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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339861/constitutive-luteinizing-hormone-receptor-signaling-causes-sexual-dysfunction-and-leydig-cell-adenomas-in-male-mice1
#1
Lan Hai, Deepak S Hiremath, Marilène Paquet, Prema Narayan
The luteinizing hormone receptor (LHCGR) is necessary for fertility and genetic mutations cause defects in reproductive development and function. Activating mutations in LHCGR cause familial male limited precocious puberty (FMPP). We have previously characterized a mouse model (KiLHRD582G) for FMPP that exhibits the same phenotype of precocious puberty, Leydig cell hyperplasia and elevated testosterone as boys with the disorder. We observed that KiLHRD582G male mice became infertile by 6 months of age although sperm count and motility were normal...
February 17, 2017: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339757/bone-characteristics-histopathology-and-chondrocyte-apoptosis-in-femoral-head-necrosis-induced-by-glucocorticoid-in-broilers
#2
M Zhang, C Y Shi, Z L Zhou, J F Hou
Femoral head necrosis (FHN) is a common disorder in fast-growing broilers in the poultry industry, but the pathogenesis of FHN has not been clarified completely. In the present study, glucocorticoid (GC) administration was used to induce FHN in broilers. Compared with normal birds, histopathology showed that the length of the articular cartilage of GC-induced FHN broilers was thicker while the proliferative zone and prehypertrophic zone were obviously thinner. Moreover, hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining showed the apoptotic chondrocyte in the growth plate of the femoral head in FHN-affected birds...
February 22, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335520/endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-and-unfolded-protein-response-in-cartilage-pathophysiology-contributing-factors-to-apoptosis-and-osteoarthritis
#3
REVIEW
Alexandria Hughes, Alexandra E Oxford, Ken Tawara, Cheryl L Jorcyk, Julia Thom Oxford
Chondrocytes of the growth plate undergo apoptosis during the process of endochondral ossification, as well as during the progression of osteoarthritis. Although the regulation of this process is not completely understood, alterations in the precisely orchestrated programmed cell death during development can have catastrophic results, as exemplified by several chondrodystrophies which are frequently accompanied by early onset osteoarthritis. Understanding the mechanisms that underlie chondrocyte apoptosis during endochondral ossification in the growth plate has the potential to impact the development of therapeutic applications for chondrodystrophies and associated early onset osteoarthritis...
March 20, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334504/redd1-deficiency-impairs-autophagy-and-mitochondrial-biogenesis-in-articular-cartilage-and-increases-the-severity-of-experimental-osteoarthritis
#4
Oscar Alvarez-Garcia, Tokio Matsuzaki, Merissa Olmer, Lars Plate, Jeffery W Kelly, Martin K Lotz
Objective REDD1 is an endogenous inhibitor of mTOR that regulates cellular stress responses. REDD1 expression is decreased in aged and osteoarthritis (OA) cartilage and it regulates mTOR signaling and autophagy in articular chondrocytes in vitro. The present study investigated the effects of REDD1 deletion in vivo using a mouse model of experimental OA. Methods Severity of OA was histologically assessed in 4-month-old wild-type and in Redd1(-/-) mice subjected to surgical destabilization of the medial meniscus (DMM)...
March 23, 2017: Arthritis & Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334327/autologous-vs-irradiated-homologous-costal-cartilage-as-graft-material-in-rhinoplasty
#5
Jee Hye Wee, Sue Jean Mun, Woo Sung Na, Heejin Kim, Joo Hyun Park, Dong-Kyu Kim, Hong-Ryul Jin
Importance: Studies comparing surgical results of rhinoplasty using autologous costal cartilage (ACC) and irradiated homologous costal cartilage (IHCC) are rare. Objectives: To compare the clinical results of major augmentation rhinoplasty using ACC vs IHCC and analyze the histologic properties of both types of cartilage. Design, Setting, and Participants: A retrospective clinical study was conducted among patients who had undergone rhinoseptoplasty using ACC or IHCC from January 1, 2009, to December 31, 2014...
