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Jeon Hyeong Lee, Myoung Hee Lee
[Purpose] This study was performed to analyze the influence of smartphone multitasking on gait and dynamic balance. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 19 male and 20 female university students. There were 4 types of gait tasks: General Gait (walking without a task), Task Gait 1 (walking while writing a message), Task Gait 2 (walking while writing a message and listening to music), Task Gait 3 (walking while writing a message and having a conversation). To exclude the learning effect, the order of tasks was randomized...
February 2018: Journal of Physical Therapy Science
Shuang Yang, Feng Zhang, Jia Tai, Yang Li, Yang Yang, Hui Wang, Jianxu Zhang, Zhigang Xie, Bin Xu, Haizheng Zhong, Kun Liu, Bai Yang
Perovskite quantum dots (PQDs) exhibit remarkable photoluminescence properties; however, their use in biological applications is hindered by their extreme sensitivity to water. We report a facile and general strategy for the preparation of aqueous colloidally stable polystyrene-b-poly(ethyl oxide) (PS-b-PEO) grafted MAPbBr3 QDs (MA = methylammonium): transferring the as-synthesized PQD@PS-b-PEO from toluene into water using precipitation in hexane as a critical intermediate step. When rehydrating the precipitate in water, the PQDs can be dispersed well individually or self-assembled into well-defined vesicular nanostructures with high photoluminescence quantum yields of up to 43%, high color purity (full width at half maximum down to 18 nm), and long average photoluminescence lifetimes up to 164 ns...
March 14, 2018: Nanoscale
Elham Karami Keshmarzi, R Niall Tait, Pierre Berini
Single-mode surface plasmon distributed feedback (DFB) lasers are realized in the near infrared using a two-dimensional non-uniform long-range surface plasmon polariton structure. The surface plasmon mode is excited onto a 20 nm-thick, 1 μm-wide metal stripe (Ag or Au) on a silica substrate, where the stripe is stepped in width periodically, forming a 1st order Bragg grating. Optical gain is provided by optically pumping a 450 nm-thick IR-140 doped PMMA layer as the top cladding, which covers the entire length of the Bragg grating, thus creating a DFB laser...
March 14, 2018: Nanoscale
Saskia Koene, Niki M Stolwijk, Rob Ramakers, Maaike de Vries, Lonneke de Boer, Mirian C H Janssen, Imelda de Groot, Jan Smeitink
Mitochondrial disorders are multisystem conditions that can potentially affect gait in many ways. The aim of this study was to select the optimal protocol to quantify the spatiotemporal parameters of gait in ambulatory children with mitochondrial disorders based on feasibility, test-retest reliability, and the difference between patients and controls. Gait at self-selected pace was quantified in ambulatory children with a genetically confirmed primary mitochondrial disease using the GAITRite electronic walkway...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease
Giovan Paolo Pini Prato, Cristina Magnani, Leandro Chambrone
BACKGROUND: Coronally advanced flap (CAF) has been considered as one of the most predictable and versatile root coverage procedures. Thus, the aims of this study are two-fold: 1) to evaluate the long-term outcomes following CAF in the treatment of gingival recession (GR); and 2) to explore the influence of several tooth/patient-related factors on the stability of gingival margin at 5, 10, and 20 years after surgery. METHODS: Ninety-four patients with 97 GR (73 Miller`s Class I and 24 Miller's Class III) were treated with CAF in a private practice between 1984 and 1996...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Periodontology
Beatriz Lagunas, Liam Walker, Rana Muhammad Fraz Hussain, Ian Hands-Portman, Kate Woolley-Allen, Miriam L Gifford
Cell type-specific marker lines expressing fluorophores such as GFP or GUS can be used as starting material from which single cell types can be isolated by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) and/or for the study of root development. Establishing the stability of these lines is an essential step prior to further study to ensure that marker expression and localization is stable over time and during environmental perturbations of interest to researchers applying these lines as treatments. Here, we detail the use of root cross sectioning to investigate marker expression throughout the length and width of the root using the model legume Medicago truncatula as an example...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Mohsen Ghafari, John D Atkinson
A novel one-step hyper-cross-linking method, using 1,2-dichloroethane (DCE) and 1,6-dichlorohexane (DCH) cross-linkers, expands the micropore volume of commercial styrenic polymers. Performance of virgin and modified polymers was evaluated by measuring hexane, toluene, and methyl-ethyl-ketone (MEK) adsorption capacity, adsorption/desorption kinetics, and desorption efficiency. Hyper-cross-linked polymers have up to 128% higher adsorption capacity than virgin polymers at P/P0  = 0.05 due to micropore volume increases up to 330%...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Simon J Woodings, J J Bluemink, J H Wilfred de Vries, Yury Niatsetski, Bob van Veelen, Joost Schillings, Jan G M Kok, Jochem W H Wolthaus, Sara L Hackett, Bram van Asselen, Helena Maria van Zijp, Stefan Pencea, David A Roberts, Jan J W Lagendijk, Bas W Raaymakers
As a prerequisite for clinical treatments it was necessary to characterize the Elekta 1.5 T MRI-linac 7 MV FFF radiation beam. Following acceptance testing, beam characterization data were acquired with Semiflex 3D (PTW 31021), microDiamond (PTW 60019), and Farmer-type (PTW 30013 and IBA FC65-G) detectors in an Elekta 3D scanning water phantom and a PTW 1D water phantom. EBT3 Gafchromic film and ion chamber measurements in a buildup cap were also used. Special consideration was given to scan offsets, detector effective points of measurement and avoiding air gaps...
