions suffer from elongation artifacts along the beam direction. These artifacts can be seen in the corresponding Fourier domain as a missing wedge. The new method synthetically generates projections for these missing directions with the help of a dictionary based approach that is able to convey both structure and texture at the same time...
April 21, 2018: Ultramicroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29705520/developmental-changes-in-spatial-margin-of-stability-in-typically-developing-children-relate-to-the-mechanics-of-gait
#13
Ann Hallemans, Evi Verbecque, Raphael Dumas, Laurence Cheze, Angèle Van Hamme, Thomas Robert
BACKGROUND: Immature balance control is considered an important rate limiter for maturation of gait. The spatial margin of stability (MoS) is a biomechanical measure of dynamic balance control that might provide insights into balance control strategies used by children during the developmental course of gait. RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS: We hypothesize there will be an age-dependent decrease in MoS in children with typical development. To understand the mechanics, relations between MoS and spatio-temporal parameters of gait are investigated...
April 18, 2018: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29702370/dual-task-interference-during-gait-on-irregular-terrain-in-people-with-parkinson-s-disease
#14
Hang Xu, Andrew Merryweather, K Bo Foreman, Jie Zhao, MaryEllen Hunt
BACKGROUND: Gait impairments in people with Parkinson's disease (PD) are accentuated in dual-task conditions. Most PD studies on dual-task gait have measured only straight line walking and treadmill gait. Gait alterations on irregular terrain are poorly understood. RESEARCH QUESTION: To what extent does walking on irregular terrain exacerbate dual-task interference in people with PD, compared to age-matched control participants? METHODS: Gait data were collected for nine participants with mild to moderate PD and nine healthy age-matched participants on regular and irregular terrains...
April 22, 2018: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691432/human-mesenchymal-stem-cell-basal-membrane-bending-on-gratings-is-dependent-on-both-grating-width-and-curvature
#15
Yukai Zeng, Sum Thai Wong, Soo Kng Teo, Kam W Leong, Keng-Hwee Chiam, Evelyn K F Yim
The topography of the extracellular substrate provides physical cues to elicit specific downstream biophysical and biochemical effects in cells. An example of such a topographical substrate is periodic gratings, where the dimensions of the periodic gratings influence cell morphology and directs cell differentiation. We first develop a novel sample preparation technique using Spurr's resin to allow for cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy imaging of cells on grating grooves, and observed that the plasma membrane on the basal surface of these cells can deform and bend into grooves between the gratings...
April 24, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689031/platelet-distribution-width-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#16
Fenfen Guo, Xuan Zhu, Xue Qin
BACKGROUND Platelets and platelet activation are involved in the critical steps of tumor cell growth, metastasis, and angiogenesis. In this study, we analyzed the correlation between platelet distribution width (PDW) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). MATERIAL AND METHODS HCC patients at the First Affiliated Hospital of Guangxi Medical University, China, from January 2017 to October 2017, were analyzed retrospectively. The control group comprised healthy persons at the hospital for medical check-ups during the same period...
April 24, 2018: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29687603/large-photothermal-effect-in-sub-40-nm-h-bn-nanostructures-patterned-via-high-resolution-ion-beam
#17
Josué J López, Antonio Ambrosio, Siyuan Dai, Chuong Huynh, David C Bell, Xiao Lin, Nicholas Rivera, Shengxi Huang, Qiong Ma, Soeren Eyhusen, Ido E Kaminer, Kenji Watanabe, Takashi Taniguchi, Jing Kong, Dimitri N Basov, Pablo Jarillo-Herrero, Marin Soljačić
The controlled nanoscale patterning of 2D materials is a promising approach for engineering the optoelectronic, thermal, and mechanical properties of these materials to achieve novel functionalities and devices. Herein, high-resolution patterning of hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) is demonstrated via both helium and neon ion beams and an optimal dosage range for both ions that serve as a baseline for insulating 2D materials is identified. Through this nanofabrication approach, a grating with a 35 nm pitch, individual structure sizes down to 20 nm, and additional nanostructures created by patterning crystal step edges are demonstrated...
April 24, 2018: Small
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29687103/surgical-extrusion-a-simplified-esthetic-method-of-treating-non-restorable-teeth-rationale-and-case-report
#18
Riccardo Becciani, Davide Faganello, Mauro Fradeani
The restoration of teeth that have been compromised by loss of crown and radicular structure due to caries, fractures, root resorption or iatrogenic lesions could result in the violation of the biologic width, with consequent gingival inflammation, loss of attachment, and alveolar bone loss. It is essential in these cases to obtain an adequate enough portion of the tooth structure to allow for a restoration that respects the biologic width. This can be achieved using a procedure that allows for the extrusion of the root in a single step, thereby shifting the compromised site from subgingival to supragingival...
2018: International Journal of Esthetic Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685446/first-approach-validating-a-scoring-system-for-foot-pad-dermatitis-in-broiler-chickens-developed-for-application-in-practice
#19
Sophia Heitmann, Jenny Stracke, Henning Petersen, Birgit Spindler, Nicole Kemper
Measuring the severity of foot-pad dermatitis is an accepted tool monitoring the quality of animal husbandry and welfare. Up to now, a variety of scoring schemes have been used, most of them based on visual evaluation. However, a standardisation and validation of scoring systems is beneficial, not only to compare different studies, but to provide objective indicators in poultry welfare. In this study, we validated one visual scoring system, widely used in Northern Germany, by using additional information of histological measurements...
June 1, 2018: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679922/the-reliability-of-gait-variability-measures-for-individuals-with-parkinson-s-disease-and-healthy-older-adults-the-effect-of-gait-speed
#20
Linda Rennie, Niklas Löfgren, Rolf Moe-Nilssen, Arve Opheim, Espen Dietrichs, Erika Franzén
BACKGROUND: Step-to-step variability is a marker of reduced motor control and a frequently studied outcome measure in neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson's disease (PD) as compared to healthy older adults (HOA). To challenge motor control of gait, walking should be tested at different gait speeds. Good reliability is essential, and gait variability estimates show good reproducibility when sampled at normal gait speed. The aim was therefore to investigate if gait variability could be reliably sampled at slow and fast speeds for individuals with PD and HOA by evaluating test-retest reliability...
April 14, 2018: Gait & Posture
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