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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230313/crosstalk-between-smad2-3-and-specific-isoforms-of-erk-in-tgf-%C3%AE-1-induced-timp-3-expression-in-rat-chondrocytes
#1
Yanhui Zhu, Jianhua Gu, Tong Zhu, Chen Jin, Xiaopeng Hu, Xiang Wang
This study investigated the roles of ERK1 and ERK2 in transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1)-induced tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-3 (TIMP-3) expression in rat chondrocytes, and the specific roles of ERK1 and ERK2 in crosstalk with Smad2/3 were investigated to demonstrate the molecular mechanism of ERK1/2 regulation of TGF-β1 signalling. To examine the interaction of specific isoforms of ERK and the Smad2/3 signalling pathway, chondrocytes were infected with LV expressing either ERK1 or ERK2 siRNA and stimulated with or without TGF-β1...
February 23, 2017: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229956/development-of-a-thermosensitive-hama-containing-bio-ink-for-the-fabrication-of-composite-cartilage-repair-constructs
#2
Vivian Hilda Maria Mouser, Anna Abbadessa, Riccardo Levato, Wim Hennink, Tina Vermonden, Debby Gawlitta, Jos Malda
Fine-tuning of bio-ink composition and material processing parameters is crucial for the development of biomechanically relevant cartilage constructs. This study aims to design and develop cartilage constructs with tunable internal architectures and relevant mechanical properties. More specifically, the potential of methacrylated hyaluronic acid (HAMA) added to thermosensitive hydrogels composed of methacrylated poly[N-(2-hydroxypropyl)methacrylamide mono/dilactate] (pHPMA-lac)/polyethylene glycol (PEG) triblock copolymers, to optimize cartilage-like tissue formation by embedded chondrocytes, and enhance printability was explored...
February 23, 2017: Biofabrication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229424/three-dimensional-printed-scaffolds-with-multipotent-mesenchymal-stromal-cells-for-rabbit-mandibular-reconstruction-and-engineering
#3
Dongdong Fang, Michael Roskies, Mohamed-Nur Abdallah, Mohammed Bakkar, Jack Jordan, Li-Chieh Lin, Faleh Tamimi, Simon D Tran
Multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) derived from both the bone marrow and adipose tissue possess the ability to differentiate into multiple cell lineages, regulate the immune function by secreting numerous bioactive paracrine factors, and hold great potential in cell therapy and tissue engineering. When combined with three-dimensional (3D) scaffolds, MSC can be used for bone defect reconstruction and engineering. This protocol describes the isolation of bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (BMMSC) and adipose-tissue derived stem cells (ADSC) from rabbits for subsequent seeding on tissue-engineered 3D-printed scaffolds and transplantation into a rabbit-model with the goal of repairing large osseous mandibular defects (one quarter of the lower jaw is removed surgically)...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229417/a-simplified-and-systematic-method-to-isolate-culture-and-characterize-multiple-types-of-human-dental-stem-cells-from-a-single-tooth
#4
Mohammed Bakkar, Younan Liu, Dongdong Fang, Camille Stegen, Xinyun Su, Murali Ramamoorthi, Li-Chieh Lin, Takako Kawasaki, Nicholas Makhoul, Huan Pham, Yoshinori Sumita, Simon D Tran
This chapter describes a simplified method that allows the systematic isolation of multiple types of dental stem cells such as dental pulp stem cells (DPSC), periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSC), and stem cells of the apical papilla (SCAP) from a single tooth. Of specific interest is the modified laboratory approach to harvest/retrieve the dental pulp tissue by minimizing trauma to DPSC by continuous irrigation, reduction of frictional heat from the bur rotation, and reduction of the bur contact time with the dentin...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228529/recapitulation-of-physiological-spatiotemporal-signals-promotes-in-vitro-formation-of-phenotypically-stable-human-articular-cartilage
#5
Johnathan J Ng, Yiyong Wei, Bin Zhou, Jonathan Bernhard, Samuel Robinson, Aonnicha Burapachaisri, X Edward Guo, Gordana Vunjak-Novakovic
Standard isotropic culture fails to recapitulate the spatiotemporal gradients present during native development. Cartilage grown from human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) is poorly organized and unstable in vivo. We report that human cartilage with physiologic organization and in vivo stability can be grown in vitro from self-assembling hMSCs by implementing spatiotemporal regulation during induction. Self-assembling hMSCs formed cartilage discs in Transwell inserts following isotropic chondrogenic induction with transforming growth factor β to set up a dual-compartment culture...
