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Epigenetics pathology

Claire L Dent, Trevor Humby, Katie Lewis, Andrew Ward, Reiner Fischer-Colbrie, Lawrence S Wilkinson, Jon F Wilkins, Anthony R Isles
Imprinted genes are expressed from one parental allele only as a consequence of epigenetic events that take place in the mammalian germ line and are thought to have evolved through intra-genomic conflict between parental alleles. We demonstrate, for the first time, oppositional effects of imprinted genes on brain and behavior. Specifically, here we show that mice lacking paternal Grb10 make fewer impulsive choices, with no dissociable effects on a separate measure of impulsive action. Taken together with previous work showing that mice lacking maternal Nesp55 make more impulsive choices this suggests that impulsive choice behavior is a substrate for the action of genomic imprinting...
March 21, 2018: Genetics
Leonardo Elia, Paolo Kunderfranco, Pierluigi Carullo, Marco Vacchiano, Floriana Maria Farina, Ignacio Fernando Hall, Stefano Mantero, Cristina Panico, Roberto Papait, Gianluigi Condorelli, Manuela Quintavalle
Adult vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) possess the peculiar ability to de-differentiate in response to extracellular cues, such as vascular damage and inflammation. De-differentiated VSMCs are proliferative, migratory, and have decreased contractile capacity. VSMC dedifferentiation contributes not only to vascular repair, but also to cardiovascular pathologies, such as intimal hyperplasia/restenosis in coronary artery or peripheral vascular diseases and arterial aneurysm. We here demonstrate the role of ubiquitin-like, containing PHD and RING finger domains, 1 (UHRF1) as an epigenetic master regulator of VSMC plasticity...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Clinical Investigation
Tao Wang, Zhong-Yi Qin, Liang-Zhi Wen, Yan Guo, Qin Liu, Zeng-Jie Lei, Wei Pan, Kai-Jun Liu, Xing-Wei Wang, Shu-Jie Lai, Wen-Jing Sun, Yan-Ling Wei, Lei Liu, Ling Guo, Yu-Qin Chen, Jun Wang, Hua-Liang Xiao, Xiu-Wu Bian, Dong-Feng Chen, Bin Wang
The evolutionarily conserved Hippo signaling pathway is a key regulator of stem cell self-renewal, differentiation, and organ size. While alterations in Hippo signaling are causally linked to uncontrolled cell growth and a broad range of malignancies, genetic mutations in the Hippo pathway are uncommon and it is unclear how the tumor suppressor function of the Hippo pathway is disrupted in human cancers. Here, we report a novel epigenetic mechanism of Hippo inactivation in the context of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)...
March 19, 2018: Cell Death and Differentiation
Puneet, Hasan Raza Kazmi, Soni Kumari, Satendra Tiwari, A Khanna, Gopeshwar Narayan
Gastric cancer is one of the most common malignancy worldwide. The various genetic and epigenetic events have been found to be associated with its carcinogenesis. The epigenetic is a heritable and transient/reversible change in the gene expression that is not accompanied by modification in the DNA sequence. This event is characterized by the alteration in the promoter CpG island of the gene or histone modification. These events are associated with silencing of critical tumor suppressor gene and activation of oncogenes leading to carcinogenesis...
March 19, 2018: Pathology Oncology Research: POR
Ya-Wen Cheng, Chia-Jung Chou, Pei-Ming Yang
DNA 5-methylcytosine (5-mC) methylation, a key epigenetic mark, is critical for biological and pathological processes. Aberrant DNA methylation occurs in all tumor types and correlates with tumor suppressor gene silencing. DNA methylation is thought to be very stable, and active DNA demethylation remains a long-standing enigma. Recently, the ten-eleven translocation (TET) family of oxygenases are found to oxidize 5-mC to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5-hmC), which is prerequisite for active DNA demethylation. Both TET1 expression and global 5-hmC content are significantly reduced in colorectal cancer (CRC), the top leading cause of cancer-related death in the world...
March 2018: Surgical Oncology
Gary J Hausman
Adipose tissue exists in many locations or depots that differ from one another based on numerous and various characteristics. The unique "layered" anatomical feature of subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) in man and the pig is reviewed and discussed. The origin of fetal pig adipose tissue subcutaneous layers is reviewed before the onset of adipogenesis and after the overt adipogenesis. Furthermore, the distinguishing characteristics of developing outer SAT layer (OSQ) and middle SAT layer (MSQ) in pigs are reviewed...
