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Epigenetics pathology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639476/effects-of-folic-acid-on-dnmt1-gap43-and-vegfr1-in-intrauterine-growth-restriction-filial-rats
#1
Ying-Xue Ding, Hong Cui
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of a folic acid intervention on the outcome of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) filial rats and changes in DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1), growth-associated protein 43 (GAP43), and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 1 (VEGFR1). METHODS: The IUGR animal model was established using a starvation method in pregnant rats. The animals were randomly divided into 4 groups: normal controls, IUGR rats, IUGR rats given folic acid, and IUGR rats given normal saline...
January 1, 2017: Reproductive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638402/dna-methylation-nuclear-organization-and-cancer
#2
REVIEW
Bhavani P Madakashira, Kirsten C Sadler
The dramatic re-organization of the cancer cell nucleus creates telltale morphological features critical for pathological staging of tumors. In addition, the changes to the mutational and epigenetic landscape in cancer cells alter the structure and stability of the genome and directly contribute to malignancy. DNA methylation is one of the best studied epigenetic changes in cancer, as nearly every type of cancer studied shows a loss of DNA methylation spread across most of the genome. This global hypomethylation is accompanied by hypermethylation at distinct loci, and much of the work on DNA methylation in cancer has focused on how local changes contribute to gene expression...
2017: Frontiers in Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635355/aberrant-wnt-signaling-a-special-focus-in-cns-diseases
#3
Mercedes Arnés, Sergio Casas Tintó
Wnt signals regulate cell proliferation, migration and differentiation during development, as well as synaptic transmission and plasticity in the adult brain. Abnormal Wnt signaling is central to a number of brain pathologies. We review here, the significance of this pathway focused in the contribution of the most frequent alterations in receptors, secretable modulators and downstream targets in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Glioblastoma (GBM). β-catenin and GSK3 levels are pivotal in the neurodegeneration associated to AD contributing to memory deficits, tau phosphorylation, increased β-amyloid production and modulation of Apolipoprotein E in the brain...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Neurogenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634854/micrornas-associated-with-inflammation-in-shoulder-tendinopathy-and-glenohumeral-arthritis
#4
Finosh G Thankam, Chandra S Boosani, Matthew F Dilisio, Devendra K Agrawal
Inflammation is associated with glenohumeral arthritis and rotator cuff tendon tears. Epigenetically, miRNAs tightly regulate various genes involved in the inflammatory response. Alterations in the expression profile of miRNAs and the elucidation of their target genes with respect to the pathophysiology could improve the understanding of their regulatory role and therapeutic potential. Here, we screened key miRNAs that mediate inflammation and linked with JAK2/STAT3 pathway with respect to the coincidence of glenohumeral arthritis in patients suffering from rotator cuff injury (RCI)...
June 20, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630109/macrophage-mediated-inflammation-in-normal-and-diabetic-wound-healing
#5
REVIEW
Anna E Boniakowski, Andrew S Kimball, Benjamin N Jacobs, Steven L Kunkel, Katherine A Gallagher
The healing of cutaneous wounds is dependent on the progression through distinct, yet overlapping phases of wound healing, including hemostasis, inflammation, proliferation, and resolution/remodeling. The failure of these phases to occur in a timely, progressive fashion promotes pathologic wound healing. The macrophage (MΦ) has been demonstrated to play a critical role in the inflammatory phase of tissue repair, where its dynamic plasticity allows this cell to mediate both tissue-destructive and -reparative functions...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628228/epigenetic-mechanisms-underlying-nmda-receptor-hypofunction-in-the-prefrontal-cortex-of-juvenile-animals-in-the-mam-model-for-schizophrenia
#6
Yelena Gulchina, Song-Jun Xu, Melissa A Snyder, Felice Elefant, Wen-Jun Gao
Schizophrenia (SCZ) is characterized not only by psychosis, but also by working memory and executive functioning deficiencies, processes that rely on the prefrontal cortex (PFC). Because these cognitive impairments emerge prior to psychosis onset, we investigated synaptic function during development in the neurodevelopmental methylazoxymethanol acetate (MAM) model for SCZ. Specifically, we hypothesize that NMDAR hypofunction is attributable to reductions in the NR2B subunit through aberrant epigenetic regulation of gene expression, resulting in deficient synaptic physiology and PFC-dependent cognitive dysfunction, a hallmark of SCZ...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627608/silencing-of-lsd1-gene-modulates-histone-methylation-and-acetylation-and-induces-the-apoptosis-of-jeko-1-and-molt-4-cells
#7
Zhong-Kai Zou, Yi-Qun Huang, Yong Zou, Xu-Ke Zheng, Xu-Dong Ma
Lysine-specific demethylase 1 (LSD1) has been identified and biochemically characterized in epigenetics; however, the pathological roles of its dysfunction in mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) and T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia remain to be elucidated. In this study, we evaluated LSD1, and histone H3 lysine 4 (H3K4)me1 and H3K4me2 expression in patients with MCL and silenced LSD1 in JeKo‑1 and MOLT‑4 cells, in order to define its role in JeKo‑1 and MOLT‑4 cell proliferation and apoptosis. We retrospectively analyzed the protein expression of LSD1, and mono- and dimethylated H3K4 (H3K4me1 and H3K4me2), and cyclin D1 and Ki67 in 30 cases of MCL by immunohistochemistry...