March 9, 2018: Physics in Medicine and Biology
Mu Qiao, Jody A Feld, Jason R Franz
BACKGROUND: Older adults are more susceptible to balance perturbations during walking than young adults. However, we lack an individual joint-level understanding of how aging affects the neuromechanical strategies used to accommodate balance perturbations. RESEARCH QUESTION: We investigated gait phase-dependence in and aging effects on leg joint kinematic variability during walking with balance perturbations. We hypothesized that leg joint variability would: 1) vary across the gait cycle and 2) increase with balance perturbations...
February 21, 2018: Gait & Posture
Jennifer Anderson, Stephanie King, Andrzej Przybyla, Lakshminarayan Ranganath, Gabor Barton
The internal knee abduction moment (KAM) in osteoarthritis is reduced by increased lateral trunk lean (TL). Mechanistically, this occurs as the Centre of Mass (COM) moves further over the stance leg. Since the size of the base of support constrains the COM, an associated increase in step width (SW) would be expected to maintain stability. This study tested the effects of TL on SW and KAM in healthy participants (n = 21) who performed normal and 6° TL walks. The latter was controlled via audio-visual biofeedback...
February 21, 2018: Gait & Posture
Katherine L Hsieh, Riley C Sheehan, Jason M Wilken, Jonathan B Dingwell
INTRODUCTION: Maintaining stability, especially in the mediolateral direction, is important for successful walking. Navigating in the community, however, may require people to reduce stability to make quick lateral transitions, creating a tradeoff between stability and maneuverability. Walking slower can improve stability during steady state walking, but there remains a need to better understand how walking speed influences maneuverability. This study investigated how walking at different speeds influenced how individuals modulate both stability and maneuverability in a virtual obstacle course...
February 14, 2018: Gait & Posture
Himchan Cho, Joo Sung Kim, Christoph Wolf, Young-Hoon Kim, Hyung Joong Yun, Su-Hun Jeong, Aditya Sadhanala, Vijay Venugopalan, Jin Woo Choi, Chang-Lyoul Lee, Richard H Friend, Tae-Woo Lee
We have achieved high-efficiency polycrystalline perovskite light-emitting diodes (PeLEDs) based on formamidinium (FA) and cesium (Cs) mixed cations without quantum dot synthesis. Uniform single-phase FA1-x Csx PbBr3 polycrystalline films were fabricated by one-step formation with various FA:Cs molar proportions, then the influences of chemical composition on film morphology, crystal structure, photoluminescence (PL) and electroluminescence were systematically investigated. Incorporation of Cs+ cations in FAPbBr3 significantly reduced the average grain size (to 199 nm for FA:Cs = 90:10) and trap density; these changes consequently increased PL quantum efficiency (PLQE) and PL lifetime of FA1-x Csx PbBr3 films and current efficiency (CE) of PeLEDs...
