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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913685/novel-biomarkers-in-kidney-disease-roles-for-cilia-wnt-signalling-and-atmin-in-polycystic-kidney-disease
#1
REVIEW
Paraskevi Goggolidou, Patricia D Wilson
Biomarkers, the measurable indicators of biological conditions, are fast becoming a popular approach in providing information to track disease processes that could lead to novel therapeutic interventions for chronic conditions. Inherited, chronic kidney disease affects millions of people worldwide and although pharmacological treatments exist for some conditions, there are still patients whose only option is kidney dialysis and kidney transplantation. In the past 10 years, certain chronic kidney diseases have been reclassified as ciliopathies...
December 15, 2016: Biochemical Society Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913639/modulation-of-apical-constriction-by-wnt-signaling-is-required-for-lung-epithelial-shape-transition
#2
Katsumi Fumoto, Hisako Takigawa-Imamura, Kenta Sumiyama, Tomoyuki Kaneiwa, Akira Kikuchi
In lung development the apically constricted columnar epithelium forms numerous buds during the pseudoglandular stage and subsequently changes the shape into flat or cuboidal pneumocytes that compose the air sacs during the canalicular and saccular (canalicular-saccular) stages, yet the impact of cell shapes on tissue morphogenesis remains unclear. The expression of Wnt components were decreased in the canalicular-saccular stages, and genetically constitutive activation of Wnt signaling impaired air sac formation by inducing apical constriction in the epithelium as seen in the pseudoglandular stage...
December 2, 2016: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911878/y-box-binding-protein-1-promotes-hepatocellular-carcinomainitiating-cell-progression-and-tumorigenesis-via-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-pathway
#3
Hsiao-Mei Chao, Hong-Xuan Huang, Po-Hsiang Chang, Kuo-Chang Tseng, Atsushi Miyajima, Edward Chern
Y-box binding protein-1 (YB-1) is a pleiotropic molecule that binds DNA to regulate genes on a transcriptional level in the nucleus and binds RNA to modulate gene translation in the cytoplasm. In our previous studies, YB-1 was also characterized as a fetal hepatic protein that regulates the maturation of hepatocytes and is upregulated during liver regeneration. Moreover, YB-1 has been shown to be expressed in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, the role of YB-1 in HCC remains unclear. Here, we aimed to characterize the role of YB-1 in HCC...
December 1, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911727/role-of-the-bone-morphogenic-protein-pathway-in-developmental-haemopoiesis-and-leukaemogenesis
#4
REVIEW
Parto Toofan, Helen Wheadon
Myeloid leukaemias share the common characteristics of being stem cell-derived clonal diseases, characterised by excessive proliferation of one or more myeloid lineage. Chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML) arises from a genetic alteration in a normal haemopoietic stem cell (HSC) giving rise to a leukaemic stem cell (LSC) within the bone marrow (BM) 'niche'. CML is characterised by the presence of the oncogenic tyrosine kinase fusion protein breakpoint cluster region-abelson murine leukaemia viral oncogene homolog 1 (BCR-ABL), which is responsible for driving the disease through activation of downstream signal transduction pathways...
October 15, 2016: Biochemical Society Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910952/protective-effects-of-ginsenoside-rg1-on-intestinal-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-induced-oxidative-stress-and-apoptosis-via-activation-of-the-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-pathway
#5
Guo Zu, Jing Guo, Ningwei Che, Tingting Zhou, Xiangwen Zhang
Ginsenoside Rg1 (Rg1) is one of the major bioactive ingredients in Panax ginseng, and it attenuates inflammation and apoptosis. The aims of our study were to explore the potential of Rg1 for the treatment of intestinal I/R injury and to determine whether the protective effects of Rg1 were exerted through the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. In this study, Rg1 treatment ameliorated inflammatory factors, ROS and apoptosis that were induced by intestinal I/R injury. Cell viability was increased and cell apoptosis was decreased with Rg1 pretreatment following hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) in the in vitro study...
