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Munif A Hatem, Luiz A M da Cunha, João C M Abdo, Hal David Martin
The inferior acetabulum (IA) has been studied as a stabilizer of the hip in flexed positions with potential implications in femoroacetabular impingement and hip instability. However, there is a paucity of studies considering the normal morphology and parameters for assessment of the IA. The purpose of this study was to define parameters to assess the IA morphology and their normal range. Specifically, the objectives were to assess: (i) the width of the anterior horn (AH) and posterior horn (PH) of the acetabulum; (ii) the inclination of the articular surface of the AH angle (AHA) and PH angle (PHA) in the axial plane; (iii) the anterior opening angle of the IA and differences between genders...
January 2017: Journal of Hip Preservation Surgery
Pasquale Claudio Africa, Carlo de Falco, Francesco Maddalena, Mario Caironi, Dario Natali
The predictive accuracy of state-of-the-art continuum models for charge transport in organic semiconductors is highly dependent on the accurate tuning of a set of parameters whose values cannot be effectively estimated either by direct measurements or by first principles. Fitting the complete set of model parameters at once to experimental data requires to set up extremely complex multi-objective optimization problems whose solution is, on the one hand, overwhelmingly computationally expensive and, on the other, it provides no guarantee of the physical soundness of the value obtained for each individual parameter...
June 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
Narjes Dahmardeh, Majid Asadi-Shekaari, Shokouh Arjmand, Tajpari Kalantaripour, Mohsen Basiri, Mohammad Shabani
Essential tremor (ET) is one of the most common movement disorders with unknown etiology. Despite lack of effective clinical treatments, some potential therapeutic factors and modulation of some neurotransmitters have been utilized to ameliorate motor symptoms in the animal models of tremor. In the current study, male Wistar rats (n=10 in each group) weighing 40-60g were divided into vehicle control groups (saline or DMSO), saline/DMSO+harmaline (30mg/kg, i.p.)+fingolimod (FTY720) (1mg/kg, i.p, 1h before harmaline injection) groups...
June 13, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
Satya V V N Kothapalli, Michael B Altman, Ari Partanen, Leighton Wan, H Michael Gach, William Straube, Dennis E Hallahan, Hong Chen
PURPOSE: With the expanding clinical application of magnetic resonance-guided high intensity focused ultrasound (MR-HIFU), acoustic field characterization of MR-HIFU systems is needed for facilitating regulatory approval and ensuring consistent and safe power output of HIFU transducers. However, the established acoustic field measurement techniques typically use equipment that cannot be used in a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) suite, thus posing a challenge to the development and execution of HIFU acoustic field characterization techniques...
June 19, 2017: Medical Physics
Laurent B Willemot, Mohsen Akbari-Shandiz, Joaquin Sanchez-Sotelo, Kristin Zhao, Olivier Verborgt
PURPOSE: The purpose of this cadaveric study was to compare standard and modified coracoid transfer procedures, bicortical and tricortical iliac crest autografts, and tibial plafond and glenoid allografts with respect to glenoid surface curvature restoration. METHODS: Computed tomography scans of 8 cadaveric shoulders were acquired in 9 conditions: (1) intact, (2) 25% width defect, (3) classic Latarjet, (4) modified congruent-arc Latarjet, (5) tricortical iliac crest inner table, (6) outer table, (7) bicortical iliac crest, (8) distal tibia, and (9) glenoid allograft...
June 13, 2017: Arthroscopy: the Journal of Arthroscopic & related Surgery
Anuja Darekar, Anouk Lamontagne, Joyce Fung
BACKGROUND: Locomotor strategies for obstacle circumvention require appropriate postural coordination that depends on sensorimotor integration within the central nervous system. It is not known how these strategies are affected by a stroke. The objective of this study was to contrast postural coordination strategies used for obstacle circumvention between post-stroke participants (n = 12) and healthy controls (n = 12). METHODS: Participants walked towards a target in a virtual environment (11 × 8 m room) with cylindrical obstacles that were stationary or approaching from head-on, or diagonally 30° left/right...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Neuroengineering and Rehabilitation
Chitra Raghavan, Ramil Mauleon, Vanica Lacorte, Monalisa Jubay, Hein Zaw, Justine Bonifacio, Rakesh Kumar Singh, B Emma Huang, Hei Leung
Multi-parent Advanced Generation Intercross (MAGIC) populations are fast becoming mainstream tools for research and breeding, along with the technology and tools for analysis. This paper demonstrates the analysis of a rice MAGIC population from data filtering to imputation and processing of genetic data to characterizing genomic structure, and finally quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping. In this study, 1316 S6:8 indica MAGIC (MI) lines and the eight founders were sequenced using Genotyping by Sequencing (GBS)...
