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Mindfulness and police

F V Cresswell, J Ellis, J Hartley, C A Sabin, C Orkin, D R Churchill
OBJECTIVES: The perceived threat of HIV transmission through spitting and biting is evidenced by the increasing use of "spit hoods" by Police Forces in the UK. In addition, a draft parliamentary bill has called for increased penalties for assaults on emergency workers, citing the risk of communicable disease transmission as one justification. We aimed to review literature relating to the risk of HIV transmission through biting or spitting. METHODS: A systematic literature search was conducted using Medline, Embase and Northern Lights databases and conference websites using search terms relating to HIV, AIDS, bite, spit and saliva...
April 23, 2018: HIV Medicine
Brian A Chopko, Patrick A Palmieri, Richard E Adams
Police officers are frequently exposed to two different types of potentially traumatic events: one dealing with physical threats to self and the other involving the witnessing of harm to others. These different types of traumatic experiences are thought to produce various posttraumatic reactions. Furthermore, sleep problems are also reported as a hallmark of posttraumatic stress disorder. There is evidence, however, that sleep problems may mediate the relationship between posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms and health outcomes, especially physical health and depression...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
Anne Krayer, Catherine A Robinson, Rob Poole
Although the police play an important role for people with mental health problems in the community, little is known about joint working practices between mental health, social care and police services. There is potential for tensions and negative outcomes for people with mental health problems, in particular when the focus is on behaviours that could be interpreted as anti-social. This study explores perceptions about joint working between mental health, social care and police services with regard to anti-social behaviour...
May 2018: Health & Social Care in the Community
Nancy E Epstein
Background: Lumbar surgery for spinal stenosis is the most common spine operation being performed in older patients. Nevertheless, every time we want to schedule surgery, we confront the insurance industry. More often than not they demand patients first undergo epidural steroid injections (ESI); clearly they are not aware of ESI's lack of long-term efficacy. Who put these insurance companies in charge anyway? We did. How? Through performing too many unnecessary or overly extensive spinal operations (e...
2017: Surgical Neurology International
Evgeny Smolianitski-Fabian, Etia Cohen, Marina Dronova, Anna Voloshenko-Rossin, Ovadia Lev
Gas chromatography thermal-electron ionization mass spectrometry (GC-EI-MS) is an established method for the identification of mind-altering substances and is routinely used by forensic laboratories. However, some commonly analyzed drugs of abuse, relating to the synthetic cannabinoids receptor agonist group (SCs), pose a challenge for this conventional technique. As the molecular cation radicals of many excited SCs are labile within the ion source, the relative abundance of the molecular ions obtained by the GC-EI-MS is often too small to allow discrimination of structurally related drugs...
July 8, 2017: Drug Testing and Analysis
Michael Jarvis
In Naked Lunch, the institutions and practices of science and medicine, specifically with regard to psychiatry/psychology, are symptoms of a bureaucratic system of control that shapes, constructs, defines, and makes procrustean alterations to both the mind and body of human subjects. Using sickness and junk (or heroin) as convenient metaphors for both a Cold War binary mentality and the mandatory consumption of twentieth-century capitalism, Burroughs presents modern man as fundamentally alienated from any sense of a personal self...
2017: Literature and Medicine
R Bradshaw, N Denison, S Francese
In the study presented here, four examples of crime scene fingermarks analysed by Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption Ionisation Mass Spectrometry Imaging (MALDI MSI), in collaboration with the local Police Force, are reported. These marks are associated to high profile crimes such as drug dealing, murder and harassment. Following the application of forensic enhancement techniques by the CSI or the crime lab, one of the marks could be directly analysed on the surface of deposition and the others were analysed as primary lifts...
May 2, 2017: Analyst
Paul H Thibodeau, Latoya Crow, Stephen J Flusberg
While many scholars have pointed to the role of metaphor in explanation, relatively little experimental research has examined whether and how metaphors are used and understood in everyday explanatory discourse. Across 3 experiments, we investigated the nature and function of metaphor in explanation by drawing on a real-world example where the terms guardian and warrior were used to metaphorically explain the role of police officers. We found, first, that the associations participants brought to mind for these concepts differed depending on whether they had previously answered questions about law enforcement (e...
October 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Kate E Sohasky
The 1911 mental classification, "defective delinquent," was created as a temporary legal-medical category in order to identify a peculiar class of delinquent girls in a specific institutional setting. The defective delinquent's alleged slight mental defect, combined with her appearance of normalcy, rendered her a "dangerous" and "incurable" citizen. At the intersection of institutional history and the history of ideas, this article explores the largely overlooked role of borderline mental classifications of near-normalcy in the medicalization of intelligence and criminality during the first third of the twentieth-century United States...
2016: Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences
Luo Zhuo, Liang Liu, Liang Ren, Qian Liu
Cases involving the unexpected deaths of children are always a concern for the police and medical examiners alike. In particular, unexpected deaths due to asphyxia without obvious injuries sometimes make decisions regarding the manner of death more difficult. In the present case, a 2-year-old boy was found dead at home, and his mother was initially believed to have killed him. A complete autopsy and forensic investigation were performed, and no injuries were found on the body; however, marked laryngeal edema was observed...