March 16, 2018: Hormone Molecular Biology and Clinical Investigation
Robert John Aitken
This article is a personal perspective on male infertility, a condition that is not only extremely prevalent but also a major reason for couples to resort to assisted reproductive technology. The introduction of intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) as a form of facilitated fertilization had a revolutionary impact on our capacity to treat cases of male infertility associated with severely-compromised semen quality. However, the widespread use of this technique is also thought to pose risks in terms of the incidence of miscarriage, the health and wellbeing of the offspring and perpetuation of the infertile phenotype into future generations...
March 13, 2018: Molecular Human Reproduction
Muraly Puttabyatappa, Vasantha Padmanabhan
The pathophysiological mechanisms underlying the origin of several ovarian pathologies remain unclear. In addition to the genetic basis, developmental insults are gaining attention as a basis for the origin of these pathologies. Such early insults include maternal over or under nutrition, stress, and exposure to environmental chemicals. This chapter reviews the development and physiological function of the ovary, the known ovarian pathologies, the developmental check points of ovarian differentiation impacted by developmental insults, the role played by steroidal and metabolic factors as mediaries, the epigenetic mechanisms via which these mediaries induce their effects, and the knowledge gaps for targeting future studies to ultimately aid in the development of improved treatments...
2018: Vitamins and Hormones
Thenappan Thenappan, Mark L Ormiston, John J Ryan, Stephen L Archer
Pulmonary hypertension is defined as a resting mean pulmonary artery pressure of 25 mm Hg or above. This review deals with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), a type of pulmonary hypertension that primarily affects the pulmonary vasculature. In PAH, the pulmonary vasculature is dynamically obstructed by vasoconstriction, structurally obstructed by adverse vascular remodeling, and pathologically non-compliant as a result of vascular fibrosis and stiffening. Many cell types are abnormal in PAH, including vascular cells (endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells, and fibroblasts) and inflammatory cells...
March 14, 2018: BMJ: British Medical Journal
Rachel L Clifford, Nick Fishbane, Jamie Patel, Julia L MacIsaac, Lisa M McEwen, Andrew J Fisher, Corry-Anke Brandsma, Parameswaran Nair, Michael S Kobor, Tillie-Louise Hackett, Alan J Knox
Background: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a heterogeneous disease of the lungs that is currently the fourth leading cause of death worldwide. Genetic factors account for only a small amount of COPD risk, but epigenetic mechanisms, including DNA methylation, have the potential to mediate the interactions between an individual's genetics and environmental exposure. DNA methylation is highly cell type-specific, and individual cell type studies of DNA methylation in COPD are sparse...
2018: Clinical Epigenetics
Emi Morita, Mikio Watanabe, Naoya Inoue, Hidemi Hashimoto, Emi Haga, Yoh Hidaka, Yoshinori Iwatani
Graves' disease (GD) and Hashimoto's disease (HD) are different pathological types of autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITDs). However, the epigenetic differences between these diseases have not been elucidated. DNA methylation is one of the primary epigenetic modifications that reflect environmental influences on gene expression. In this study, we evaluated the methylation status of six CpG sites in the TNFA promoter using pyrosequencing and analyzed the data in combination with functional polymorphisms (-1031 T/C and +123 C/T) in the TNFA gene to clarify the role of gene methylation on the prognosis of AITDs...
March 11, 2018: Autoimmunity
Nayer Hosseinahli, Mahyar Aghapour, Pascal H G Duijf, Behzad Baradaran
microRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression post-transcriptionally by interfering with the translation of one or more target mRNAs. The unique miRNA sequences are involved in many physiological and pathological processes. Dysregulation of miRNAs contributes to the pathogenesis of all types of cancer. Notably, the diminished expression of tumor suppressor miRNAs, such as members of the Let-7 and miR-34 family, promotes tumor progression, invasion and metastasis. The past lustrum in particular, has witnessed substantial improvement of miRNA replacement therapy...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Hong Wang, Guoxiu Cao, Guangji Wang, Haiping Hao
UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs) are a class of important phase II drug metabolizing enzymes (DMEs), playing essential roles in the homeostasis of endobiotics as well as the dispositional behavior of exogenous compounds. The expression and enzyme activity of UGTs are regulated by multiple dimensions of mechanisms and can be influenced by diverse factors. Thus, the intensive research of its regulatory network is pivotal for better understanding about the physiological, pathological, and therapeutic significance of UGTs...