March 23, 2017: JAMA Facial Plastic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333539/age-is-not-a-contraindication-for-cartilage-surgery-a-critical-analysis-of-standardized-outcomes-at-long-term-follow-up
#6
Giuseppe Filardo, Luca Andriolo, Andrea Sessa, Francesca Vannini, Alberto Ferruzzi, Maurilio Marcacci, Elizaveta Kon
BACKGROUND: Age is commonly accepted as a negative prognostic factor in cartilage surgery, and cutoff values of 30 to 40 years have been previously suggested as treatment indication. However, the lower outcome scores documented in older patients do not take in consideration the decreasing requirements of an aging joint. PURPOSE: To analyze the real effect of age in terms of recovery with respect to the functional level expected for different age categories of patients treated for cartilage lesions...
March 1, 2017: American Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332902/caloric-restriction-minimizes-aging-effects-on-the-femoral-medial-condyle
#7
Renata Gabriel Fontinele, Walter Krause Neto, Eliane Florencio Gama, Renata de Brito Mari, Romeu Rodrigues de Souza, André Conrado, Luis Mochizuki, José Roberto Kfoury Junior
This study aimed to analyze the effects of caloric restriction on aged femoral articular cartilage of Wistar rats. Three groups of eight animals each were considered: young (YC) and old (OC) control groups fed with a normal diet and old caloric restriction group (OCR) composed of 18-month-old animals fed with a 31% less caloric diet from 6-months of age. Articular cartilage was studied through morphometry and immunohistochemistry. Body mass was 12% less in the OCR group than in the OC group. The articular cartilage from OC rats show thinner medial condyles, fewer chondrocytes, smaller chondrocytes nuclear volume and, in both condyles, a predominance of collagen type II and less collagen density compared to both YC and OCR groups (p < ...
March 23, 2017: Aging Male: the Official Journal of the International Society for the Study of the Aging Male
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332587/bioreactor-mechanically-guided-3d-mesenchymal-stem-cell-chondrogenesis-using-a-biocompatible-novel-thermo-reversible-methylcellulose-based-hydrogel
#8
A Cochis, S Grad, M J Stoddart, S Farè, L Altomare, B Azzimonti, M Alini, L Rimondini
Autologous chondrocyte implantation for cartilage repair represents a challenge because strongly limited by chondrocytes' poor expansion capacity in vitro. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can differentiate into chondrocytes, while mechanical loading has been proposed as alternative strategy to induce chondrogenesis excluding the use of exogenous factors. Moreover, MSC supporting material selection is fundamental to allow for an active interaction with cells. Here, we tested a novel thermo-reversible hydrogel composed of 8% w/v methylcellulose (MC) in a 0...
March 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325340/low-molecular-weight-xanthan-gum-for-treating-osteoarthritis
#9
Guanying Han, Qixin Chen, Fei Liu, Zan Cui, Huarong Shao, Fuyan Liu, Aibin Ma, Joshua Liao, Bin Guo, Yuewei Guo, Fengshan Wang, Peixue Ling, Xifan Mei
Osteoarthritis (OA) is one of the most common chronic diseases and characterized by degradation of articular cartilage. We have previously reported xanthan gum (XG) injection preparation with high molecular weights (Mw) in ranging from 3×10(6)Da to 5×10(6)Da (HM-XG) could enhance the viscosity of synovial fluid, protect joint cartilage in rabbit, and the therapeutical effect has no significance difference with an existing clinical medication (sodium hyaluronate, SH) at the same injection frequency (once weekly for 5 weeks)...
May 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323209/sox9-a-genomic-view-of-tissue-specific-expression-and-action
#10
Aleisha Symon, Vincent Harley
The SOX9 transcription factor controls cell differentiation of many cell types among vertebrates. The SOX9 gene locus is large and complex and contains various tissue-specific enhancers. Individual enhancers direct specific expression of SOX9 in chondrocytes, Sertoli cells and cranial neural crest cells. Human SOX9 mutations can lead to either the complete Campomelic Dysplasia syndrome, or isolated clinical features, depending upon whether the mutation occurs in the coding region or in regulatory regions. Chromatin Immunoprecipitation has helped to define SOX9 control of target gene expression at the genome wide level in hair follicle stem cells and in chondrocytes where SOX9 binds at super-enhancers...
