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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526527/cellular-scale-model-of-growth-plate-an-in-silico-model-of-chondrocyte-hypertrophy
#1
H A Castro-Abril, J M Guevara, M A Moncayo, S J Shefelbine, L A Barrera, D A Garzón-Alvarado
The growth plate is the responsible for longitudinal bone growth. It is a cartilaginous structure formed by chondrocytes that are continuously undergoing a differentiation process that starts with a highly proliferative state, followed by cellular hypertrophy, and finally tissue ossification. Within the growth plate chondrocytes display a characteristic columnar organization that potentiates longitudinal growth. Both chondrocyte organization and hypertrophy are highly regulated processes influenced by biochemical and mechanical stimuli...
May 16, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525313/a-tunable-three-dimensional-in-vitro-culture-model-of-growth-plate-cartilage-using-alginate-hydrogel-scaffolds
#2
Alek G Erickson, Taylor D Laughlin, Sarah M Romereim, Catherine N Sargus-Patino, Angela K Pannier, Andrew T Dudley
Defining the final size and geometry of engineered tissues through precise control of the scalar and vector components of tissue growth is a necessary benchmark for regenerative medicine, but it has proved to be a significant challenge for tissue engineers. The growth plate cartilage that promotes elongation of the long bones is a good model system for studying morphogenetic mechanisms because cartilage is composed of a single cell type, the chondrocyte; chondrocytes are readily maintained in culture; and growth trajectory is predominately in a single vector...
May 18, 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523278/chondrocyte-specific-knockout-of-tsc-1-leads-to-congenital-spinal-deformity-in-mice
#3
Cheng Yang, Yuhui Chen, Zhen Li, He Cao, Keming Chen, Pinglin Lai, Bo Yan, Bin Huang, Jiajun Tang, Shicai Fan, Daozhang Cai, Dadi Jin, Xiaochun Bai, Rongping Zhou
Congenital spinal deformity is the most severe clinical orthopedic issue worldwide. Among all the pathological processes of congenital spinal deformity, the imbalance of endochondral ossification is considered to be the most important developmental cause of spinal dysplasia. We established chondrocyte-specific TSC-1 knockout (KO) mice to overactivate the energy metabolic component, mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1), and measured the spinal development by general, imaging, histological, and Western-blot assessments...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523267/a-novel-role-for-the-bmp-antagonist-noggin-in-sensitizing-cells-to-non-canonical-wnt-5a-ror2-disheveled-pathway-activation
#4
Ondrej Bernatik, Tomasz Radaszkiewicz, Martin Behal, Zankruti Dave, Florian Witte, Annika Mahl, Nicole H Cernohorsky, Pavel Krejci, Sigmar Stricker, Vitezslav Bryja
Mammalian limb development is driven by the integrative input from several signaling pathways; a failure to receive or a misinterpretation of these signals results in skeletal defects. The brachydactylies, a group of overlapping inherited human hand malformation syndromes, are mainly caused by mutations in BMP signaling pathway components. Two closely related forms, Brachydactyly type B2 (BDB2) and BDB1 are caused by mutations in the BMP antagonist Noggin (NOG) and the atypical receptor tyrosine kinase ROR2 that acts as a receptor in the non-canonical Wnt pathway...
2017: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523266/stimulating-fracture-healing-in-ischemic-environments-does-oxygen-direct-stem-cell-fate-during-fracture-healing
#5
REVIEW
Katherine R Miclau, Sloane A Brazina, Chelsea S Bahney, Kurt D Hankenson, Thomas K Hunt, Ralph S Marcucio, Theodore Miclau
Bone fractures represent an enormous societal and economic burden as one of the most prevalent causes of disability worldwide. Each year, nearly 15 million people are affected by fractures in the United States alone. Data indicate that the blood supply is critical for fracture healing; as data indicate that concomitant bone and vascular injury are major risk factors for non-union. However, the various role(s) that the vasculature plays remains speculative. Fracture stabilization dictates stem cell fate choices during repair...
