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Pengcheng Yang, Oleksandr O Mykhaylyk, Elizabeth R Jones, Steven P Armes
We report a new nonaqueous polymerization-induced self-assembly (PISA) formulation based on the reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) dispersion alternating copolymerization of styrene with N-phenylmaleimide using a nonionic poly(N,N-dimethylacrylamide) stabilizer in a 50/50 w/w ethanol/methyl ethyl ketone (MEK) mixture. The MEK cosolvent is significantly less toxic than the 1,4-dioxane cosolvent reported previously [Yang P.; Macromolecules2013, 46, 8545-8556]. The core-forming alternating copolymer block has a relatively high glass transition temperature (Tg), which leads to vesicular morphologies being observed during PISA, as well as the more typical sphere and worm phases...
September 27, 2016: Macromolecules
Mohammad Shakir, Reshma Jolly, Mohd Shoeb Khan, Ahmar Rauf, Shadab Kazmi
Herein, we report the synthesis of a novel tri-component nanocomposite system incorporating β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) with nano-hydroxyapatite (n-HA) and chitosan (CS), (n-HA/β-CD/CS) at three different temperatures via co-precipitation method. The chemical interactions and surface morphology have been evaluated by TEM, SEM and AFM techniques revealing the agglomerated nanoparticles in CS/n-HA-HA binary system whereas the ternary systems produced needle shaped nanoparticles dispersed homogeneously at low temperature with more porous and rougher surface...
August 16, 2016: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Haja Bava Bakrudeen, C Sudarvizhi, B S R Reddy
Bio-based nanocomposites were prepared using starch nanocrystals obtained by acid hydrolysis of native starches using different acid sources. In recent times, focuses on starch nanocrystals (SNCs) have been increasing in number of research works dedicated to the development of bio-nanocomposites by blending with different biopolymeric matrices. The work mainly deals with the preparation of starch nanocrystals using different native starches by acid hydrolysis using hydrochloric acid and trifluroacetic acid...
November 1, 2016: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
Roberto Matassa, Silvia Orlanducci, Giacomo Reina, Maria Cristina Cassani, Daniele Passeri, Maria Letizia Terranova, Marco Rossi
Nanostructured Au nano-platelets have been synthesized from an Au(III) complex by growth process triggered by nanodiamond (ND). An electroless synthetic route has been used to obtain 2D Au/ND architectures, where individual nanodiamond particles are intimately embedded into face-centered cubic Au platelets. The combined use of high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) and selected area electron diffraction (SAED), was able to reveal the unusual organization of these hybrid nanoparticles, ascertaining the existence of preferential crystallographic orientations for both nanocrystalline species and highlighting their mutual locations...
2016: Scientific Reports
Carlijn G Maagdenberg, Onno J de Boer, Xiaofei Li, Claire Mackaay, Hans W Niessen, Robbert J de Winter, Allard C Van der Wal
AIM: To study the rate of apoptotic cell death in the process of thrombus evolution after plaque rupture in myocardial infarction. METHODS: Paraffin embedded thrombosuction aspirates of 63 patients were stained with haematoxylin & eosin (H&E) to assess histologically the age of the thrombi: fresh (intact blood cells; <1day old), lytic (necrosis; 1-5days old) or organized (ingrowth of cells; >5days old). Presence of plaque constituents (atheroma including foam cells, cholesterol crystals calcifications and fibrous cap tissue) was also recorded...
September 2016: Thrombosis Research
Cuixia Chen, Yu Zhang, Rui Fei, Changhai Cao, Meng Wang, Jingxin Wang, Jingkun Bai, Henry Cox, Thomas Waigh, Jian R Lu, Hai Xu
The self-assembly of short peptides is a promising route to the creation of smart biomaterials. To combine peptide self-assembly with enzymatic catalysis, we design an amphiphilic short peptide I3QGK that can self-assemble into long nanoribbons in aqueous solution. Upon addition of transglutaminase (TGase), the peptide solution undergoes a distinct sol-gel transition to form a rigid hydrogel, which shows strong shear-thinning and immediate recovery properties. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) measurements indicate the occurrence of considerable nanofibers in addition to the original nanoribbons...
July 20, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Yichen Guo, Shan He, Kai Yang, Yuan Xue, Xianghao Zuo, Yingjie Yu, Ying Liu, Chung-Chueh Chang, Miriam H Rafailovich
"Green" polymer nanocomposites were made by melt blending biodegradable poly(lactic acid) (PLA) and poly(butylene adipate-co-butylene terephthalate) (PBAT) with either montmorillonite clays (Cloisite Na(+)), halloysite nanotubes (HNTs), the resorcinol diphenyl phosphate (RDP)-coated Cloisite Na(+), and coated HNTs. A technique for measuring the work of adhesion (Wa) between nanoparticles and their matrixes was used to determine the dispersion preference of the nanoparticles in the PLA/PBAT blend system. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images of thin sections indicated that even though both RDP-coated nanotubes and clay platelets segregated to the interfacial regions between the two immiscible polymers, only the platelets, having the larger specific surface area, were able to reduce the PBAT domain sizes...