March 16, 2017: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323137/defects-in-chondrocyte-maturation-and-secondary-ossification-in-mouse-knee-joint-epiphyses-due-to-snorc-deficiency
#11
J Heinonen, F-P Zhang, C Surmann-Schmitt, S Honkala, M Stock, M Poutanen, A-M Säämänen
OBJECTIVE: The role of Snorc, a novel cartilage specific transmembrane proteoglycan, was studied during skeletal development using two Snorc knockout mouse models. Hypothesizing that Snorc, like the other transmembrane proteoglycans, may be a coreceptor, we also studied its interaction with growth factors. METHODS: Skeletal development was studied in wild type and Snorc knockout mice during postnatal development by whole mount staining, X-ray imaging, histomorphometry, immunohistochemistry and qRT-PCR...
March 17, 2017: Osteoarthritis and Cartilage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321429/intermediate-to-long-term-results-of-combined-anterior-cruciate-ligament-reconstruction-and-autologous-chondrocyte-implantation
#12
Andrew N Pike, Tim Bryant, Takahiro Ogura, Tom Minas
BACKGROUND: Cartilage injury associated with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) ruptures is common; however, relatively few reports exist on concurrent cartilage repair with ACL reconstruction. Autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI) has been utilized successfully for treatment of moderate to large chondral defects. HYPOTHESIS: ACL insufficiency with relatively large chondral defects may be effectively managed with concurrent ACL reconstruction and ACI. STUDY DESIGN: Case series; Level of evidence, 4...
February 2017: Orthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321424/cell-based-meniscus-repair-and-regeneration-at-the-brink-of-clinical-translation-a-systematic-review-of-preclinical-studies
#13
Jasmijn V Korpershoek, Tommy S de Windt, Michella H Hagmeijer, Lucienne A Vonk, Daniel B F Saris
BACKGROUND: Meniscus damage can be caused by trauma or degeneration and is therefore common among patients of all ages. Repair or regeneration of the menisci could be of great importance not only for pain relief or regaining function but also to prevent degenerative disease and osteoarthritis. Current treatment does not offer consistent long-term improvement. Although preclinical research focusing on augmentation of meniscal tear repair and regeneration after meniscectomy is encouraging, clinical translation remains difficult...
February 2017: Orthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321270/autophagy-is-a-protective-response-to-the-oxidative-damage-to-endplate-chondrocytes-in-intervertebral-disc-implications-for-the-treatment-of-degenerative-lumbar-disc
#14
Ke Chen, Xiaohua Lv, Wei Li, Fei Yu, Jianjing Lin, Junxuan Ma, Deming Xiao
Low back pain (LBP) is the leading cause of disability in the elderly. Intervertebral disc degeneration (IDD) was considered as the main cause for LBP. Degeneration of cartilaginous endplate was a crucial harmful factor during the initiation and development of IDD. Oxidative stress was implicated in IDD. However, the underlying molecular mechanism for the degeneration of cartilaginous endplate remains elusive. Herein, we found that oxidative stress could induce apoptosis and autophagy in endplate chondrocytes evidenced by western blot analysis, flow cytometry, immunofluorescence staining, GFP-LC3B transfection, and MDC staining...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320093/tmf-protects-chondrocytes-from-er-stress-induced-apoptosis-by-down-regulating-gsk-3%C3%AE
#15
Xiaoliang Yuan, Linfu Li, Weimei Shi, Hai Liu, Xianhua Huang, Zhiping Liu, Longhuo Wu
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-induced chondrocyte apoptosis plays a critical role in osteoarthritis cartilage degeneration. Previous studies showed that 5,7,3',4'-tetramethoxyflavone (TMF) exhibited chondroprotective activity through inhibiting PGE2-induced ER stress and down regulating the expression of GSK-3β. To further investigate the role of GSK-3β in ER stress-induced chondrocytes apoptosis and the protective role of TMF, GSK-3β siRNA and pcDNA3.1-myc-GSK-3β were employed to knock down and overexpress GSK-3β, respectively, in chondrocytes...