December 2, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910913/loss-of-egfr-asap1-signaling-in-metastatic-and-unresectable-hepatoblastoma
#6
Sarangarajan Ranganathan, Mylarappa Ningappa, Chethan Ashokkumar, Brandon W Higgs, Jun Min, Qing Sun, Lori Schmitt, Shankar Subramaniam, Hakon Hakonarson, Rakesh Sindhi
Hepatoblastoma (HBL), the most common childhood liver cancer is cured with surgical resection after chemotherapy or with liver transplantation if local invasion and multifocality preclude resection. However, variable survival rates of 60-80% and debilitating chemotherapy sequelae argue for more informed treatment selection, which is not possible by grading the Wnt-β-catenin over activity present in most HBL tumors. A hypothesis-generating whole transcriptome analysis shows that HBL tumors removed at transplantation are enriched most for cancer signaling pathways which depend predominantly on epidermal growth factor (EGF) signaling, and to a lesser extent, on aberrant Wnt-β-catenin signaling...
December 2, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910912/bhx-inhibits-the-wnt-signaling-pathway-by-suppressing-%C3%AE-catenin-transcription-in-the-nucleus
#7
Fengxia Ding, Meisa Wang, Yibo Du, Shuangshuang Du, Zhongling Zhu, Zhao Yan
BHX (N-(4-hydroxybenzyl)-1,3,4-triphenyl-4,5-dihydro-1H-pyrazole-5-carboxamide), a Wnt signaling pathway inhibitor, effectively inhibits tumor cell growth, but the underlying mechanism is unclear. Thus, we aim to investigate the effects and associated mechanism of BHX action on A549 and MCF-7 cell lines. In our study, MTT(3-[4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl]-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide) and xenograft model assay indicated that cell growth was inhibited by BHX at a range of concentrations in vitro and in vivo...
December 2, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910850/the-guanine-nucleotide-exchange-factor-net1-facilitates-the-specification-of-dorsal-cell-fates-in-zebrafish-embryos-by-promoting-maternal-%C3%AE-catenin-activation
#8
Shi Wei, Miaomiao Dai, Zhaoting Liu, Yuanqing Ma, Hanqiao Shang, Yu Cao, Qiang Wang
Wnt/β-catenin signaling is essential for the initiation of dorsal-ventral patterning during vertebrate embryogenesis. Maternal β-catenin accumulates in dorsal marginal nuclei during cleavage stages, but its critical target genes essential for dorsalization are silent until mid-blastula transition (MBT). Here, we find that zebrafish net1, a guanine nucleotide exchange factor, is specifically expressed in dorsal marginal blastomeres after MBT, and acts as a zygotic factor to promote the specification of dorsal cell fates...
December 2, 2016: Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910068/endometrial-carcinoma-specific-targeted-pathways
#9
Nuria Eritja, Andree Yeramian, Bo-Juen Chen, David Llobet-Navas, Eugenia Ortega, Eva Colas, Miguel Abal, Xavier Dolcet, Jaume Reventos, Xavier Matias-Guiu
Endometrial cancer (EC) is the most common gynecologic malignancy in the western world with more than 280,000 cases per year worldwide. Prognosis for EC at early stages, when primary surgical resection is the most common initial treatment, is excellent. Five-year survival rate is around 70 %.Several molecular alterations have been described in the different types of EC. They occur in genes involved in important signaling pathways. In this chapter, we will review the most relevant altered pathways in EC, including PI3K/AKT/mTOR, RAS-RAF-MEK-ERK, Tyrosine kinase, WNT/β-Catenin, cell cycle, and TGF-β signaling pathways...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909884/differential-role-of-wnt-signaling-and-base-excision-repair-pathways-in-gastric-adenocarcinoma-aggressiveness
#10
Alireza Korourian, Raheleh Roudi, Ahmad Shariftabrizi, Elham Kalantari, Kambiz Sotoodeh, Zahra Madjd
Aberrant activation of Wnt and base excision repair (BER) signaling pathways are implicated in tumor progression and chemotherapy resistance in gastric adenocarcinoma. This study was conducted to clarify the role of E2F6 and RhoA, components of the Wnt signaling pathway, and SMUG1, a component of the BER pathway in gastric adenocarcinoma. Expression levels and clinicopathological significance of three biomarkers, namely E2F6, RhoA, and SMUG1, as potential signaling molecules involved in tumorigenesis and aggressive behavior, were examined using tissue microarray...