2017: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521989/synthesis-of-strontium-chondroitin-sulfate-and-the-evaluation-of-its-capability-to-attenuate-osteoarthritis
#6
F B Ma, N Liu, N Hu, C Y Wen, B Tang
Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most prevalent musculoskeletal disorder and the leading cause of joint disability in elderly patients. In this study, we fabricated strontium chondroitin sulfate (SrCS), a new polysaccharide-metal ion complex that is the combination of chondroitin sulfate and strontium, which are two widely adopted chemicals in OA clinical management. The structural, chemical compositions and morphology of as-fabricated SrCS were systematically investigated. Cell proliferation test, RT-PCR and preliminary animal studies were conducted to evaluate the clinical potential of SrCS on OA treatment...
August 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521800/immunogenicity-and-immunomodulatory-effects-of-the-human-chondrocytes-hchonj
#7
Chae-Lyul Lim, Yeon-Ju Lee, Jong-Ho Cho, Heonsik Choi, Bumsup Lee, Myung Chul Lee, Sujeong Kim
BACKGROUND: Invossa™ (TissueGene-C) is a cell and gene therapy for osteoarthritis. It is composed of primary human chondrocytes (hChonJ cells) and irradiated human chondrocytes modified to express TGF-β1 (hChonJb#7 cells). The hChonJ cells were isolated from a polydactyly donor, and TGF-β1 cDNA was delivered to the cells, generating hChonJb#7 cells. Since the cells are allogeneic, the concern of immune response against cells has been raised. In this study, we investigated the immunogenicity of allogenic human chondrocyte, hChonJ cells...
May 18, 2017: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520497/lncrna-pvt1-regulates-chondrocyte-apoptosis-in-osteoarthritis-by-acting-as-a-sponge-for-mir-488-3p
#8
Yufei Li, Shuhua Li, Yatong Luo, Yong Liu, Nanhui Yu
Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been known to be involved in multiple diverse diseases, including osteoarthritis (OA). The present study aims at exploring the biological role of lncRNA plasmacytoma variant translocation 1 (PVT1) in OA and the underlying mechanism. Results showed that the expression of PVT1 was upregulated in OA chondrocytes compared with normal chondrocytes, silencing PVT1 inhibited the apoptosis of OA chondrocytes, and overexpression of PVT1 promoted the apoptosis of normal chondrocytes...
May 18, 2017: DNA and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520465/mesenchymal-stem-stromal-cells-in-regenerative-medicine-past-present-and-future
#9
Ourania Trohatou, Maria G Roubelakis
The concept of Regenerative Medicine combined with Cell based Therapy and Tissue Engineering represents the fourth pillar of healthcare and provides a promising approach for the treatment of serious diseases. Recently, cell based therapies are focused on the use of mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs). Human MSCs, that represent a mesoderm derived population of progenitors, are easily expanded in culture. They are capable to differentiate into osteoblasts, chondrocytes, and adipocytes and exhibit the potential to repair or regenerate damaged tissues...
May 18, 2017: Cellular Reprogramming
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520463/a-preclinical-assessment-of-early-continuous-passive-motion-and-treadmill-therapeutic-exercises-for-generating-chondroprotective-effects-after-anterior-cruciate-ligament-rupture
#10
Nai-Jen Chang, Kuan-Wei Lee, Chih-Jou Chu, Ming-You Shie, Pei-Hsi Chou, Chih-Chan Lin, Peir-In Liang
BACKGROUND: Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury is a well-known risk factor for the development of posttraumatic osteoarthritis (PTOA). However, whether using continuous passive motion (CPM) with or without additional treadmill exercise (TRE) in early ACL injury might provide chondroprotective effects and further decrease the risk of PTOA has yet to be determined. HYPOTHESIS: CPM may offer an enhanced chondroprotective effect, but TRE may attenuate that effect due to the mechanical stress on the joint and inflammatory cytokines in the joint...
