Read by QxMD icon Read

Epigenetics pathology

Juliet Richetto, Renaud Massart, Ulrike Weber-Stadlbauer, Moshe Szyf, Marco A Riva, Urs Meyer
BACKGROUND: Prenatal exposure to infectious or inflammatory insults increases the risk of neurodevelopmental disorders. Using a well-established mouse model of prenatal viral-like immune activation, we examined whether this pathological association involves genome-wide DNA methylation differences at single nucleotide resolution. METHODS: Prenatal immune activation was induced by maternal treatment with the viral mimetic polyriboinosinic-polyribocytidylic acid in middle or late gestation...
August 12, 2016: Biological Psychiatry
Srimoyee Ghosh, Jose M Lora
Epigenetic control of gene expression is enforced in part through histone modifications. Bromodomain and extra terminal domain (BET) proteins function as crucial chromatin readers, responsible for interpretation of the chromatin code in diverse cellular contexts, ultimately impacting gene transcription. BET proteins can play a major role in inflammation by profoundly affecting the biology of the Thelper 17 (TH17) lineage. We summarize recent studies focusing on BET inhibition as a viable therapeutic alternative for the control of autoimmune diseases driven by aberrant activation of TH17 cells...
March 2016: Drug Discovery Today. Technologies
Jing Chen, Xiaoyan Zhang, Han Zhang, Tongqiang Liu, Hui Zhang, Jie Teng, Jun Ji, Xiaoqiang Ding
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a state of Klotho deficiency. The Klotho expression may be suppressed due to DNA hypermethylation in cancer cells so we have investigated the effects and possible mechanisms by which Klotho expression is regulated in human aortic smooth muscle cells (HASMCs). The vascular Klotho hypermethylation in radial arteries of patients with end-stage renal disease was described. Cultured HASMCs and 5/6-nephrectomized Sprague Dawley (SD) rats treated with indoxyl sulfate (IS) were used as in vitro and in vivo models, respectively...
2016: International Journal of Biological Sciences
Rüdiger Hardeland
Dynamic aspects of melatonin's actions merit increasing future attention. This concerns particularly entirely different effects in senescent, weakened oscillators and in dysregulated oscillators of cancer cells that may be epigenetically blocked. This is especially obvious in the case of sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) which is upregulated by melatonin in aged tissues, but strongly downregulated in several cancer cells. These findings are not at all controversial, but are explained on the basis of divergent changes in weakened and dysregulated oscillators...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Pineal Research
Olga Ruiz-Andres, Maria Dolores Sanchez-Niño, Juan Antonio Moreno, Marta Ruiz-Ortega, Adrian Mario Ramos, Ana Belén Sanz, Alberto Ortiz
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated to an increased risk of death, CKD progression and acute kidney injury (AKI) even from early stages, when glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is preserved. The link between early CKD and these risks is unclear, since there is no accumulation of uremic toxins. However, pathological albuminuria and kidney inflammation are frequent features of early CKD and the production of kidney protective factors may be decreased. Indeed, Klotho expression is already decreased in CKD category G1 (normal GFR)...
October 19, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
Madhavan Nair, Vidya Sagar, Sudheesh Pilakka-Kanthikeel
Interplay between lncRNAs and mRNAs is rapidly emerging as a key epigenetic mechanism in controlling various cell functions. HIV can actively infect and/or can persist latently for years by manipulating host epigenetics; however, its molecular essence remains undiscovered in entirety. Here for the first time, we delineate the influence of HIV on global lncRNAs expression in monocytic cells lines. Our analysis revealed the expression modulation of nearly 1060 such lncRNAs which are associated with differentially expressed mRNAs in active and latent infection...