June 7, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
Yong Wang, Jiating He, Xiaoke Mu, Di Wang, Bowei Zhang, Youde Shen, Ming Lin, Christian Kübel, Yizhong Huang, Hongyu Chen
Metallic nanohelices are extremely rare and, to date, have never been synthesized by a direct solution method. In this work, we report ultralong Au nanohelices grown in solution under ambient conditions. They are ultralong with several tens of micrometers in length, with extraordinary aspect ratio (length/diameter greater than 22 300) and the number of pitches (more than 22 000 pitches). The pitch and width are uniform within each helix but vary widely among the helices. Crystal analyses showed that the facets, twin boundaries, grain sizes, and orientations are aperiodic along the helices...
June 13, 2017: ACS Nano
Laszlo Barany, Gabor Baksa, Lajos Patonay, Oliver Ganslandt, Michael Buchfelder, Peter Kurucz
BACKGROUND: Bochdalek's flower basket (Bfb) is the distal part of the horizontal segment of the fourth ventricle's choroid plexus protruding through the lateral aperture (foramen of Luschka). The microsurgical anatomy of the cerebellopontine angle, fourth ventricle and its inner choroid plexus is well described in the literature, but only one radiological study has investigated the Bfb so far. The goal of the present study was to give an extensive morphometric analysis of the Bfb for the first time and discuss the surgically relevant anatomical aspects...
June 6, 2017: Acta Neurochirurgica
A Hakan Lav, Ertugrul Bilgin, A Hilmi Lav
Speed bumps and humps are utilized as means of calming traffic and controlling vehicular speed. Needleless to say, bumps and humps of large dimensions in length and width force drivers to significantly reduce their driving speeds so as to avoid significant vehicle vertical acceleration. It is thus that this experimental study was conducted with the aim of determining a speed bump design that performs optimally when leading drivers to reduce the speed of their vehicles to safe levels. The first step of the investigation starts off by considering the following question: "What is the optimal design of a speed bump that will - at the same time - reduce the velocity of an incoming vehicle significantly and to a speed that resulting vertical acceleration does not jeopardize road safety? The experiment has been designed to study the dependent variables and collect data in order to propose an optimal design for a speed bump...
June 2, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Patrick Mueller, Markus M Zieger, Benjamin Richter, Alexander S Quick, Joachim Fischer, Jonathan B Mueller, Lu Zhou, Gerd Ulrich Nienhaus, Martin Bastmeyer, Christopher Barner-Kowollik, Martin Wegener
Recent developments in stimulated-emission depletion (STED) microscopy have led to a step change in the achievable resolution and allowed breaking the diffraction limit by large factors. The core principle is based on a reversible molecular switch, allowing for light-triggered activation and deactivation in combination with a laser focus that incorporates a point or line of zero intensity. In the last years, the concept has been transferred from microscopy to maskless laser lithography, namely direct laser writing (DLW), in order to overcome the diffraction limit for optical lithography...
June 5, 2017: ACS Nano
Neil M Thomas, Susan Dewhurst, Theodoros M Bampouras, Tim Donovan, Andrea Macaluso, Giuseppe Vannozzi
Dynamic balance control-characterised as movement of the trunk and lower limbs-was assessed during fixation of a fixed target, smooth pursuits and saccadic eye movements in ten young (22.9 ± 1.5 years) and ten older (72.1 ± 8.2 years) healthy females walking overground. Participants were presented with visual stimuli to initiate eye movements, and posture and gaze were assessed with motion analysis and eye tracking equipment. The results showed an increase in medial/lateral (ML) trunk movement (C7: p = 0...
June 3, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
M I Shah, S Mishra, M Sarkar, C Rout
Capturing of the best-focused image using focus measure function (FMF) from a stack of images acquired at different focus distances is a crucial step in automatic microscopy development. Detection of bacilli present in Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN) stained sputum smears conventional microscope (CM) images is critical to disease diagnosis. Studies have revealed that the performances of FMFs are sensitive to image contents and background noise. In this article, 24 diverse FMFs were implemented on 31 stacks of CM's field of view images acquired from three different microscopes to determine the best-focused one...