May 1, 2017: American Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520221/rap1b-is-an-effector-of-axin2-regulating-crosstalk-of-signaling-pathways-during-skeletal-development
#11
Takamitsu Maruyama, Ming Jiang, Alycia Abbott, H-M Ivy Yu, Qirong Huang, Magdalena Chrzanowska-Wodnicka, Emily I Chen, Wei Hsu
Recent identification and isolation of suture stem cells capable of long term self-renewal, clonal expanding and differentiating demonstrate their essential role in calvarial bone development, homeostasis and injury repair. These bona fide stem cells express high level of Axin2 and are able to mediate bone regeneration and repair in a cell autonomous fashion. The importance of Axin2 is further demonstrated by its genetic inactivation in mice causing skeletal deformities resembling craniosynostosis in humans...
May 18, 2017: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28518137/nerve-growth-factor-from-chinese-cobra-venom-stimulates-chondrogenic-differentiation-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#12
Zhenhui Lu, Danqing Lei, Tongmeng Jiang, Lihui Yang, Li Zheng, Jinmin Zhao
Growth factors such as transforming growth factor beta1 (TGF-β1), have critical roles in the regulation of the chondrogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), which promote cartilage repair. However, the clinical applications of the traditional growth factors are limited by their high cost, functional heterogeneity and unpredictable effects, such as cyst formation. It may be advantageous for cartilage regeneration to identify a low-cost substitute with greater chondral specificity and easy accessibility...
May 18, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28518078/non-invasive-in-vivo-fluorescence-optical-imaging-of-inflammatory-mmp-activity-using-an-activatable-fluorescent-imaging-agent
#13
Johannes Schwenck, Florian C Maier, Manfred Kneilling, Stefan Wiehr, Kerstin Fuchs
This paper describes a non-invasive method for imaging matrix metalloproteinases (MMP)-activity by an activatable fluorescent probe, via in vivo fluorescence optical imaging (OI), in two different mouse models of inflammation: a rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and a contact hypersensitivity reaction (CHR) model. Light with a wavelength in the near infrared (NIR) window (650 - 950 nm) allows a deeper tissue penetration and minimal signal absorption compared to wavelengths below 650 nm. The major advantages using fluorescence OI is that it is cheap, fast and easy to implement in different animal models...
May 8, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28518068/3d-magnetic-stem-cell-aggregation-and-bioreactor-maturation-for-cartilage-regeneration
#14
Aurore Van de Walle, Claire Wilhelm, Nathalie Luciani
Cartilage engineering remains a challenge due to the difficulties in creating an in vitro functional implant similar to the native tissue. An approach recently explored for the development of autologous replacements involves the differentiation of stem cells into chondrocytes. To initiate this chondrogenesis, a degree of compaction of the stem cells is required; hence, we demonstrated the feasibility of magnetically condensing cells, both within thick scaffolds and scaffold-free, using miniaturized magnetic field sources as cell attractors...
April 27, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516106/a-cost-effectiveness-analysis-of-surgical-treatment-modalities-for-chondral-lesions-of-the-knee-microfracture-osteochondral-autograft-transplantation-and-autologous-chondrocyte-implantation
#15
REVIEW
John B Schrock, Matthew J Kraeutler, Darby A Houck, Matthew B McQueen, Eric C McCarty
BACKGROUND: Numerous surgical options exist to treat chondral lesions in the knee, including microfracture (MFx), osteochondral autograft transplantation (OAT), first-generation autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI-1), and next-generation ACI (ACI-2). PURPOSE: To compare the cost-effectiveness of MFx, OAT, and ACI-1. The secondary purpose of this study was to compare the functional outcomes of MFx, OAT, ACI-1, and ACI-2. STUDY DESIGN: Systematic review; Level of evidence, 2...