March 17, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320092/inhibition-of-pi3k-akt-mtor-signaling-pathway-promotes-autophagy-of-articular-chondrocytes-and-attenuates-inflammatory-response-in-rats-with-osteoarthritis
#16
Jian-Feng Xue, Zhong-Min Shi, Jian Zou, Xiao-Lin Li
OBJECTIVE: This study aims to explore the relationship between PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway and autophagy of articular chondrocytes in rats with osteoarthritis (OA). METHODS: Rat articular chondrocytes were isolated and cultured, and then induced by protein inhibitors of PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway. Chondrocytes were assigned into blank group, IL-1β induction group (IL-1β group), PI3K inhibitor+IL-1β induction group (PI3Ki+IL-1β group), AKT inhibitor+IL-1β induction group (AKTi+IL-1β group) and mTOR inhibitor+IL-1β induction group (mTORi+IL-1β group)...
March 16, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318168/-research-progress-of-mechanism-of-hypoxia-inducible-factor-1%C3%AE-signaling-pathway-in-condylar-cartilage-growth-and-remodeling
#17
Xu Gaoli, Wu Lili, Wu Zhiwu, Gu Zhiyuan
The condylar cartilage was adapted to hypoxic conditions in vivo. However, condylar cartilage cells exposed in normoxia in vitro affect the chondrocyte phenotype and cartilage matrix formation. This condition also resulted in great difficulty in chondrocyte research. Culturing chondrocyte should be simulated in in vivo hypoxia environment as much as possible. The hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) demonstrates an important transcription factor of adaptive response to hypoxic conditions. HIF-1α also plays an active role in maintaining homeostasis and function of chondrocytes...
December 1, 2016: Hua Xi Kou Qiang Yi Xue za Zhi, Huaxi Kouqiang Yixue Zazhi, West China Journal of Stomatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318167/-changes-in-ultrastructure-and-bone-morphogenetic-protein-expression-in-reconstructed-mandibular-condylar-cartilage-under-continuous-mandibular-advancement-in-adult-rats
#18
Yang Shuai, Li Xue, Gao Jie, Cai Yizhi, Li Ronghui, Wang Mingguo
OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the reconstructed mandibular condylar cartilage and the ultrastructural variations in mandibular condylar cartilage in adult rats as a result of mandibular advancement. METHODS: Thirty 9-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into experimental and control groups. Rats in the experimental group were subjected to mandibular advancement. Rats were sacrificed on days 3, 7, 14, 21, 30. Sections were cut from condyles, and bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) expression in condylar cartilage was examined through immunohistochemical analysis...
December 1, 2016: Hua Xi Kou Qiang Yi Xue za Zhi, Huaxi Kouqiang Yixue Zazhi, West China Journal of Stomatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317389/prp-for-degenerative-cartilage-disease
#19
Lior Laver, Niv Marom, Lad Dnyanesh, Omer Mei-Dan, João Espregueira-Mendes, Alberto Gobbi
OBJECTIVE: To explore the utilization of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) for degenerative cartilage processes and evaluate whether there is sufficient evidence to better define its potential effects. DESIGN: Systematic literature reviews were conducted in PubMed/MEDLINE and Cochrane electronic databases till May 2015, using the keywords "platelet-rich plasma OR PRP OR autologous conditioned plasma OR ACP AND cartilage OR chondrocyte OR chondrogenesis OR osteoarthritis (OA) OR arthritis...
September 1, 2016: Cartilage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317347/-effects-of-strontium-ranelate-on-the-rats-palatal-suture-after-rapid-maxillary-expansion
#20
Kong Chao, Wang Xuxia, Wang Qianqian, Han Yuanyuan, Zhao Shuya, Zhang Jun
OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the effects of strontium ranelate (SrR) on the rats' palatal suture after rapid maxillary expansion (RME). METHODS: Thirty-six male 6-week-old Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups: control group (A), expansion only group (B), and expansion plus SrR group (C). Each group comprised 12 rats. Neither expansion nor SrR was given to group A. Each rat in groups B and C was set an orthodontic appliance with an initial expansive force of 1 N...
August 1, 2016: Hua Xi Kou Qiang Yi Xue za Zhi, Huaxi Kouqiang Yixue Zazhi, West China Journal of Stomatology
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