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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036754/patellofemoral-cartilage-restoration-indications-techniques-and-outcomes-of-autologous-chondrocytes-implantation-matrix-induced-chondrocyte-implantation-and-particulated-juvenile-allograft-cartilage
#1
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036224/immortalized-porcine-mesenchymal-cells-derived-from-nasal-mucosa-lungs-lymph-nodes-spleen-and-bone-marrow-retain-their-stemness-properties-and-trigger-the-expression-of-siglec-1-in-co-cultured-blood-monocytic-cells
#2
Abubakar Garba, Lowiese M B Desmarets, Delphine D Acar, Bert Devriendt, Hans J Nauwynck
Mesenchymal stromal cells have been isolated from different sources. They are multipotent cells capable of differentiating into many different cell types, including osteocytes, chondrocytes and adipocytes. They possess a therapeutic potential in the management of immune disorders and the repair of damaged tissues. Previous work in our laboratory showed an increase of the percentages of CD172a+, CD14+, CD163+, Siglec-1+, CD4+ and CD8+ hematopoietic cells, when co-cultured with immortalized mesenchymal cells derived from bone marrow...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035932/extracellular-vesicles-in-cartilage-homeostasis-and-osteoarthritis
#3
Shigeru Miyaki, Martin K Lotz
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Extracellular vesicles carry bioactive molecules that can be transferred between cells and tissues. The purpose of this review is to describe how extracellular vesicles regulate functions of cells in cartilage and other joint tissues. The potential application of extracellular vesicles in the treatment of osteoarthritis and as biomarkers will also be discussed. RECENT FINDINGS: Extracellular vesicles are found in synovial fluid, in articular cartilage and in the supernatants of synoviocytes and chondrocytes...
October 13, 2017: Current Opinion in Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035380/mixed-cell-therapy-of-bone-marrow-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-and-articular-cartilage-chondrocytes-ameliorates-osteoarthritis-development
#4
Indira Prasadam, Akoy Akuien, Thor E Friis, Wei Fang, Xinzhan Mao, Ross W Crawford, Yin Xiao
Of the many cell-based treatments that have been tested in an effort to regenerate osteoarthritic articular cartilage, none have ever produced cartilage that compare with native hyaline cartilage. Studies show that different cell types lead to inconsistent results and for cartilage regeneration to be considered successful, there must be an absence of fibrotic tissue. Here we report of a series of experiments in which bone marrow-derived stem cells (BMSCs) and articular cartilage chondrocytes (ACCs) were mixed in a 1:1 ratio and tested for their ability to enhance cartilage regeneration in three different conditions: (1) in an in vitro differentiation model; (2) in an ex vivo cartilage defect model implanted subcutaneously in mice; and (3) as an intra-articular injection in a meniscectomy-induced OA model in rats...
October 16, 2017: Laboratory Investigation; a Journal of Technical Methods and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033566/raav-mediated-overexpression-of-tgf-%C3%AE-via-vector-delivery-in-polymeric-micelles-stimulates-the-biological-and-reparative-activities-of-human-articular-chondrocytes-in-vitro-and-in-a-human-osteochondral-defect-model
#5
Ana Rey-Rico, Jagadeesh K Venkatesan, Gertrud Schmitt, Angel Concheiro, Henning Madry, Carmen Alvarez-Lorenzo, Magali Cucchiarini
Recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) vectors are clinically adapted vectors to durably treat human osteoarthritis (OA). Controlled delivery of rAAV vectors via polymeric micelles was reported to enhance the temporal and spatial presentation of the vectors into their targets. Here, we tested the feasibility of delivering rAAV vectors via poly (ethylene oxide) (PEO) and poly (propylene oxide) (PPO) (poloxamer and poloxamine) polymeric micelles as a means to overexpress the therapeutic factor transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) in human OA chondrocytes and in experimental human osteochondral defects...