October 19, 2016: Scientific Reports
Peter F Davies, Elisabetta Manduchi, Christian J Stoeckert, Yi-Zhou Jiang
Hemodynamics creates a constantly changing physical and chemical environment to which the arterial endothelium is exquisitely sensitive. Biomechanical stresses are intrinsic to blood flow characteristics and blood pressure and therefore are important considerations in hypertension. Near branching anatomical sites in arteries, blood flow separates from the main flow to undergo complex multi-directional characteristics for a part of each cardiac cycle (collectively referred to as disturbed flow). Atherosclerosis and aneurysmal pathology develop preferentially at disturbed flow locations, particularly when an additional cardiovascular risk factor such as hypercholesterolemia or high blood pressure are present...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Satoshi Umemura
Primary aldosteronism (PA) is a heterogeneous group of disorders including both sporadic and familial forms (familial hyperaldosteronism type I, II and III). PA is the most frequent endocrine cause of secondary hypertension and associated with a higher rate of cardiovascular complications, compared with essential hypertension.Here I review the recent progress in understanding of the genetic and molecular mechanisms leading to autonomous aldosterone production in PA.Systematic screening detects primary aldosteronism in 5 to 10% of all patients with hypertension and in approximately 20% of patients with resistant hypertension...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Christina R Tyler, Matthew T Labrecque, Elizabeth R Solomon, Xun Guo, Andrea M Allan
Exposure to arsenic, a common environmental toxin found in drinking water, leads to a host of neurological pathologies. We have previously demonstrated that developmental exposure to a low level of arsenic (50ppb) alters epigenetic processes that underlie deficits in adult hippocampal neurogenesis leading to aberrant behavior. It is unclear if arsenic impacts the programming and regulation of embryonic neurogenesis during development when exposure occurs. The master negative regulator of neural-lineage, REST/NRSF, controls the precise timing of fate specification and differentiation of neural stem cells (NSCs)...
October 14, 2016: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
Maureen O'Sullivan
Since its foundation by remarkably talented and insightful individuals, prominently including Pepper Dehner, pediatric soft tissue tumor pathology has developed at an immense rate. The morphologic classification of tumoral entities has extensively been corroborated, but has also evolved with refinement or realignment of these classifications, through accruing molecular data, with many derivative ancillary diagnostic assays now already well-established. Tumors of unclear histogenesis, classically morphologically undifferentiated, are prominent amongst pediatric sarcomas, however, the classes of undifferentiated round- or spindle-cell-tumors-not-otherwise-specified are being dismantled gradually with the identification of their molecular underpinnings...
September 5, 2016: Seminars in Diagnostic Pathology
Xiang Yuan, Jinyu Kong, Zhikun Ma, Na Li, Ruinuo Jia, Yiwen Liu, Fuyou Zhou, Qimin Zhan, Gang Liu, Shegan Gao
Our studies investigating the existence of tumor-initiating cell (TIC) populations in human esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) had identified a subpopulation of cells isolated from ESCC patient-derived tumor specimens marked by an ALDH(bri+) phenotype bear stem cell-like features. Importantly, KDM4C, a histone demethylase was enhanced in ALDH(bri+) subpopulation, suggesting that strategies interfering with KDM4C may be able to target these putative TICs. In the present study, by genetic and chemical means, we demonstrated that, KDM4C blockade selectively decreased the ESCC ALDH(bri+) TICs population in vitro and specifically targeted the TICs in ALDH(bri+)-derived xenograft, retarding engraftment...
October 2016: Neoplasia: An International Journal for Oncology Research
I-Cheng Ho, Shi-Chuen Miaw
IL-4 was first identified as a T cell-derived growth factor for B cells. Studies over the past several decades have markedly expanded our understanding of its cellular sources and function. In addition to T cells, IL-4 is produced by innate lymphocytes, such as NTK cells, and myeloid cells, such as basophils and mast cells. It is a signature cytokine of type 2 immune response but also has a nonimmune function. Its expression is tightly regulated at several levels, including signaling pathways, transcription factors, epigenetic modifications, microRNA, and long noncoding RNA...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Senthilkumar Sivanesan, Aaron Tan, Rebecca Jeyaraj, James Lam, Monica Gole, Antonio Hardan, Keyoumars Ashkan, Jayakumar Rajadas
Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) are a group of complex neurodevelopmental conditions characterized by abnormal patterns of attention, and impaired social and communication skills. ASDs are also associated with a number of functional challenges and potentially harmful deficits, including restricted and repetitive behaviors, anxiety, irritability, seizures, and self-harm. Although the exact causes of ASDs are currently unknown, it is suggested that genetic, epigenetic and environmental factors play critical roles...
October 7, 2016: World Neurosurgery
Radhika Patnala, Thiruma V Arumugam, Neelima Gupta, S Thameem Dheen
Cerebral ischemia leads to neuroinflammation and activation of microglia which further contribute to stroke pathology. Understanding regulation of microglial activation will aid in the development of therapeutic strategies that mitigate microglia-mediated neurotoxicity in neuropathologies, including ischemia. In this study, we investigated the epigenetic regulation of microglial activation by studying histone modification histone 3-lysine 9-acetylation (H3K9ac) and its regulation by histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors...