February 22, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225087/ampk-deficiency-in-chondrocytes-accelerated-the-progression-of-instability-induced-and-ageing-associated-osteoarthritis-in-adult-mice
#6
Sheng Zhou, Wanli Lu, Liang Chen, Qiting Ge, Dongyang Chen, Zhihong Xu, Dongquan Shi, Jin Dai, Jianxin Li, Huangxian Ju, Yi Cao, Jinzhong Qin, Shuai Chen, Huajian Teng, Qing Jiang
Osteoarthritis (OA) is a progressive degenerative disease of the joints that is associated with both joint injury and ageing. Here, we investigated the role of the energy sensor AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in maintaining a healthy state of articular cartilage and in OA development. Using cartilage-specific, tamoxifen-inducible AMPKα1 conditional knockout (AMPKα1 cKO), AMPKα2 conditional knockout (AMPKα2 cKO) and AMPKα1α2 conditional double knockout (AMPKα cDKO) mice, we found that compared with wild-type (WT) littermates, mutant mice displayed accelerated severity of surgically induced OA, especially AMPKα cDKO mice...
February 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224886/alginate-hydrogels-modified-with-low-molecular-weight-hyaluronate-for-cartilage-regeneration
#7
Honghyun Park, Hyun Ji Lee, Hyoseok An, Kuen Yong Lee
Alginate is a typical biomaterial that forms hydrogels in the presence of calcium ions and has often been utilized in tissue engineering approaches. However, it lacks biofunctionality in the form of interactions with cells and proteins. Hyaluronate, a main component of glycosaminoglycans, provides CD44-specific interactions with chondrocytes but typically requires chemical cross-linking agents to fabricate hydrogels, which may cause unexpected side effects in the body. In this study, we propose the design and fabrication of a hybrid structure of alginate and hyaluronate useful for cartilage regeneration...
April 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224461/zinc-the-other-suspected-environmental-factor-in-kashin-beck-disease-in-addition-to-selenium
#8
REVIEW
Xi Wang, Yujie Ning, Lei Yang, Fangfang Yu, Xiong Guo
Kashin-Beck disease (KBD) is an endemic chronic osteochondral disease characterized by high prevalence, disability, and morbidity and is distributed from the northeast to the southwest in China, in some regions of Eastern Siberia in Russia, and in North Korea. Although the selenium deficiency etiological hypothesis for KBD has been proposed by scientists for decades, the idea that selenium deficiency is one of the most important environmental factors but not the primary and sole pathogenic factor for KBD has been widely accepted...
February 21, 2017: Biological Trace Element Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223125/different-doses-of-strontium-ranelate-and-mechanical-vibration-modulate-distinct-responses-in-the-articular-cartilage-of-ovariectomized-rats
#9
A G H Mierzwa, J F Campos, M F Jesus, H B Nader, M Lazaretti-Castro, R D Reginato
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of different strontium ranelate (SrR) doses alone or in combination with low-intensity and high-frequency mechanical vibration (MV) on articular cartilage in ovariectomized rats. DESIGN: Fifty 6-month-old female Wistar rats underwent ovariectomy and after three months were divided into: control group (Control); SrR 300mg/kg/day (SrR300); SrR 625mg/kg/day (SrR625); mechanical vibration (MV); SrR 625mg/kg/day plus MV (SrR625+MV)...
February 18, 2017: Osteoarthritis and Cartilage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220902/twist1-induces-mmp3-expression-through-up-regulating-dna-hydroxymethylation-and-promotes-catabolic-responses-in-human-chondrocytes
#10
Joe Hasei, Takeshi Teramura, Toshiyuki Takehara, Yuta Onodera, Takuro Horii, Merissa Olmer, Izuho Hatada, Kanji Fukuda, Toshifumi Ozaki, Martin K Lotz, Hiroshi Asahara
The objective was to investigate the levels of TWIST1 in normal and OA cartilage and examine its role in regulating gene expression in chondrocytes. Human cartilage tissues and chondrocytes were obtained at autopsy from normal knee joints and from OA-affected joints at the time of total knee arthroplasty. TWIST1 expression was increased in human OA knee cartilage compared to normal knee cartilage. TWIST1 induced matrix metalloproteinase 3 (MMP3) expression without direct binding to MMP3 promoter and increased the 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) level at the MMP3 promoter...