March 1, 2018: ACS Nano
Adrian Körzendörfer, Philipp Temme, Eberhard Schlücker, Jörg Hinrichs, Stefan Nöbel
Machinery such as pumps used for the commercial production of fermented milk products cause vibrations that can spread to the fermentation tanks. During fermentation, such vibrations can disturb the gelation of milk proteins by causing texture defects including lumpiness and syneresis. To study the effect of vibrations on yogurt structure systematically, an experimental setup was developed consisting of a vibration exciter to generate defined vibrational states and accelerometers for monitoring. During the fermentation of skim milk, vibrations (frequency sweep: 25 to 1,005 Hz) were introduced at different pH (5...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
Jakob Petersen, Eli Pollak
The quantum phenomenon of above barrier reflection is investigated from a time-dependent perspective using Gaussian wavepackets. The transition path time distribution, which in principle is experimentally measurable, is used to study the mean flight times ⟨t⟩R and ⟨t⟩T associated with the reflection and the transmission over the barrier paying special attention to their dependence on the width of the barrier. Both flight times, and their difference Δt, exhibit two distinct regimes depending on the ratio of the spatial width of the incident wavepacket and the length of the barrier...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Chemical Physics
Nabila Eladawi, Mohammed Elmogy, Fahmi Khalifa, Mohammed Ghazal, Nicola Ghazi, Ahmed Aboelfetouh, Alaa Riad, Harpal Sandhu, Shlomit Schaal, Ayman El-Baz
PURPOSE: This paper introduces a new computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) system for detecting early-stage diabetic retinopathy (DR) using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) images. METHODS: The proposed DR-CAD system is based on the analysis of new local features that describe both the appearance and retinal structure in OCTA images. It starts with a new segmentation approach that has the ability to extract the blood vessels from superficial and deep retinal OCTA maps...
February 22, 2018: Medical Physics
Charlotte Selge, Florian Schoeberl, Andreas Zwergal, Georg Nuebling, Thomas Brandt, Marianne Dieterich, Roman Schniepp, Klaus Jahn
OBJECTIVE: To test whether quantitative gait analysis of gait under single- and dual-task conditions can be used for a differential diagnosis of progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) and idiopathic normal-pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH). METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, temporal and spatial gait parameters were analyzed in 38 patients with PSP (Neurological Disorders and Stroke and Society for Progressive Supranuclear Palsy diagnostic criteria), 27 patients with iNPH (international iNPH guidelines), and 38 healthy controls...
February 21, 2018: Neurology
Chengbin Zheng, Ligang Hu, Xiandeng Hou, Bin He, Guibin Jiang
Despite increased interest in microplasma atomic spectrometry over the past several years, its applications to field analysis of real samples still remain limited due to its low sensitivity. In this work, headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) using PDMS/DVB fiber was used as a sample introduction method to improve the sensitivity of a miniature (6.0 cm length × 5.0 cm width × 2.8 cm height) low power (<10 W) microplasma point discharge optical emission spectrometer (PD-OES) for the determination of Hg and Pb after their derivatization with sodium tetraethylborate (NaBEt4)...
February 19, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
Pengfei Guo, Xia Shen, Baolong Zhang, Haibin Sun, Zhijun Zou, Wenchao Yang, Ke Gong, Yongsong Luo
A simple two-step CVD method is developed to realize the growth of high-quality tin-catalyzed CdSSe alloy nanowires. Microstructural characterizations demonstrate that these wires are high-quality crystalline nanostructures. Local photoluminescence investigation of these nanostructures shows a typical band edge emission at 656 nm with a full-width at half-maximum of 22.3 nm. Optical waveguide measurement along an individual nanowire indicates that the output signal of the guided light has a rapid linear decrease accompanied with maximum redshift about 109 meV after the transmission of 102 μm...
February 19, 2018: Nanotechnology
Zikuan Chen, Vince Calhoun
Spatial smoothing is a widely used preprocessing step in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data analysis. In this work, we report on the spatial smoothing effect on task-evoked fMRI brain functional mapping and functional connectivity. Initially, we decomposed the task fMRI data into a collection of components or networks by independent component analysis (ICA). The designed task paradigm helps identify task-modulated ICA components (highly correlated with the task stimuli). For the ICA-extracted primary task component, we then measured the task activation volume at the task response foci...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
S Ramakrishnan, E J Jelmy, R Senthilkumar, Murali Rangarajan, Nikhil K Kothurkar
Bilayer and few layer-graphene (Gr) with noble metal (Ag and Au) and TiO2 nanoparticles were synthesized using atmospheric pressure radio frequency chemical vapor deposition (APRF-CVD). The precursors for the formation of the respective nanoparticles were dissolved in ethanol and injected into the APRF-CVD containing a Cu foil catalyst at 1000 °C. The graphene obtained had a blistered morphology similar to bubble-wrap. The bubble-like protrusions on the graphene sheet were caused by large nanoparticle clusters (~220 nm) formed below the graphene sheets...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
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