October 8, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
Wendy Rosales, Juan Carulla, Jeison García, Diana Vargas, Fernando Lizcano
Epigenetic changes induced by histone demethylases play an important role in differentiation and pathological changes in cardiac cells. However, the role of the jumonji family of demethylases in the development of cardiac hypertrophy remains elusive. In this study, the presence of different histone demethylases in cardiac cells was evaluated after hypertrophy was induced with neurohormones. A cell line from rat cardiomyocytes was used as a biological model. The phenotypic profiles of the cells, as well as the expression of histone demethylases, were studied through immunofluorescence, transient transfection, western blot, and qRT-PCR analysis after inducing hypertrophy by angiotensin II and endothelin-1...
2016: BioMed Research International
Steven O'Reilly
Fibrosis is a common and important disease. It is a pathological state due to excessive scar formation mediated by an increase in activated fibroblasts that express alpha smooth muscle actin and copious amounts of extracellular matrix molecules. Epigenetics is an area of research that encompasses three main mechanisms: methylation, histone modifications to the tails of histones and also non-coding RNAs including long and short non-coding RNAs. These three mechanisms all seek to regulate gene expression without a change in the underlying DNA sequence...
October 6, 2016: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
Vincent Huin, Vincent Deramecourt, Dominique Caparros-Lefebvre, Claude-Alain Maurage, Charles Duyckaerts, Eniko Kovari, Florence Pasquier, Valérie Buée-Scherrer, Julien Labreuche, Hélène Behal, Luc Buée, Claire-Marie Dhaenens, Bernard Sablonnière
BACKGROUND: Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) is a rare neurodegenerative disease causing parkinsonian symptoms. Altered DNA methylation of the microtubule-associated protein tau gene correlates with the expression changes in Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease brains. However, few studies examine the sequences beyond the constitutive promoter. OBJECTIVES: Because activating different microtubule-associated protein tau gene control regions via methylation might regulate the differential tau expression constituting the specific signatures of individual tauopathies, we compared methylation of a candidate promoter, intron 0...
October 6, 2016: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
Alison H Harrill, Jonathan G Moggs, Karissa K Adkins, Hellmut G Augustin, Robert C Johnson, Michael W Leach
The overarching theme of the 2016 Society of Toxicology Pathology's Annual Symposium was "The Basis and Relevance of Variation in Toxicologic Responses." Session 4 focused on genetic variation as a potential source for variability in toxicologic responses within nonclinical toxicity studies and further explored how knowledge of genetic traits might enable targeted prospective and retrospective studies in drug development and human health risk assessment. In this session, the influence of both genetic sequence variation and epigenetic modifications on toxicologic responses and their implications for understanding risk were explored...
October 5, 2016: Toxicologic Pathology
Christopher G Bell
Epigenomic analysis gives a molecular insight into cell-specific genomic activity. It provides a detailed functional plan to dissect an organism, tissue by tissue. Therefore comparative epigenomics may increase understanding of human-acquired traits, by revealing regulatory changes in systems such as the neurological, musculoskeletal, and immunological. Enhancer loci evolve fast by hijacking elements from other tissues or rewiring and amplifying existing units for human-specific function. Promoters by contrast often require a CpG dense genetic infrastructure...
October 1, 2016: Genomics
Uta Duppel, Matthias Woenckhaus, Christian Schulz, Johannes Merk, Wolfgang Dietmaier
Aberrant promoter methylation of tumor relevant genes frequently occurs in early steps of carcinogenesis and during tumor progression. Epigenetic alterations could be used as potential biomarkers for early detection and for prediction of prognosis and therapy response in lung cancer. The present study quantitatively analyzed the methylation status of known and potential gatekeeper and tumor suppressor genes [O-6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT), Ras association domain family member 1A (RASSF1A), Ras protein activator like 1 (RASAL1), programmed cell death 4 (PDCD4), metastasis suppressor 1 (MTSS1) and tumor suppressor candidate 3 (TUSC3)] in 42 lung cancers and in corresponding non-malignant bronchus and lung tissue using bisulfite-conversion independent methylation-quantification of endonuclease-resistant DNA (MethyQESD)...
October 2016: Oncology Letters
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"