February 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218386/glucose-adsorption-to-chitosan-membranes-increases-proliferation-of-human-chondrocyte-via-mammalian-target-of-rapamycin-complex-1-and-sterol-regulatory-element-binding-protein-1-signaling
#11
Shun-Fu Chang, Kuo-Chin Huang, Chin-Chang Cheng, Yu-Ping Su, Ko-Chao Lee, Cheng-Nan Chen, Hsin-I Chang
BACKGROUND: Osteoarthritis (OA) is currently still an irreversible degenerative disease of the articular cartilage. Recent, dextrose (D-glucose) intraarticular injection prolotherapy for OA patients has been reported to benefit the chondrogenic stimulation of damaged cartilage. However, the detailed mechanism of glucose's effect on cartilage repair remains unclear. Chitosan, a naturally derived polysaccharide, has recently been investigated as a surgical or dental dressing to control breeding...
February 20, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217895/serum-urate-levels-predict-joint-space-narrowing-in-non-gout-patients-with-medial-knee-osteoarthritis
#12
Svetlana Krasnokutsky, Charles Oshinsky, Mukundan Attur, Sisi Ma, Hua Zhou, Fangfei Zheng, Meng Chen, Jyoti Patel, Jonathan Samuels, Virginia C Pike, Ravinder Regatte, Jenny Bencardino, Leon Rybak, Steven Abramson, Michael H Pillinger
OBJECTIVE: OA pathogenesis includes both mechanical and inflammatory features. Studies have implicated synovial fluid urate (UA) as a potential OA biomarker, possibly reflecting chondrocyte damage. Whether serum urate (sUA) levels reflect/contribute to OA is unknown. We investigated whether sUA predicts OA progression in a non-gout knee OA population. METHODS: Eighty-eight subjects with medial knee OA (BMI <33) but without gout were included. Baseline sUA was measured in previously banked serum...
February 19, 2017: Arthritis & Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217849/how-long-bones-grow-children-mechanistic-paths-to-variation-in-human-height-growth
#13
REVIEW
Michelle Lampl, Meriah Schoen
OBJECTIVES: Eveleth and Tanner's descriptive documentation of worldwide variability in human growth provided evidence of the interaction between genetics and environment during development that has been foundational to the science of human growth. There remains a need, however, to describe the mechanistic foundations of variability in human height growth patterns. METHODS: A review of research documenting cellular activities at the endochondral growth plate aims to show how the unique microenvironment and cell functions during the sequential phases of the chondrocyte lifecycle affect long bone elongation, a fundamental source of height growth...
February 20, 2017: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216310/adamts-and-adam-metalloproteinases-in-osteoarthritis-looking-beyond-the-usual-suspects
#14
REVIEW
Chun-Yao Yang, Anastasios Chanalaris, Linda Troeberg
INTRODUCTION: Matrix metalloproteinases and 'aggrecanase' ADAMTSs are well established to play key roles in osteoarthritis (OA) through degradation of extracellular matrix type II collagen and aggrecan, and are thus potential targets for development of OA therapies. OBJECTIVE: This paper aims to provide a comprehensive review of the expression and potential roles of other, lesser-known ADAMTSs and related adamalysins (or ADAMs) in cartilage, with a view to identifying potentially protective or homeostatic metalloproteinases in the joint and informing consequent selective inhibitor design...
February 12, 2017: Osteoarthritis and Cartilage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216159/dynamic-cyclic-compression-modulates-the-chondrogenic-phenotype-in-human-chondrocytes-from-late-stage-osteoarthritis
#15
Hua Jia Diao, Hon Sing Fung, Pan Yeung, K L Lam, Chun Hoi Yan, Barbara Pui Chan
Human osteoarthritic chondrocytes (hOACs) are characterized by their "dedifferentiated" and catabolic phenotype and lack the ability for restoring their inherent functions by themselves. Here we investigated whether extrinsically supplemented mechanical signal via compression loading would affect the phenotype of hOACs. Specifically, we applied cyclic compression loading on cultured hOACs-collagen constructs and measured the expression of the major chondrogenic factors, cell-matrix interaction molecules and matrix degradation enzymes...