June 2, 2017: Cytometry. Part A: the Journal of the International Society for Analytical Cytology
Hossein Rabiee Golgir, Da Wei Li, Kamran Keramatnejad, Qi Ming Zou, Jun Xiao, Fei Wang, Lan Jiang, Jean-François Silvain, Yong Feng Lu
In this study, we successfully developed a carbon dioxide (CO2)-laser-assisted metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (LMOCVD) approach to fast synthesis of high-quality gallium nitride (GaN) epilayers on Al2O3 [sapphire(0001)] substrates. By employing a two-step growth procedure, high crystallinity and smooth GaN epilayers with a fast growth rate of 25.8 μm/h were obtained. The high crystallinity was confirmed by a combination of techniques, including X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy...
June 13, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Tushar Sakorikar, Maheswari Kavirajan Kavitha, Pramitha Vayalamkuzhi, Manu Jaiswal
We demonstrate that crack propagation in uniaxially strained reduced graphene oxide (rGO) films is substantially dependent on the film thickness, for films in the sub-micron regime. rGO film on flexible polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) substrate develop quasi-periodic cracks upon application of strain. The crack density and crack width follow contrasting trends as film thickness is increased and the results are described in terms of a sequential cracking model. Further, these cracks also have a tendency to relax when the strain is released...
June 1, 2017: Scientific Reports
Anne-Marie De Cock, Erik Fransen, Stany Perkisas, Veronique Verhoeven, Olivier Beauchet, Roy Remmen, Maurits Vandewoude
BACKGROUND: Gait characteristics measured at usual pace may allow profiling in patients with cognitive problems. The influence of age, gender, leg length, modified speed or dual tasking is unclear. METHODS: Cross-sectional analysis was performed on a data registry containing demographic, physical and spatial-temporal gait parameters recorded in five walking conditions with a GAITRite® electronic carpet in community-dwelling older persons with memory complaints...
2017: PloS One
Ioanna Anastopoulou, Fotios A Karakostis, Matteo Borrini, Konstantinos Moraitis
In a commingled context, assessing that a talus and a calcaneus correspond to the same individual could become a primary step for accurately sorting human remains. For this purpose, the lengths and widths of the trochlea, posterior calcaneal articular surface, and posterior talar articular surface were measured in 197 individuals (105 males, 92 females) from the Athens Collection. A total of 12 highly accurate equations for reassociating tali and calcanei were developed, using simple and multiple linear regression analysis and they were found to be suitable for sorting commingled human remains...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
Joseph Libby, Arsalan Marghoub, David Johnson, Roman H Khonsari, Michael J Fagan, Mehran Moazen
During the first year of life, the brain grows rapidly and the neurocranium increases to about 65% of its adult size. Our understanding of the relationship between the biomechanical forces, especially from the growing brain, the craniofacial soft tissue structures and the individual bone plates of the skull vault is still limited. This basic knowledge could help in the future planning of craniofacial surgical operations. The aim of this study was to develop a validated computational model of skull growth, based on the finite-element (FE) method, to help understand the biomechanics of skull growth...
May 2017: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
Song-I Han, Hyun Soo Kim, Arum Han
Concentrating cells or adjusting the concentration of cells are one of the most fundamental steps in cell biology experiments, and are typically achieved through centrifugation. However this step is challenging to implement in droplet microfluidics. Here we present an in-droplet cell concentrator that operates by first gradually focusing cells inside a droplet to one side of the droplet using negative dielectrophoresis (nDEP), followed by asymmetric droplet splitting using a Y-shaped junction, resulting in two daughter droplets, one of which containing all or most of the cells...
May 21, 2017: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
Hideki Kojima, Makoto Takigami, Tomohiro Asano, Yasuhiro Hatanaka, Kazuhiro Aizawa, Masayori Ishikawa
In dynamic multi-leaf collimator (MLC) intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), the accuracy of delivered dose is influenced by the positional accuracy of the moving MLC. In order to assess the accuracy of the delivered dose during dynamic MLC IMRT, the delivered dose error in dynamic MLC IMRT using the MLC speed control with dose rate change was investigated. Sweeping gap sequence irradiation was performed with constant MLC leaf speed at 0.6 to 5 cm/s or changed MLC speed (4 steps). The positional accuracy of the moving MLC was evaluated from the trajectory log file...
2017: Nihon Hoshasen Gijutsu Gakkai Zasshi
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