June 19, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626218/molecular-characterization-of-ezh2-mutant-patients-with-myelodysplastic-myeloproliferative-neoplasms
#8
J Rinke, J P Müller, M F Blaess, A Chase, M Meggendorfer, V Schäfer, N Winkelmann, C Haferlach, N C P Cross, A Hochhaus, T Ernst
Mutations in the epigenetic regulator gene EZH2 are frequently observed in patients with myelodysplastic/myeloproliferative neoplasms (MDS/MPN; 10-13%) and are associated with a poor outcome. To gain more insight into EZH2 pathology we sought to genetically characterize a cohort of 41 EZH2-mutated MDS/MPN patients using targeted deep next generation sequencing (NGS), colony forming progenitor assays and transcriptome analysis. Stable shRNA-mediated downregulation of EZH2 was performed in MDS derived F-36P, MOLM-13 and OCI-M2 cells to study EZH2 specific changes...
June 19, 2017: Leukemia: Official Journal of the Leukemia Society of America, Leukemia Research Fund, U.K
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625654/line-1-hypomethylation-is-associated-to-specific-clinico-pathological-features-in-stage-i-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#9
Andrea Imperatori, Nora Sahnane, Nicola Rotolo, Francesca Franzi, Elisa Nardecchia, Laura Libera, Chiara Romualdi, Maria Cattoni, Fausto Sessa, Lorenzo Dominioni, Daniela Furlan
OBJECTIVES: We hypothesize that selected genetic and/or epigenetic changes associated with advanced tumours may help identifying early non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLCs) that recur after resection. Among epigenetic changes, long interspersed nuclear element-1 (LINE-1) hypomethylation is seen early during carcinogenesis and may act in concert with genetic alterations to cancer progression. LINE-1 hypomethylation and gene mutations frequently involved in lung cancer, were analysed to evaluate their prognostic role in resected stage I NSCLC...
June 2017: Lung Cancer: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623975/mitochondrial-dna-content-and-methylation-in-fetal-cord-blood-of-pregnancies-with-placental-insufficiency
#10
Chiara Novielli, Chiara Mandò, Silvia Tabano, Gaia M Anelli, Laura Fontana, Patrizio Antonazzo, Monica Miozzo, Irene Cetin
INTRODUCTION: Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and preeclampsia (PE) are pregnancy disorders characterized by placental insufficiency with oxygen/nutrient restriction and oxidative stress, all influencing mitochondria functionality and number. Moreover, IUGR and PE fetuses are predisposed to diseases later in life, and this might occur through epigenetic alterations. Here we analyze content and methylation of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), for the first time in IUGR and PE singleton fetuses, to identify possible alterations in mtDNA levels and/or epigenetic control of mitochondrial loci relevant to replication (D-loop) and functionality (mt-TF/RNR1: protein synthesis, mt-CO1: respiratory chain complex)...