December 1, 2016: Clinical and Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909729/self-renewal-molecular-mechanisms-of-colorectal-cancer-stem-cells
#11
Tianhui Pan, Jinghong Xu, Yongliang Zhu
Colorectal cancer stem cells (CCSCs) represent a small fraction of the colorectal cancer cell population that possess self-renewal and multi-lineage differentiation potential and drive tumorigenicity. Self-renewal is essential for the malignant biological behaviors of colorectal cancer stem cells. While the self-renewal molecular mechanisms of colorectal cancer stem cells are not yet fully understood, the aberrant activation of signaling pathways, such as Wnt, Notch, transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β)/bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) and Hedgehog-Gli (HH-GLI), specific roles mediated by cell surface markers and micro-environmental factors are involved in the regulation of self-renewal...
November 30, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909336/c-terminal-truncated-hbv-x-promotes-hepato-oncogenesis-through-inhibition-of-tumor-suppressive-%C3%AE-catenin-bambi-signaling
#12
Seok Lee, Mi-Jin Lee, Jun Zhang, Goung-Ran Yu, Dae-Ghon Kim
C-terminal-truncated hepatitis B virus (HBV) X (HBx) (ctHBX) is frequently detected in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) through HBV integration into the host genome. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying ctHBx-associated oncogenic signaling have not yet been clarified. To elucidate the biological role of ctHBx in hepato-oncogenesis, we functionally analyzed ctHBx-mediated regulation of the activin membrane-bound inhibitor bone morphogenetic protein and activin membrane-bound inhibitor (BAMBI) through transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) or β-catenin (CTNNB1) in HCC cells and in an animal model, and we compared its role to that of the full-length HBx protein...
December 2, 2016: Experimental & Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908786/distinct-requirements-of-wls-wnt9a-wnt5b-and-gpc4-in-regulating-chondrocyte-maturation-and-timing-of-endochondral-ossification
#13
Irving Tc Ling, Lucie Rochard, Eric C Liao
Formation of the mandible requires progressive morphologic change, proliferation, differentiation and organization of chondrocytes preceding osteogenesis. The Wnt signaling pathway is involved in regulating bone development and maintenance. Chondrocytes that are fated to become bone require Wnt to polarize and orientate appropriately to initiate the endochondral ossification program. Although the canonical Wnt signaling has been well studied in the context of bone development, the effects of non-canonical Wnt signaling in regulating the timing of cartilage maturation and subsequent bone formation in shaping ventral craniofacial structure is not fully understood...
November 28, 2016: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908706/highly-expressed-nrsn2-is-related-to-malignant-phenotype-in-ovarian-cancer
#14
Wenbin Tang, Aimin Ren, Hongyang Xiao, Huizhen Sun, Bin Li
Neurensin-2 (NRSN2) is a 24KD protein, which is reported located in the membrane, while its biological functions remain unknown, not to mention in the field of tumor biology. In current study, we aimed to analyze the functions of NRSN2 in ovarian cancer. We screened TCGA database and surprisingly found that its copy number and mRNA level are gained and heightened respectively in parts of serous ovarian cancer patients. In current study, both loss- and gain- function assays found that NRSN2 is associated with the malignant phenotype in ovarian cancer cells, because NRSN2 plays a remarkable role in anchorage-independent colony formation, subcutaneous tumor formation, cell invasion, and chemoresistance...
November 28, 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908414/licl-regulates-mitochondrial-biogenesis-during-megakaryocyte-development
#15
Ram Babu Undi, Usha Gutti, Ravi Kumar Gutti
JAK-STAT, PI3K-AKT and MAPK signaling pathways are involved in platelet production process. Although wnt signaling has been reported in the biogenesis of platelets, but its role in megakaryocyte development is not well studied. We used an inducible canonical wnt signaling system that utilizes LiCl (GSK-3β inhibitor). LiCl could activate wnt signaling pathway along with maturation of megakaryocytes. Mitochondrial staining showed an increase in mitochondrial mass upon induction with LiCl. Also, mitochondrial markers PGC-1α and TFAM were up regulated with increase in mitochondrial DNA content...