2017: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033290/nonvascularized-cartilage-grafts-versus-vascularized-cartilage-flaps-comparison-of-cartilage-quality-6%C3%A2-months-after-transfer-and-isolated-from-surrounding%C3%A2-bone-ingrowth
#6
James P Higgins, Farzad Borumandi, Heinz K Bürger, Mehmet Emre Benlidayı, Anna Vasilyeva, Leman Sencar, Sait Polat, Alexander J Gaggl
PURPOSE: Subchondral perfusion of osteochondral grafts has been shown to be important in preventing long-term cartilage degeneration. In carpal reconstruction, subchondral perfusion from the graft bed is limited. This study's purpose was to compare the histological characteristics of cartilage in osteochondral grafts supported by synovial imbibition alone to cartilage of vascularized osteochondral flaps that have both synovial and vascular pedicle perfusion. METHODS: Two adjacent osteochondral segments were harvested on the medial femoral trochlea in domestic 6- to 8-month-old pigs...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Hand Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032864/dietary-variation-and-mechanical-properties-of-articular-cartilage-in-the-temporomandibular-joint-implications-for-the-role-of-plasticity-in-mechanobiology-and-pathobiology
#7
Matthew J Ravosa, Robert J Kane
Due to their nature as tissue composites, skeletal joints pose an additional challenge in terms of evaluating the functional significance of morphological variation in their bony and cartilaginous components in response to altered loading conditions. Arguably, this complexity requires more direct means of investigating joint plasticity and performance than typically employed to analyze macro- and micro-anatomical phenomena. To address a significant gap in our understanding of the plasticity of the mammalian temporomandibular joint (TMJ), we investigated the histology and mechanical properties of condylar articular cartilage in rabbits subjected to long-term variation in diet-induced masticatory stresses, specifically cyclical loading...
August 25, 2017: Zoology: Analysis of Complex Systems, ZACS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030883/polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-influence-inflammatory-markers-in-a-cellular-model-for-canine-osteoarthritis
#8
N Adler, A Schoeniger, H Fuhrmann
Although it is well recognized that dietary supplementation with fish oil improves clinical symptoms in dogs suffering from osteoarthritis, the molecular basis for the dietary benefit is not yet completely resolved in dogs. This study was designed to further clarify how polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) affect key factors of cartilage degeneration in a canine cell culture system mimicking osteoarthritis. Canine chondrocytes were incubated either without or with 10 μm of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), arachidonic acid (AA) or 3...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027984/the-effect-of-intra-articular-injection-of-autologous-microfragmented-fat-tissue-on-proteoglycan-synthesis-in-patients-with-knee-osteoarthritis
#9
Damir Hudetz, Igor Borić, Eduard Rod, Željko Jeleč, Andrej Radić, Trpimir Vrdoljak, Andrea Skelin, Gordan Lauc, Irena Trbojević-Akmačić, Mihovil Plečko, Ozren Polašek, Dragan Primorac
Osteoarthritis (OA) is one of the leading musculoskeletal disorders in the adult population. It is associated with cartilage damage triggered by the deterioration of the extracellular matrix tissue. The present study explores the effect of intra-articular injection of autologous microfragmented adipose tissue to host chondrocytes and cartilage proteoglycans in patients with knee OA. A prospective, non-randomized, interventional, single-center, open-label clinical trial was conducted from January 2016 to April 2017...
October 13, 2017: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027531/-costal-cartilage-structural-and-functional-changes-in-children-with-a-funnel-or-keeled-chest
#10
A V Kurkov, A B Shekhter, V S Paukov
Congenital chest wall deformities (CCWDs) in children are severe diseases leading to cosmetic defects and diseases of the respiratory and cardiovascular systems. The most common of these deformities are funnel-shaped (pectus excavatum, FD) and keeled (pectus carinatum, KD) ones. The pathogenesis of CCWDs and the role of costal cartilage structural and functional changes in their pathogenesis have now been not well studied, which makes it difficult to elaborate pathogenetic approaches to correcting these diseases...