July 2017: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623901/biomarker-correlation-network-in-colorectal-carcinoma-by-tumor-anatomic-location
#11
Reiko Nishihara, Kimberly Glass, Kosuke Mima, Tsuyoshi Hamada, Jonathan A Nowak, Zhi Rong Qian, Peter Kraft, Edward L Giovannucci, Charles S Fuchs, Andrew T Chan, John Quackenbush, Shuji Ogino, Jukka-Pekka Onnela
BACKGROUND: Colorectal carcinoma evolves through a multitude of molecular events including somatic mutations, epigenetic alterations, and aberrant protein expression, influenced by host immune reactions. One way to interrogate the complex carcinogenic process and interactions between aberrant events is to model a biomarker correlation network. Such a network analysis integrates multidimensional tumor biomarker data to identify key molecular events and pathways that are central to an underlying biological process...
June 17, 2017: BMC Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623159/epigenetic-biomarkers-and-cardiovascular-disease-circulating-micrornas
#12
David de Gonzalo-Calvo, Eduardo Iglesias-Gutiérrez, Vicenta Llorente-Cortés
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small noncoding RNA (20-25 nucleotides) involved in gene regulation. In recent years, miRNAs have emerged as a key epigenetic mechanism in the development and physiology of the cardiovascular system. These molecular species regulate basic functions in virtually all cell types, and are therefore directly associated with the pathophysiology of a large number of cardiovascular diseases. Since their relatively recent discovery in extracellular fluids, miRNAs have been studied as potential biomarkers of disease...
June 13, 2017: Revista Española de Cardiología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620889/levels-of-microrna-heterogeneity-in-cancer-biology
#13
REVIEW
Nina Petrovic, Sercan Ergün, Esma R Isenovic
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression, involved in the silencing of messenger RNA (mRNA) translation. The importance of miRNA signatures in disease screening, prognosis, and progression of different tumor types and subtypes is increasing. miRNA expression levels change depending on numerous factors. In this review, we are describing the circumstances under which miRNA levels can change, these are named 'levels' of heterogeneity of miRNAs. miRNAs can have oncogenic, tumor suppressive, or both roles depending on tumor type and target mRNA whose translation they silence...
June 15, 2017: Molecular Diagnosis & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616124/psychoneuroimmunoendocrinology-clinical-implications
#14
REVIEW
Sandra Nora González-Díaz, Alfredo Arias-Cruz, Bárbara Elizondo-Villarreal, Olga Patricia Monge-Ortega
Psychoneuroimmunoendocrinology, which was first described in 1936, is the study of the interactions between the psyche, neural and endocrine functions and immune responses. The aim of psychoneuroimmunoendocrinology is to apply medical knowledge to the treatment of different allergic, immune, autoimmune, rheumatic, neoplastic, endocrine, cardiovascular and dental pathologies, among other disorders. Epigenetic factors and major stresses from different types of stimuli acting through distinct pathways and neurotransmitters are highly involved in altering the psychoneuroimmunoendocrine axis, resulting in the emergence of disease...
2017: World Allergy Organization Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608921/whole-exome-sequencing-reveals-critical-genes-underlying-metastasis-in-esophageal-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#15
Wei Dai, Josephine Mun Yee Ko, Sheyne Sta Ana Choi, Zhouyou Yu, Luwen Ning, Hong Zheng, Vinod Gopalan, Kin Tak Chan, Nikki Pui-Yue Lee, Kwok Wah Chan, Simon Ying-Kit Law, Alfred King-Yin Lam, Maria Li Lung
Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is one of the most lethal cancers due to a high frequency of metastasis. However, little is known about the genomic landscape of metastatic ESCC. To identify the genetic alterations that underlie ESCC metastasis, whole-exome sequencing (WES) was performed for 41 primary tumors and 15 lymph nodes (LNs) with metastatic ESCC. Eleven cases included matched primary tumors, synchronous LN metastases and non-neoplastic mucosa. Approximately 50-76% of the mutations identified in primary tumors appeared in the synchronous LN metastases...