May 2017: Orthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515465/gender-specific-differential-expression-of-exosomal-mirna-in-synovial-fluid-of-patients-with-osteoarthritis
#16
Ravindra Kolhe, Monte Hunter, Siyang Liu, Ravirajsinh N Jadeja, Chetan Pundkar, Ashis K Mondal, Bharati Mendhe, Michelle Drewry, Mumtaz V Rojiani, Yutao Liu, Carlos M Isales, Robert E Guldberg, Mark W Hamrick, Sadanand Fulzele
The pathogenesis of osteoarthritis (OA) is poorly understood, and therapeutic approaches are limited to preventing progression of the disease. Recent studies have shown that exosomes play a vital role in cell-to-cell communication, and pathogenesis of many age-related diseases. Molecular profiling of synovial fluid derived exosomal miRNAs may increase our understanding of OA progression and may lead to the discovery of novel biomarkers and therapeutic targets. In this article we report the first characterization of exosomes miRNAs from human synovial fluid...
May 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515001/in-vitro-extracellular-matrix-accumulation-of-nasal-and-articular-chondrocytes-for-intervertebral-disc-repair
#17
S Vedicherla, C T Buckley
Chondrocyte based regenerative therapies for intervertebral disc repair such as Autologous Disc Cell Transplantation (ADCT, CODON) and allogeneic juvenile chondrocyte implantation (NuQu(®), ISTO Technologies) have demonstrated good outcomes in clinical trials. However concerns remain with the supply demand reconciliation and issues surrounding immunoreactivity which exist for allogeneic-type technologies. The use of stem cells is challenging due to high growth factor requirements, regulatory barriers and differentiation towards a stable phenotype...
May 8, 2017: Tissue & Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514935/mesenchymal-stem-cell-based-cartilage-regeneration-approach-and-cell-senescence-can-we-manipulate-cell-aging-and-function
#18
Marta Anna Szychlinska, Martin James Stoddart, Ugo D'Amora, Luigi Ambrosio, Mauro Alini, Giuseppe Musumeci
Aging is the most prominent risk factor triggering several degenerative diseases, such as Osteoarthritis (OA). Due to its poor self-healing capacity, once injured cartilage needs to be re-established. This process mighmight be approached bythrough resorting to cell-based therapies and/or tissue engineering. Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC) represent a promising approach due to their chondrogenic differentiation potential. Presently, in vitro chondrogenic differentiation of MSCs is limited by two main reasons: Aging aging of MSCs, which determines the loss of cell proliferative and differentiationed capacity and MSC-derived chondrocyte hypertrophic differentiation, which limits the use of these cells in cartilage tissue regeneration approach...
May 17, 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part B, Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514714/calcitonin-protects-chondrocytes-from-lipopolysaccharide-induced-apoptosis-and-inflammatory-response-through-mapk-wnt-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-pathways
#19
Lai-Bo Zhang, Zhen-Tao Man, Wei Li, Wei Zhang, Xian-Quan Wang, Shui Sun
Calcitonin (CT) is an anti-absorbent, which has long been used for treatment of osteoporosis. However, little information is available about the effects of CT on osteoarthritis (OA). This study was mainly aimed to explore the effects of CT on the treatment of OA, as well as the underlying mechanisms. Chondrocytes were isolated from immature mice and then were incubated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), CT, small interfering (si) RNA against bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2, and/or the inhibitors of MAPK/Wnt/NF-κB pathway...
May 14, 2017: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513981/exposure-to-fermentation-supernatant-of-staphylococcus-aureus-accelerated-dedifferentiation-of-chondrocytes-and-production-of-antimicrobial-peptides
#20
Shuaijun Li, Yun Zhang, Yidan Sun, Weigang Cao, Lei Cui
Staphylococcus aureus is the most popular pathogen found in septic arthritis. Despite bacteria was eradicated from joint cavity during acute infection, destruction of articular cartilage often continues for years, leading to permanent joint damage. The mechanism responsible for this consistent catabolic reaction in septic arthritis remains unclear. Here, we found that fermentation supernatant (FS) of Staphylococcus aureus accelerated dedifferentiation of chondrocytes and induced expression of catabolic factors including A Disintegrin-like and Metalloproteinase with Thrombospondin-1 motifs 5, NO synthase 2, matrix metalloproteinase -3, -13...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
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