February 16, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214835/up-regulation-of-tgf-%C3%AE-promotes-tendon-to-bone-healing-after-anterior-cruciate-ligament-reconstruction-using-bone-marrow-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-through-the-tgf-%C3%AE-mapk-signaling-pathway-in-a-new-zealand-white-rabbit-model
#16
Rui Wang, Bin Xu, Hong-Gang Xu
BACKGROUND/AIMS: This study aimed to explore the role of TGF-β in tendon-to-bone healing after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction using bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) through the TGF-β/MAPK signaling pathway in a New Zealand white rabbit model. METHODS: A total of 72 healthy male New Zealand white rabbits were selected for these experiments. Flow cytometry and immunofluorescence were used to detect the expression of BMSC surface markers, and qRT-PCR was performed to detect TGF-β mRNA expression...
January 20, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214531/the-skeletal-developmental-toxicity-of-chlormequat-chloride-and-its-underlying-mechanisms
#17
Dan Huang, Shuang Wu, Xiaohong Hou, Lixia Jia, Qinghe Meng, Hongqian Chu, Jianjun Jiang, Lanqin Shang, Weidong Hao
Chlormequat Chloride (CCC), a widely used plant growth regulator, could decrease body weight in animals; however, the mechanism has not been well studied. This study was designed to evaluate the skeletal development toxicity of CCC on pubertal male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats and to investigate whether CCC impacts the development of chondrocyte, osteoblast and osteoclast through growth hormone (GH) and insulin like growth factor 1 (IGF-I). Rats from 23 to 70 on postnatal days were exposed to CCC daily by gavage at doses of 0, 75, 150, and 300mg/kg bw/d...
February 15, 2017: Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213268/fisetin-inhibits-il-1%C3%AE-induced-inflammatory-response-in-human-osteoarthritis-chondrocytes-through-activating-sirt1-and-attenuates-the-progression-of-osteoarthritis-in-mice
#18
Wenhao Zheng, Zhenhua Feng, Shengban You, Hui Zhang, Zhenyu Tao, Quan Wang, Hua Chen, Yaosen Wu
Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative joint disease characterized by cartilage degradation and inflammation. Fisetin, a polyphenol extracted from fruits and vegetables, has been reported to have anti-inflammatory effects. Our study aimed to investigate the effect of fisetin on OA both in vitro and in vivo. In vitro, chondrocytes were pretreated with fisetin alone or fisetin combined with sirtinol (an inhibitor of SIRT1) for 2h before IL-1β stimulation. Production of NO, PGE2, TNF-α and IL-6 were evaluated by the Griess reaction and ELISAs...
February 14, 2017: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213129/cyclic-compressive-stress-induced-scinderin-regulates-progress-of-developmental-dysplasia-of-the-hip
#19
Cheng-Long Wang, Hui Wang, Fei Xiao, Chuan-Dong Wang, Guo-Li Hu, Jun-Feng Zhu, Chao Shen, Bin Zuo, Yi-Min Cui, De Li, Yuan-Gao, Xiao-Ling Zhang, Xiao-Dong Chen
Developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) is a common musculoskeletal disorder characterized by a mismatch between acetabulum and femoral head. Mechanical force plays an important role during the occurrence and development of abnormities in acetabulum and femoral head. In this study, we established a mechanical force model named cyclic compressive stress (Ccs). To analyze the effect of Ccs on DDH, we detected special genes in chondrocytes and osteoblasts. Results showed that Ccs downregulated chondrogenesis of ADTC5 in a concentration-dependent manner...
February 14, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212278/the-effect-of-the-human-peptide-ghk-on-gene-expression-relevant-to-nervous-system-function-and-cognitive-decline
#20
Loren Pickart, Jessica Michelle Vasquez-Soltero, Anna Margolina
Neurodegeneration, the progressive death of neurons, loss of brain function, and cognitive decline is an increasing problem for senior populations. Its causes are poorly understood and therapies are largely ineffective. Neurons, with high energy and oxygen requirements, are especially vulnerable to detrimental factors, including age-related dysregulation of biochemical pathways caused by altered expression of multiple genes. GHK (glycyl-l-histidyl-l-lysine) is a human copper-binding peptide with biological actions that appear to counter aging-associated diseases and conditions...
February 15, 2017: Brain Sciences
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