July 13, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Pai-Yun Li, Jing Lv, Wei-Wei Qi, Shu-Fen Zhao, Li-Bin Sun, Ning Liu, Jie Sheng, Wen-Sheng Qiu
Tetraspanins are a heterogeneous group of 4-transmembrane proteins that recruit other cell surface receptors and signaling proteins into tetraspanin-enriched microdomains (TEMs). TEMs of various types are involved in the regulation of cell growth, migration and invasion of several tumor cell types, both as suppressors or promotors. Tetraspanin 9 (Tspan9, NET-5, PP1057), a member of the transmembrane 4 superfamily (TM4SF) of tetraspanins, reportedly regulates platelet function in concert with other platelet tetraspanins and their associated proteins...
July 2016: Oncology Reports
Gaelle Ngnie, Gustave K Dedzo, Christian Detellier
Palladium nanoparticles (PdNPs) were deposited on the surface of the modified clay mineral, kaolinite. To improve compatibility, abundance and control of the size of the nanoparticles, kaolinite was modified by the grafting of an amino alcohol (triethanolamine (TEA)) and an ionic liquid (1-(2-hydroxyethyl)-3-methylimidazolium (ImIL)). Characterization techniques (XRD, TGA, solid state (13)C NMR and FTIR spectroscopy) confirmed the effective grafting of these compounds on the internal surface of kaolinite. After the synthesis of PdNPs onto clay particles, TEM allowed the visualization of abundant PdNPs with sizes ranging from 4 to 6 nm, uniformly distributed onto the platelets of modified kaolinite...
May 31, 2016: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
Tseday Z Tegegn, Silvia H De Paoli, Martina Orecna, Oumsalama K Elhelu, Samuel A Woodle, Ivan D Tarandovskiy, Mikhail V Ovanesov, Jan Simak
BACKGROUND: Freezing is promising for extended platelet (PLT) storage for transfusion. 6% DMSO cryopreserved PLTs (CPPs) are currently in clinical development. CPPs contain significant amount of platelet membrane vesicles (PMVs). PLT-membrane changes and PMV release in CPP are poorly understood, and haemostatic effects of CPP PMVs are not fully elucidated. This study aims to investigate PLT-membrane alterations in CPPs and provide comprehensive characterization of CPP PMVs, and their contribution to procoagulant activity (PCA) of CPPs...
2016: Journal of Extracellular Vesicles
Robert D Winfield, Vincent M Mellnick, Jad Chamieh, Eden Nohra, Wen-Hui Tan, Ricardo Ramirez, Constantine Raptis, Isaiah R Turnbull, Kelly Bochicchio, Stacey Reese, Philip C Spinella, Grant V Bochicchio
OBJECTIVES: Obesity is associated with a hypercoagulable state at baseline and following injury. The anatomic location of adipose deposition may influence the type of thrombotic event, with visceral adipose tissue (VAT) associated with arterial thrombosis and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) predisposing to venous thrombosis. We sought to determine whether adipose tissue amount and location correlated with measures of coagulation. METHODS: All adult Level I trauma activations at our institution between January 2013 and August 2014 who underwent admission abdominal computed tomography scan and had admission rotational thromboelastometry measurements were included...
July 2016: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
Prachi Singhal, Sunita Rattan
UNLABELLED: Performance of the polymer nanocomposites is dependent to a great extent on efficient and homogeneous dispersion of nanoparticles in polymeric matrices. The dispersion of nanographite platelets (NGPs) in polymer matrix is a great challenge because of the inherent inert nature of the NGPs, poor wettability toward polymer matrices, and easy agglomeration due to van der Waals interactions. In the present study, attempts have been made to use a new approach involving the irradiation of polymer nanocomposites through swift heavy ion (SHI) to homogeneously disperse the NGPs within the polymer matrices...
April 7, 2016: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
Annette M Gonzalez, Bita F Cyrus, William A Muller
Leukocyte transendothelial migration (TEM) requires two major events: local dissociation of adherens junctions manifested as gaps in vascular endothelial (VE)-cadherin staining at the site of TEM and targeted trafficking of the lateral border recycling compartment (LBRC) to the site of TEM. However, the association between LBRC recycling and VE-cadherin gaps remains unknown. We found that when targeting of the LBRC is selectively inhibited using established methods, such as a function blocking anti-platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule 1 antibody, depolymerizing microtubules, or microinjection of an antibody that inhibits kinesin, VE-cadherin gaps do not form around the blocked leukocyte...
May 2016: American Journal of Pathology
Olga Baidukova, Ekaterina V Skorb
Acoustic cavitation in water provides special kinetic and thermodynamic conditions for chemical synthesis and nanostructuring of solids. Using cavitation phenomenon, we obtained magnesium hydroxide from pure magnesium. This approach allows magnesium hydroxide to be synthesized without the requirement of any additives and non-aqueous solvents. Variation of sonochemical parameters enabled a total transformation of the metal to nanosized brucite with distinct morphology. Special attention is given to the obtaining of platelet-shaped, nanometric and de-agglomerated powders...
