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Step width

Timothy Boerger, Jacob Van Dehy, Tanya Onushko, Brian Schmit, Allison Hyngstrom
While devices which allow scientists to perturb normal walking are becoming increasingly common, postural adaptations to these perturbations have not been fully quantified. One way to quantify postural responses to perturbations are through the assessment of variability of step length and width. In the present study we determined variability of both step length and width while subjects walked under perturbations of varying amplitude in roll, pitch, yaw, anteroposterior, lateral, and combined roll, pitch, yaw directions...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
Ilma Xhaferllari, Omar El-Sherif, Stewart Gaede
Volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) is emerging as a leading technology in treating early-stage, non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR). However, two other modalities capable of delivering intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) include fixed-beam and helical TomoTherapy (HT). This study aims to provide an extensive dosimetric comparison among these various IMRT techniques for treating early-stage NSCLC with SABR. Ten early-stage NSCLC patients were retrospectively optimized using three fixed-beam techniques via nine to eleven beams (high and low modulation step-and-shoot (SS), and sliding window (SW)), two VMAT techniques via two partial arcs (SmartArc (SA) and RapidArc (RA)), and three HT techniques via three different fan beam widths (1 cm, 2...
September 2016: Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics
Miao Zhang, Nan Qin, Xun Jia, Wei J Zou, Atif Khan, Ning J Yue
This work investigated the possibility of using proton beam for total body irradiation (TBI). We hypothesized the broad-slow-rising entrance dose from a monoenergetic proton beam can deliver a uniform dose to patient with varied thickness. Comparing to photon-based TBI, it would not require any patient-specific compensator or beam spoiler. The hypothesis was first tested by simulating 250 MeV, 275 MeV, and 300 MeV protons irradiating a wedge-shaped water phantom in a paired opposing arrangement using Monte Carlo (MC) method...
September 2016: Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics
Katherine K Whitcome, E Elizabeth Miller, Jessica L Burns
As human walking speed increases, pelvic step accounts for a greater percentage of total step length and is associated with an increase in amplitude of pelvic rotation. As a result, for any given speed individuals of varied pelvic width and leg length should differ in locomotor kinematics and energetic cost. Yet despite absolutely shorter legs and wider pelves relative to leg length in females, mass-specific cost of transport in walking does not differ by sex. Focusing on stride length as the major component of gait economy, we perform a quantitative analysis of temporal, spatial and rotational gait parameters using kinematic measurements obtained from 30 healthy adults walking at two comfortable speeds...
April 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
Jesse C Dean, Aaron E Embry, Katy H Stimpson, Lindsay A Perry, Steven A Kautz
BACKGROUND: Gait instability often limits post-stroke function, although the mechanisms underlying this instability are not entirely clear. Our recent work has suggested that one possible factor contributing to post-stroke gait instability is a reduced ability to accurately control foot placement. The purpose of the present experiments was to investigate whether post-stroke gait function is related to the ability to accurately abduct and adduct the hip, as required for accurate foot placement...
March 2, 2017: Clinical Biomechanics
Fabricio Saucedo, Feng Yang
The purposes of this study were 1) to investigate the effect of visual deprivation on stability during treadmill walking in older and young adults, and 2) to examine if such an effect differs between age groups. Under the protection of a safety harness, 10 young (23.20±2.44years) and six older adults (67.83±2.48years) participants performed two 90-s walking trials (one with eyes open or EO and the other with eyes closed or EC) at their self-selected treadmill walking speeds determined during EO walking. The step length, step width, foot landing angle, the duration of stance phase, and cadence were calculated from the foot kinematics collected for each participant...
March 6, 2017: Gait & Posture
Kejia Wang, Kim Delbaere, Matthew Brodie, Nigel Lovell, Lauren Kark, Stephen Lord, Stephen Redmond
We used body-worn inertial sensors to quantify differences in semi-free-living gait between stairs and on normal flat ground in older adults, and investigated the utility of assessing gait on these terrains for predicting the occurrence of multiple falls. 82 community-dwelling older adults wore two inertial sensors, on the lower back and the right ankle, during several bouts of walking on flat surfaces and up and down stairs, in between rests and activities of daily living. Derived from the vertical acceleration at the lower back, step rate was calculated from the signal's fundamental frequency...