March 7, 2018: Current Drug Metabolism
Victoria Gröger, Holger Cynis
Human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs) are remnants of retroviral germ line infections of human ancestors and make up ~8% of the human genome. Under physiological conditions, these elements are frequently inactive or non-functional due to deactivating mutations and epigenetic control. However, they can be reactivated under certain pathological conditions and produce viral transcripts and proteins. Several disorders, like multiple sclerosis or amyotrophic lateral sclerosis are associated with increased HERV expression...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Almesh Kadakol, Vajir Malek, Santosh Kumar Goru, Anuradha Pandey, Anil Bhanudas Gaikwad
OBJECTIVES: Although cardioprotective effects of telmisartan are well explored, its effects on epigenetic alterations associated with type 2 diabetic (T2D) cardiomyopathy remain unmapped. Thus, the present study was designed to evaluate the potential of esculetin and telmisartan combination to reverse histone posttranslational modifications (PTMs) in curbing T2D cardiomyopathy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: T2D was induced by high-fat diet feeding along with low dose of streptozotocin (35 mg/kg, I...
September 2017: Indian Journal of Pharmacology
Jia Wen, Andrew Quitadamo, Benika Hall, Xinghua Shi
BACKGROUND: Colon cancer is a leading cause of worldwide cancer death. It has become clear that microRNAs (miRNAs) play a role in the progress of colon cancer and understanding the effect of miRNAs on tumorigenesis could lead to better prognosis and improved treatment. However, most studies have focused on studying differentially expressed miRNAs between tumor and non-tumor samples or between stages in tumor tissue. Limited work has conducted to study the interactions or epistasis between miRNAs and how the epistasis brings about effect on tumor progression...
October 16, 2017: BMC Genomics
Shilpa Sharma, Ravi Shankar Akundi
BACKGROUND: Depression is a widespread phenomenon with varying degrees of pathology in different patients. Various hypotheses have been proposed for the cause and continuance of depression. Some of these include, but not limited to, the monoamine hypothesis, the neuroendocrine hypothesis, and the more recent epigenetic and inflammatory hypotheses. OBJECTIVE: In this article, we review all the above hypotheses with a focus on the role of mitochondria as the connecting link...
March 2, 2018: Current Neuropharmacology
Katherine Leavey, Samantha L Wilson, Shannon A Bainbridge, Wendy P Robinson, Brian J Cox
Background: Preeclampsia (PE) is a heterogeneous, hypertensive disorder of pregnancy, with no robust biomarkers or effective treatments. We hypothesized that this heterogeneity is due to the existence of multiple subtypes of PE and, in support of this hypothesis, we recently identified five clusters of placentas within a large gene expression microarray dataset ( N  = 330), of which four (clusters 1, 2, 3, and 5) contained a substantial number of PE samples. However, while transcriptional analysis of placentas can subtype patients, we propose that the addition of epigenetic information could discern gene regulatory mechanisms behind the distinct PE pathologies, as well as identify clinically useful potential biomarkers...
2018: Clinical Epigenetics
Ding-Qi Wang, Peng Fu, Chengye Yao, Ling-Shuang Zhu, Tong-Yao Hou, Jian-Guo Chen, Youming Lu, Dan Liu, Ling-Qiang Zhu
Long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) is a kind of non-coding RNA (ncRNA), with a length of 200 nt to 100 kb, that lacks a significant open reading frame (ORF) encoding a protein. lncRNAs are widely implicated in various physiological and pathological processes, such as epigenetic regulation, cell cycle regulation, cell differentiation regulation, cancer, and neurodegenerative diseases, through their interactions with chromatin, protein, and other RNAs. Numerous studies have suggested that lncRNAs are closely linked with the occurrence and development of a variety of diseases, especially neurodegenerative diseases, of which the etiologies are complicated and the underlying mechanisms remain elusive...
March 2, 2018: Molecular Therapy. Nucleic Acids
Alexandra Iulia Irimie, Cristina Ciocan, Diana Gulei, Nikolay Mehterov, Atanas G Atanasov, Diana Dudea, Ioana Berindan-Neagoe
Epigenetic modifications have emerged into one of the cancer hallmarks, replacing the concept of malignant pathologies as being solely genetic-based conditions. The epigenetic landscape is responsible for normal development but also for the heterogeneity among tissues in terms of gene expression patterns. Dysregulation in these mechanisms has been associated with disease stage, and increased attention is now granted to cancer in order to take advantage of these modifications in terms of novel therapeutic strategies or diagnosis/prognosis tools...
February 27, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
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