July 2016: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
Maryam Sabetzadeh, Rouhollah Bagheri, Mahmood Masoomi
The aim of this work is to study effect of nanoclay (Cloisite(®)15A) on morphology and properties of low-density polyethylene/linear low-density polyethylene/thermoplastic starch (LDPE/LLDPE/TPS) blend films. LDPE/LLDPE blend (70/30wt/wt) containing 15wt.% TPS in the presence of PE-grafted maleic anhydride (PE-g-MA, 3wt.%) with 1, 3 and 5phr of nanoclay are compounded in a twin-screw extruder and then film blown using a blowing machine. Nanocomposites with intercalated structures are obtained, based on the X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies...
May 5, 2016: Carbohydrate Polymers
Barthélémy Brunier, Nida Sheibat-Othman, Yves Chevalier, Elodie Bourgeat-Lami
Partitioning of laponite disklike clay platelets between polymer particles and bulk aqueous phase was investigated in Pickering surfactant-free emulsion polymerization of styrene. Adsorption of laponite clay platelets plays an important role in the stabilization of this system, influencing the particle size and the number of particles, and, hence, the reaction rate. Adsorption isotherms show that, while the laponite clay platelets are almost fully exfoliated in water, they form multilayers on the surface of the polymer particles by the end of polymerization, as confirmed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM)...
January 12, 2016: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Anne-Sophie Cuvier, Florence Babonneau, Jan Berton, Christian V Stevens, Giulia C Fadda, Gérard Péhau-Arnaudet, Patrick Le Griel, Sylvain Prévost, Javier Perez, Niki Baccile
The self-assembly behavior of the yeast-derived bolaamphiphile sophorolipid (SL) is generally studied under acidic/neutral pH conditions, at which micellar and fibrillar aggregates are commonly found, according to the (un)saturation of the aliphatic chain: the cis form, which corresponds to the oleic acid form of SL, spontaneously forms micelles, whereas the saturated form, which corresponds to the stearic acid form of SL, preferentially forms chiral fibers. By using small-angle light and X-ray scattering (SLS, SAXS) combined with high-sensitivity transmission electron microscopy imaging under cryogenic conditions (cryo-TEM), the nature of the self-assembled structures formed by these two compounds above pH 10, which is the pH at which they are negatively charged due to the presence of a carboxylate group, has been explored...
December 21, 2015: Chemistry: a European Journal
Marko Pavlovic, Monika Adok-Sipiczki, Corinne Nardin, Samuel Pearson, Elodie Bourgeat-Lami, Vanessa Prevot, Istvan Szilagyi
The colloidal behavior of layered double hydroxide nanoparticles containing Mg(2+) and Al(3+) ions as intralayer cations and nitrates as counterions (MgAl-NO3-LDH) was studied in the presence of a short statistical copolymer of acrylic acid (AA) and butyl acrylate (BA) terminated with 4-cyano-4-thiothiopropylsulfanyl pentanoic acid (CTPPA) (P(AA7.5-stat-BA7.5)-CTPPA) synthesized by reversible addition-fragmentation chain-transfer (RAFT) polymerization. Surface charge properties and aggregation of the particles were investigated by electrophoresis and dynamic light scattering (DLS), respectively...
November 24, 2015: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Pu Zhang, Shan Feng, Gentao Liu, Heyong Wang, Huifeng Zhu, Qiao Ren, Huiyuan Bai, Changliang Fu, Cheng Dong
Tumor invasiveness depends on the ability of tumor cells to breach endothelial barriers. In this study, we investigated the mechanism by which the adhesion of melanoma cells to endothelium regulates adherens junction integrity and modulates tumor transendothelial migration (TEM) by initiating thrombin generation. We found that the B-Raf(V600E) mutation in metastatic melanoma cells up-regulated tissue factor (TF) expression on cell membranes and promoted thrombin production. Co-culture of endothelial monolayers with metastatic melanoma cells mediated the opening of inter-endothelial spaces near melanoma cell contact sites in the presence of platelet-free plasma (PFP)...
January 29, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Thomas Stimpfling, Arthur Langry, Horst Hintze-Bruening, Fabrice Leroux
Layered Single Hydroxide (LSH) of chemical composition Zn5(OH)8(acetate)2·nH2O is synthesized under in situ condition in an aqueous dispersion of an amphiphilic, carboxylate bearing polyester via a modified polyol route. The one-pot LSH generation yields agglomerates of well intercalated platelets, 9-10nm separated from each other. However the corresponding Layered Double Hydroxide (LDH) of formal composition Zn2Al(OH)6 (acetate)·nH2O is found to proceed via the formation of crystallized, similarly spaced LSH sheets in the neighborhood of amorphous Al rich domains as evidenced by X-ray diffraction and transmission electron micrographs...
January 15, 2016: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
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