July 2016: Medicine, Science, and the Law
Sibylle Banaschak, Katharina Janßen, Babette Schulte, Markus A Rothschild
In recent years, increasing attention has been paid to the issue of (fatal) child abuse and neglect, largely due to the media attention garnered by some headline-grabbing cases. If media statements are to be believed, such cases may be an increasing phenomenon. With these published accounts in mind, publicly available statistics should be analysed with respect to the question of whether reliable statements can be formulated based on these figures. It is hypothesised that certain data, e.g., the Innocenti report published by UNICEF in 2003, may be based on unreliable data sources...
September 2015: International Journal of Legal Medicine
J Arditti, M Spadari, L de Haro, A Brun, J H Bourdon, M Valli
Ketamine is an anaesthetic used in human medicine and veterinary practice, synthesised on 1962 and marketed on 1970 in France. Recreational uses were described during 1992 in the medical communauty and in 1996 in the dance settings. The chemical name of ketamine is 2 - (2chlorophenyl) 2-(methylamine)-cyclohexanone, an aryl cyclohexylamine, structurally related to phencyclidine. Ketamine is known under the following street names : Keta K, Kate, Special K, Vitamine K, la Golden, la Vétérinaire. Ketamine is used intranasally, orally and intramusculary in recreational use...
2002: Acta Clinica Belgica
Lars Hansson, Urban Markström
BACKGROUND: Stigma and discrimination are still prominent features of the life situation of persons with mental illness, adding to the burden of the illness, causing a lowered self-esteem, quality of life and affecting possibilities of adequate housing and work. It is also a major barrier to help seeking. The deinstitutionalization of mental health services has led to a significant increase in contacts between the police and persons with mental illness. It has been argued that police officers should be provided education and training to enable them to interact adaptively and with good outcomes with people with mental illness...
2014: BMC Psychiatry
Pamela E Jeter, Susan Cronin, Sat Bir S Khalsa
BACKGROUND: Law enforcement ranks as one of the most stressful occupations in the world. Yoga is a mind-body practice composed of postures, breathing, and meditation techniques, and is known for its beneficial effects on stress and mood disturbance. OBJECTIVES: This pilot study evaluated the effects of Kripalu yoga on perceived stress, mood, and mindfulness during police academy training. METHOD: Forty-two recruits participated in a 6-class yoga intervention...
2013: International Journal of Yoga Therapy
Rosalind D Cartwright, Christian Guilleminault
OBJECTIVE: To test whether laboratory-based research differentiating sleepwalkers (SW) from controls (C) can be applied in an uncontrolled forensic case as evidence the alleged crime was committed during an arousal from sleep in which the mind is not fully conscious due to a SW disorder. METHODS: A PSG study recorded 8 months after the defendant was charged was analyzed independently by spectral analysis. Slow wave activity (SWA) and cyclic alternating pattern (CAP) rates were computed...
July 15, 2013: Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine: JCSM: Official Publication of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine
Arndt Büssing, Harald Walach, Niko Kohls, Fred Zimmermann, Marion Trousselard
UNLABELLED: HASH(0x329dda8) BACKGROUND: The concept of `mindfulness´ was operationalized primarily for patients with chronic stressors, while it is rarely used in reference to soldiers. We intended to validate a modified instrument on the basis of the Freiburg Mindfulness Inventory (FMI) to measure soldiers' situational awareness ("mindfulness") in stressful situations/missions. The instrument we will explore in this paper is termed the Conscious Presence and Self Control (CPSC) scale...
January 7, 2013: International Journal of Mental Health Systems
Lata Sharma, S Gupta
BACKGROUND: Pigmented purpuric dermatoses (PPD) are a group of vascular disorders with varied manifestations which cause concern and are resistant to treatment. The literature is still lacking in clinicoepidemiological studies. AIM: To study the epidemiology, etiological, host and environmental factors, clinical manifestations, its variations, and the type prevalent in this part of the world. MATERIALS AND METHODS: All cases of PPD were selected for the study from Skin and Venereal Disease, Out Patient Department between January 2008 and June 2009...
January 2012: Indian Dermatology Online Journal
Monica Mazza, Laura Giusti, Anna Albanese, Melania Mariano, Maria Chiara Pino, Rita Roncone
Emotional numbness in individuals affected by posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) may be a result of the depletion of emotional capacities. The ability to process emotions in a social context is a part of social cognition, which is still an under-explored topic in PTSD. The present study investigated deficits in social cognition, such as emotion recognition and theory of mind, and their relationship to emotional numbing in 35 military police officers who were in Iraq in April 2006 during a terrorist attack in An-Nasiriyah...
July 30, 2012: Psychiatry Research
Danuta Mendelson
While in most countries suicide is no longer a crime, it is also acknowledged that the state has an interest in the preservation of human life, the prevention of suicide, and the protection of vulnerable persons from harming themselves. In a civil, secular and democratic society, however, the public law principle of state protective powers has to be balanced against the private law principle of personal autonomy (personal self-determination). Under the doctrine of autonomy, competent adults of sound mind can make legally binding voluntary choices, including the so-called "death-choice" (refusal of life-sustaining or life-prolonging treatment as well as suicide)...
May 2009: Journal of Law and Medicine
M Abondo, M Masson, M Le Gueut, B Millet
RATIONALE: Within the framework of an evaluation program for the prevention of suicide in Brittany conducted by the academic department of psychiatry (University of Rennes, Brittany, France), we have addressed the issue of the potential usefulness of psychological autopsy as a tool for the better comprehension of suicide risk factors. METHOD: We reviewed the appropriate literature in 30 articles found amongst those obtained from the "Medline" database. These articles were selected according to the quality of their methodology...
September 2008: L'Encéphale
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