2017: Arkhiv Patologii
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026640/directing-the-osteoblastic-and-chondrocytic-differentiations-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells-matrix-vs-induction-media
#11
Jing He, Jianglong Guo, Bo Jiang, Ruijuan Yao, Yao Wu, Fang Wu
While both induction culture media and matrix have been reported to regulate the stem cell fate, little is known about which factor plays a more decisive role in directing the MSC differentiation lineage as well as the underlying mechanisms. To this aim, we seeded MSCs on HA-collagen and HA-synthetic hydrogel matrixes, which had demonstrated highly different potentials toward osteoblastic and chondrocytic differentiation lineages, respectively, and cultured them with osteogenic, chondrogenic and normal culture media, respectively...
October 2017: Regenerative Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026328/phosphorylation-of-stat-proteins-by-recombinant-human-il-6-in-immortalized-human-chondrocyte-cell-lines-t-c28a2-and-c28-i2
#12
Evan C Meszaros, Charles J Malemud
Two immortalized human juvenile chondrocyte cell lines, T/C28a2 and C28/I2, were employed to determine the extent to which recombinant human (rh) IL-6, a known cytokine activator of the Janus kinase/signal transducers and activators of transcription (JAK/STAT) pathway in many cell types, caused STAT proteins to be phosphorylated. The results showed that STAT3 was constitutively phosphorylated in the absence of rhIL-6 in T/C28a2 chondrocytes. However, C28/I2 chondrocytes treated with rhIL-6 caused STAT1, STAT3, and STAT5 to be phosphorylated without altering total unphosphorylated STAT proteins...
2017: Journal of Inflammation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026147/vascular-endothelial-growth-factor-in-cartilage-development-and-osteoarthritis
#13
Masashi Nagao, John L Hamilton, Ranjan Kc, Agnes D Berendsen, Xuchen Duan, Chan Wook Cheong, Xin Li, Hee-Jeong Im, Bjorn R Olsen
Genome wide studies indicate that vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF) is associated with osteoarthritis (OA), and increased VEGF expression correlates with increased disease severity. VEGF is also a chondrocyte survival factor during development and essential for bone formation, skeletal growth and postnatal homeostasis. This raises questions of how the important embryonic and postnatal functions of VEGF can be reconciled with an apparently destructive role in OA. Addressing these questions, we find that VEGF acts as a survival factor in growth plate chondrocytes during development but only up until a few weeks after birth in mice...
October 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025200/novel-genetic-cause-of-idiopathic-short-stature
#14
REVIEW
Min Jae Kang
Traditionally, the growth hormone - insulin-like growth factor I (GH - IGF-I) axis is the most important signaling pathway in linear growth, and defects in this axis present as growth hormone deficiencies or IGF-I deficiencies. However, subtle changes in serum levels of GH or IGF-I, caused by gene mutations involved in the GH - IGF-I axis, can present as idiopathic short stature (ISS). This paper briefly discusses GHR and IGFALS. In addition, recent studies have shown that many factors, including paracrine signals, extracellular matrix, and intracellular mechanisms of chondrocytes, regulate the growth plate independent of the GH - IGF-I system...
September 2017: Annals of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024597/significant-chondrocyte-viability-is-present-in-acetabular-chondral-flaps-associated-with-femoroacetabular-impingement
#15
Vonda J Wright, Christopher Laurence McCrum, Hongshuai Li, Michael J Tranovich, Johnny Huard
BACKGROUND: Patients presenting with cam deformity of the femoral head and neck sustain repeated trauma to the articular cartilage of the superior acetabulum, with chondral delamination injuries found during hip arthroscopy. Two previous studies reveal conflicting chondrocyte viability data in these traumatic cartilage injuries. The full-thickness nature of flaps may suggest that chondrocytes residing in the cartilage flap matrix in the joint environment would remain viable despite shear trauma...