January 2017: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908290/bile-acid-a-potential-inducer-of-colon-cancer-stem-cells
#16
Lulu Farhana, Pratima Nangia-Makker, Evan Arbit, Kathren Shango, Sarah Sarkar, Hamidah Mahmud, Timothy Hadden, Yingjie Yu, Adhip P N Majumdar
BACKGROUND: Although the unconjugated secondary bile acids, specifically deoxycholic acid (DCA) and lithocholic acid (LCA), are considered to be risk factors for colorectal cancer, the precise mechanism(s) by which they regulate carcinogenesis is poorly understood. We hypothesize that the cytotoxic bile acids may promote stemness in colonic epithelial cells leading to generation of cancer stem cells (CSCs) that play a role in the development and progression of colon cancer. METHODS: Normal human colonic epithelial cells (HCoEpiC) were used to study bile acid DCA/LCA-mediated induction of CSCs...
December 1, 2016: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907131/itraq-based-quantitative-proteomic-comparison-of-early-and-late-passage-human-dermal-papilla-cell-secretome-in-relation-to-inducing-hair-follicle-regeneration
#17
Huan Zhang, Ning-Xia Zhu, Keng Huang, Bo-Zhi Cai, Yang Zeng, Yan-Ming Xu, Yang Liu, Yan-Ping Yuan, Chang-Min Lin
Alopecia is an exceedingly prevalent problem that lacks effective therapy. Recently, research has focused on early-passage dermal papilla cells (DPCs), which have hair inducing activity both in vivo and in vitro. Our previous study indicated that factors secreted from early-passage DPCs contribute to hair follicle (HF) regeneration. To identify which factors are responsible for HF regeneration and why late-passage DPCs lose this potential, we collected 48-h-culture medium (CM) from both of passage 3 and 9 DPCs, and subcutaneously injected the DPC-CM into NU/NU mice...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907035/exendin-4-inhibits-hepatic-lipogenesis-by-increasing-%C3%AE-catenin-signaling
#18
Mi Hae Seo, Jinmi Lee, Seok-Woo Hong, Eun-Jung Rhee, Se Eun Park, Cheol Young Park, Ki Won Oh, Sung Woo Park, Won-Young Lee
The aim of this study is to investigate whether the beneficial effect of exendin-4 on hepatic steatosis is mediated by β-catenin signaling. After the HepG2 human hepatoma cells were treated with PA for 24 hours, total triglycerides levels were increased in a dose-dependent manner, and the expression levels of perilipin family members were upregulated in cells treated with 400 μM PA. For our in vitro model of hepatic steatosis, HepG2 cells were treated with 400 μM palmitic acid (PA) in the presence or absence of 100 nM exendin-4 for 24 hours...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906699/reversal-effects-of-local-anesthetics-on-p-glycoprotein-mediated-cancer-multidrug-resistance
#19
Yong Hu, Xiaobing Qin, Haixia Cao, Shaorong Yu, Jifeng Feng
The existence of multidrug resistance (MDR) is the main reason for failure in cancer chemotherapy. The main mechanism of MDR is the overexpression of P-glycoprotein (P-gp). P-gp, a 170 kDa transmembrane phosphorylated glycoprotein encoded by ABCB1 belonging to a member of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) super-family of the membrane transporters, is also known as the MDR protein. Local anesthetics (LAs) are a major contributor to medical practice. As a cornerstone of analgesia, LAs provides myriad benefits...
November 30, 2016: Anti-cancer Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906189/distinct-outcomes-of-crl-nedd8-pathway-inhibition-reveal-cancer-cell-plasticity
#20
Anastasia V Rulina, Frédérique Mittler, Patricia Obeid, Sophie Gerbaud, Laurent Guyon, Eric Sulpice, Frédérique Kermarrec, Nicole Assard, Monika E Dolega, Xavier Gidrol, Maxim Y Balakirev
Inhibition of protein degradation by blocking Cullin-RING E3 ligases (CRLs) is a new approach in cancer therapy though of unknown risk because CRL inhibition may stabilize both oncoproteins and tumor suppressors. Probing CRLs in prostate cancer cells revealed a remarkable plasticity of cells with TMPRSS2-ERG translocation. CRL suppression by chemical inhibition or knockdown of RING component RBX1 led to reversible G0/G1 cell cycle arrest that prevented cell apoptosis. Conversely, complete blocking of CRLs at a higher inhibitor dose-induced cytotoxicity that was amplified by knockdown of CRL regulator Cand1...
December 1, 2016: Cell Death & Disease
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