June 13, 2017: Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607629/the-impact-of-environmental-factors-in-influencing-epigenetics-related-to-oxidative-states-in-the-cardiovascular-system
#16
REVIEW
Francesco Angelini, Francesca Pagano, Antonella Bordin, Marika Milan, Isotta Chimenti, Mariangela Peruzzi, Valentina Valenti, Antonino Marullo, Leonardo Schirone, Silvia Palmerio, Sebastiano Sciarretta, Colin E Murdoch, Giacomo Frati, Elena De Falco
Oxidative states exert a significant influence on a wide range of biological and molecular processes and functions. When their balance is shifted towards enhanced amounts of free radicals, pathological phenomena can occur, as the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in tissue microenvironment or in the systemic circulation can be detrimental. Epidemic chronic diseases of western societies, such as cardiovascular disease, obesity, and diabetes correlate with the imbalance of redox homeostasis. Current advances in our understanding of epigenetics have revealed a parallel scenario showing the influence of oxidative stress as a major regulator of epigenetic gene regulation via modification of DNA methylation, histones, and microRNAs...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600325/hira-deficiency-in-muscle-fibers-causes-hypertrophy-and-susceptibility-to-oxidative-stress
#17
Nicolas Valenzuela, Benjamin Soibam, Lerong Li, Jing Wang, Lauren A Byers, Yu Liu, Robert J Schwartz, M David Stewart
Nucleosome assembly proceeds through DNA replication-coupled or replication-independent mechanisms. For skeletal myocytes, whose nuclei have permanently exited the cell cycle, replication-independent assembly is the only mode available for chromatin remodeling. For this reason, any nucleosome composition alterations accompanying transcriptional responses to physiological signals must occur through a DNA replication-independent pathway. HIRA is the histone chaperone primarily responsible for replication-independent incorporation of histone variant H3...
June 9, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598844/combustion-derived-nanoparticles-in-key-brain-target-cells-and-organelles-in-young-urbanites-culprit-hidden-in-plain-sight-in-alzheimer-s-disease-development
#18
Angélica González-Maciel, Rafael Reynoso-Robles, Ricardo Torres-Jardón, Partha S Mukherjee, Lilian Calderón-Garcidueñas
Millions of children and young adults are exposed to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and ozone, associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD) risk. Mexico City (MC) children exhibit systemic and brain inflammation, low cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) Aβ1-42, breakdown of nasal, olfactory, alveolar-capillary, duodenal, and blood-brain barriers, volumetric and metabolic brain changes, attention and short-term memory deficits, and hallmarks of AD and Parkinson's disease. Airborne iron-rich strongly magnetic combustion-derived nanoparticles (CDNPs) are present in young urbanites' brains...
June 3, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597562/reprogramming-progeria-fibroblasts-re-establishes-a-normal-epigenetic-landscape
#19
Zhaoyi Chen, Wing Y Chang, Alton Etheridge, Hilmar Strickfaden, Zhigang Jin, Gareth Palidwor, Ji-Hoon Cho, Kai Wang, Sarah Y Kwon, Carole Doré, Angela Raymond, Akitsu Hotta, James Ellis, Rita A Kandel, F Jeffrey Dilworth, Theodore J Perkins, Michael J Hendzel, David J Galas, William L Stanford
Ideally, disease modeling using patient-derived induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) enables analysis of disease initiation and progression. This requires any pathological features of the patient cells used for reprogramming to be eliminated during iPSC generation. Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS) is a segmental premature aging disorder caused by the accumulation of the truncated form of Lamin A known as Progerin within the nuclear lamina. Cellular hallmarks of HGPS include nuclear blebbing, loss of peripheral heterochromatin, defective epigenetic inheritance, altered gene expression, and senescence...
June 8, 2017: Aging Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595943/a-role-for-g-protein-coupled-estrogen-receptor-gper-in-estrogen-induced-carcinogenesis-dysregulated-glandular-homeostasis-survival-and-metastasis
#20
REVIEW
Edward J Filardo
Mechanisms of carcinogenesis by estrogen center on its mitogenic and genotoxic potential on tumor target cells. These models suggest that estrogen receptor (ER) signaling promotes expansion of the transformed population and that subsequent accumulation of somatic mutations that drive cancer progression occur via metabolic activation of cathecol estrogens or by epigenetic mechanisms. Recent findings that GPER is linked to obesity, vascular pathology and immunosuppression, key events in the development of metabolic syndrome and intra-tissular estrogen synthesis, provides an alternate view of estrogen-induced carcinogenesis...
June 5, 2017: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
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