March 3, 2017: IEEE Journal of Biomedical and Health Informatics
Jun-Chuan Wang, Hongxia Zheng, Ming-Wei Chang, Zeeshan Ahmad, Jing-Song Li
The design, preparation and application of three-dimensional (3D) printed structures have gained appreciable interest in recent times, particularly for drug dosage development. In this study, the electrohydrodynamic (EHD) printing technique was developed to fabricate aligned-fiber antibiotic (tetracycline hydrochloride, TE-HCL) patches using polycaprolactone (PCL), polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) and their composite system (PVP-PCL). Drug loaded 3D patches possessed perfectly aligned fibers giving rise to fibrous strut orientation, variable inter-strut pore size and controlled film width (via layering)...
March 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
Gozde Gur, Ozden Ozkal, Burcu Dilek, Songul Aksoy, Nilgun Bek, Yavuz Yakut
BACKGROUND: Taping is an effective temporary therapy for improving hallux valgus (HV) in adults. Although HV has been demonstrated to impair postural balance, there is a lack of information about how corrective taping affects balance and gait patterns in adults with HV deformity. METHODS: Eighteen middle-aged female patients (average age, 53.5 years) with HV were included. Corrective tape was applied to correct HV angulation. A series of balance and gait stability tests were performed before applying tape and 1 hour after the tape was applied with a Balance Master computerized posturography device...
December 1, 2016: Foot & Ankle International
Timothy J Fullman, Kyle Joly, Andrew Ackerman
BACKGROUND: Ungulate movements are influenced by a variety of biotic and abiotic factors, which may affect connectivity between key resource areas and seasonal ranges. In northwestern Alaska, one important question regarding human impacts on ungulate movement involves caribou (Rangifer tarandus) response to autumn hunting and related aircraft activity. While concerns have been voiced by local hunters about the influence of transporter aircraft and non-local sport hunters, there has been little quantitative analysis of the effects of hunter activity on caribou movement...
2017: Movement Ecology
Behzad Aliahmad, Dinesh K Kumar
This paper proposes the use of an adaptive model to measure the width of retinal vessels in fundus photographs. It is based on the hypothesis that the Higuchi's dimension of the cross-section is proportional to the vessel diameter. This approach does not require image segmentation and binarization of the vessels and therefore is suitable for machine based measurements. The model is developed using a synthetic image of the vessel of known diameter and added noise. As a first step, the vessel cross-section profiles were manually obtained and analyzed using Higuchi's fractal dimension method...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
Matthew R Patterson, William Johnston, Niamh O'Mahony, Sam O'Mahony, Eimear Nolan, Brian Caulfield
The purpose of this work is to compare temporal gait parameters from three different IMU locations to the gold standard force platform. 33 subjects (12 F, 21 M) performed twenty gait trials each while wearing inertial measurement units (IMUs) on the trunk, both shanks and both feet. Data was simultaneously collected from a laboratory embedded force plate. Step times were derived from the raw IMU data at the three IMU locations using methods that have been shown to be accurate. Step times from all locations were valid compared to the force plate...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
Jennifer M Yentes, Stephen I Rennard, Kendra K Schmid, Daniel Blanke, Nicholas Stergiou
RATIONALE: Compared to controls, patients chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have an increased incidence of falls, demonstrate balance deficits, and alterations in medio-lateral trunk acceleration while walking. Measures of gait variability have been implicated as indicators of fall risk, fear of falling, and future falls. OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether alterations in gait variability are found in COPD patients as compared to healthy controls. METHODS: Twenty COPD patients (16 males; 63...
March 7, 2017: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
Rahul Soangra, Thurmon E Lockhart
Dual-task tests can identify gait characteristics peculiar to fallers and nonfallers. Understanding the relationship between gait performance and dual-task related cognitive-motor interference is important for fall prevention. Dual-task adapted changes in gait instability/variability can adversely affect fall risks. Although implicated, it is unclear if healthy participants' fall risks are modified by dual-task walking conditions. Seven healthy young and seven healthy older adults were randomly assigned to normal walking and dual-task walking sessions with a slip perturbation...