October 1, 2017: American Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024060/loss-of-dnmt3b-in-chondrocytes-leads-to-delayed-endochondral-ossification-and-fracture-repair
#16
Cuicui Wang, Yousef Abu-Amer, Regis J O'Keefe, Jie Shen
Despite advanced understanding of signaling mediated by local and systemic factors, the role of epigenetic factors in the regulation of bone regeneration remains vague. The DNA methyltransferases (Dnmts) Dnmt3a and Dnmt3b have tissue specific expression patterns and create unique methylation signatures to regulate gene expression. Using a stabilized murine tibia fracture model we find that Dnmt3b is induced early in fracture healing, peaks at 10 days post fracture (dpf), and declines to nearly undetectable levels by 28 dpf...
October 10, 2017: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022900/increased-15-lipoxygenase-1-expression-in-chondrocytes-contributes-to-the-pathogenesis-of-osteoarthritis
#17
Kaizhe Chen, Yufei Yan, Changwei Li, Jun Yuan, Fei Wang, Ping Huang, Niandong Qian, Jin Qi, Hanbing Zhou, Qi Zhou, Lianfu Deng, Chuan He, Lei Guo
15-Lipoxygenase-1 (15-LO-1) is involved in many pathological processes. The purpose of this study was to determine the potential role of 15-LO-1 in osteoarthritis (OA). The levels of 15-LO-1 expression were measured by western blotting and quantitative real-time PCR in articular cartilage from the OA rat models and OA patients. To further investigate the effects of 15-LO-1 on chondrocyte functions, such as extracellular matrix (ECM) secretion, the release of matrix-degrading enzymes, the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), cell proliferation and apoptosis, we decreased or increased 15-LO-1 expression in chondrocytes by means of transfecting with siRNA targeting 15-LO-1 and plasmid encoding 15-LO-1, respectively...
October 12, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020880/pulsed-electromagnetic-fields-and-tissue-engineering-of-the-joints
#18
Kenjiro Iwasa, Reddi A Hari
BACKGROUND: Bone and cartilage joint formation, maintenance and regeneration are regulated by both chemical and physical signals. Among the physical signals there is increasing realization of the role of Pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMF) in the treatment of nonunions of bone fractures. The discovery of the piezoelectric properties of bone by Fukada and Yasuda in 1953 in Japan established the foundation of this field. Pioneering research by Bassett and Brighton and their teams resulted in the approval by Food and Drug Administration (FDA) the use of PEMF in treatment of fracture healing...
October 12, 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part B, Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020504/fibrocartilage-stem-cells-engraft-and-self-organize-into-vascularized-bone
#19
J Nathan, A Ruscitto, S Pylawka, A Soharby, C J Shawber, M C Embree
Angiogenesis is a complex, multicellular process that is critical for bone development and generation. Endochondral ossification depends on an avascular cartilage template that completely remodels into vascularized bone and involves a dynamic interplay among chondrocytes, osteoblasts, and endothelial cells. We have discovered fibrocartilage stem cells (FCSCs) derived from the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) mandibular condyle that generates cartilage anlagen, which is subsequently remodeled into vascularized bone using an ectopic transplantation model...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Dental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29019932/asic1a-promotes-acid-induced-autophagy-in-rat-articular-chondrocytes-through-the-ampk-foxo3a-pathway
#20
Beibei Dai, Fei Zhu, Yong Chen, Renpeng Zhou, Zhisen Wang, Yaya Xie, Xiaoshan Wu, Shengqin Zu, Ge Li, Jinfang Ge, Feihu Chen
Acid-sensing ion channel 1a (ASIC1a) is a member of the extracellular H⁺-activated cation channels family. Our previous studies suggested that ASIC1a contributed to acid-induced rat articular chondrocytes autophagy. However, its potential mechanisms remain unclear. The present study demonstrated the effect of ASIC1a on rat articular chondrocytes autophagy and explored the underlying molecular mechanisms. The results demonstrated that ASIC1a contributed to acid-induced autophagy in rat articular chondrocytes, and which was associated with an increase in (Ca(2+))i, as indicated that acid-induced increases in mRNA and protein expression of LC3B-II and other autophagy-related markers were inhibited by ASIC1a-specific blocker, PcTx1 and calcium chelating agent, BAPTA-AM...
October 11, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
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