2017: Applied Bionics and Biomechanics
Daiki Adachi, Shu Nishiguchi, Naoto Fukutani, Takayuki Hotta, Yuto Tashiro, Saori Morino, Hidehiko Shirooka, Yuma Nozaki, Hinako Hirata, Moe Yamaguchi, Ayanori Yorozu, Masaki Takahashi, Tomoki Aoyama
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate which spatial and temporal parameters of the Timed Up and Go (TUG) test are associated with motor function in elderly individuals. METHODS: This study included 99 community-dwelling women aged 72.9 ± 6.3 years. Step length, step width, single support time, variability of the aforementioned parameters, gait velocity, cadence, reaction time from starting signal to first step, and minimum distance between the foot and a marker placed to 3 in front of the chair were measured using our analysis system...
February 18, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Science: Official Journal of the Japanese Orthopaedic Association
Rajib Ahmed, Ali K Yetisen, Haider Butt
Flexible imprinted photonic nanostructures that are able to diffract/focus narrow-band light have potential applications in optical lenses, filters, tunable lasers, displays, and biosensing. Nanophotonic structures through holography and roll-to-roll printing may reduce fabrication complexities and expenses and enable mass production. Here, 3D photonic nanostructures of a stacked ring array were imprinted on acrylate polymer (AP) over poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) substrate through holography and lift-off processes to create a microlens array (MLA)...
March 2, 2017: ACS Nano
K Wilmut, A L Barnett
Obstacles often appear unexpectedly in our pathway and these require us to make adjustments to avoid collision. Previous research has demonstrated that healthy adults will make anticipatory adjustments to gait where they have been told there is the possibility of an obstacle appearing. One population that may find this type of anticipatory movement difficult is individuals with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD). The current study considered how individuals with and without DCD adjust to the possibility of an obstacle appearing which would require circumvention...
March 1, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
Vincent Morin, Régis Pailhé, Brice Rubens Duval, Roch Mader, Jérémy Cognault, René-Christopher Rouchy, Dominique Saragaglia
PURPOSE: High tibial osteotomy (HTO) is used to treat young and active patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA) and varus deformity. The medial compartment OA alters the patients' gait. METHODS: A prospective study was carried out in 21 consecutive patients operated for HTO due to knee OA with varus deformity. There were 14 men and 7 women, with a median age of 51.9 years (38-64). Their gait was analyzed preoperatively and at 1 year postoperatively, and compared to a healthy control group...
March 1, 2017: Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy: Official Journal of the ESSKA
Alessandro Moro, Giulio Gasparini, Enrico Foresta, Gianmarco Saponaro, Marco Falchi, Lorenzo Cardarelli, Paolo De Angelis, Mario Forcione, Umberto Garagiola, Giuseppe D'Amato, Sandro Pelo
The treatment of patients with atrophic ridge who need prosthetic rehabilitation is a common problem in oral and maxillofacial surgery. Among the various techniques introduced for the expansion of alveolar ridges with a horizontal bone deficit is the alveolar ridge split technique. The aim of this article is to give a description of some new tips that have been specifically designed for the treatment of atrophic ridges with transversal bone deficit. A two-step piezosurgical split technique is also described, based on specific osteotomies of the vestibular cortex and the use of a mandibular ramus graft as interpositional graft...
2017: BioMed Research International
Seunghee Yu, Hyeuk Jin Han, Jong Min Kim, Soonmin Yim, Dong Min Sim, Hunhee Lim, Jung Hye Lee, Woon Ik Park, Jae Hong Park, Kwang Ho Kim, Yeon Sik Jung
With the recent emergence of flexible and wearable optoelectronic devices, the achievement of sufficient bendability and stretchability of transparent and conducting electrodes (TCEs) has become an important requirement. Although metal-mesh-based structures have been investigated for TCEs because of their excellent performances, the fabrication of mesh or grid structures with a submicron line width is still complex due to the requirements of laborious lithography and pattern transfer steps. Here, we introduce an extremely facile fabrication technique for metal patterns embedded in a flexible substrate based on submicron replication and an area-selective delamination (ASD) pattern...
March 9, 2017: ACS Nano
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