Read by QxMD icon Read

Police stress

T A M Teunissen, S H Lo Fong Wong, A L M Lagro-Janssen
Sexual abuse is very common. In the Netherlands 42% of women and 13% of men aged over 25 years have experienced unacceptable sexual behaviour. Most victims do not seek professional help nor do they report the abuse to the police, and most of the victims who do seek medical help do not mention the abuse. Doctors often do not recognize the signs of sexual abuse. Most victims of rape have symptoms that may develop into posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) if they persist for more than 4 weeks, such as sleep problems or panic attacks...
2016: Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Geneeskunde
An Bao, Donn J Colby, Toan Trang, Bao Quoc Le, Thien Duc Dinh, Quan Hoang Nguyen, Huyen Thi Hoang, M Reuel Friedman, Ron Stall
HIV prevalence among transgender women (TW) in Ho Chi Minh City is estimated at 18 %. However, no evidence-based programs or surveillance data exist in Vietnam specific to HIV testing uptake. We examined prevalence and correlates of past-year HIV testing among TW (n = 204) recruited in 2015 via snowball sampling. 59.3 % reported HIV testing in the previous year. In adjusted models, factors positively associated with HIV testing included consistent condom use during sex work with male clients; STI testing in past year; sex with casual partners in the past month; and experiences of police harassment...
October 11, 2016: AIDS and Behavior
Laura Nawijn, Mirjam van Zuiden, Saskia B J Koch, Jessie L Frijling, Dick J Veltman, Miranda Olff
Therapeutic alliance and perceived social support are important predictors of treatment response for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Intranasal oxytocin administration may enhance treatment response by increasing sensitivity for social reward and thereby therapeutic alliance and perceived social support. As a first step to investigate this therapeutical potential, we investigated whether intranasal oxytocin enhances neural sensitivity to social reward in PTSD patients. Male and female police officers with (n=35) and without PTSD (n=37) were included in a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled cross-over fMRI study...
September 10, 2016: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
Aracely Tamayo, Mahasin S Mujahid, Barbara Laraia, E Margaret Warton, Samuel D Blanchard, Maggi Kelly, Howard H Moffet, Nancy Adler, Dean Schillinger, Andrew J Karter
While stress has been linked to poor health outcomes, little is known about the impact of objective measures of neighborhood crime on stress in patients with chronic disease. Using the Kaiser Permanente Diabetes Study of Northern California (DISTANCE), we examined associations between police-recorded crime (2005-2007) and stress (Perceived Stress Scale-4) in four large Northern California cities (Oakland, Sacramento, San Francisco, and San Jose). We performed stratified analysis by gender and race/ethnicity using generalized linear regression models...
October 2016: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
James E Cone, Sukhminder Osahan, Christine C Ekenga, Sara A Miller-Archie, Steven D Stellman, Monique Fairclough, Stephen M Friedman, Mark R Farfel
BACKGROUND: Although airborne respiratory irritants at the World Trade Center (WTC) site have been associated with asthma among WTC Ground Zero workers, little is known about asthma associated with work at the Staten Island landfill or barges. METHODS: To evaluate the risk of asthma first diagnosed among Staten Island landfill and barge workers, we conducted a survey and multivariable logistic regression analysis regarding the association between Staten Island landfill and barge-related work exposures and the onset of post-9/11 asthma...
September 2016: American Journal of Industrial Medicine
Tom Clemens, Chris Dibben
BACKGROUND: Patterns of adverse birth outcomes vary spatially and there is evidence that this may relate to features of the physical environment such as air pollution. However, other social characteristics of the environment such as levels of crime are relatively understudied. This study examines the association between crime rates and birth weight and prematurity. METHODS: Maternity inpatient data recorded at birth, including residential postcode, was linked to a representative 5% sample of Scottish Census data and small area crime rates from Scottish Police forces...
August 29, 2016: European Journal of Public Health
Umedjon Ibragimov, Frank Y Wong
Gay and bisexual men (GBM) in Tajikistan are an extremely stigmatised group at high risk for sexually transmitted infections and HIV. However, there is a paucity of research on how and in what way stigma affects their lives. We conducted a qualitative study to examine the impact of stigma on GBM's lives in Tajikistan, focusing on stigma enactors, settings, factors affecting vulnerability of GBM and health consequences. Eight individual in-depth interviews and 3 focus-group discussions with 13 participants (N   =   21) from GBM community were conducted in two cities of Tajikistan...
August 29, 2016: Global Public Health
Iro Fragkaki, Kathleen Thomaes, Marit Sijbrandij
BACKGROUND: Although numerous studies have investigated the neurobiology and neuroendocrinology of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after single finished trauma, studies on PTSD under ongoing threat are scarce and it is still unclear whether these individuals present similar abnormalities. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this review is to present the neurobiological and neuroendocrine findings on PTSD under ongoing threat. Ongoing threat considerably affects PTSD severity and treatment response and thus disentangling its neurobiological and neuroendocrine differences from PTSD after finished trauma could provide useful information for treatment...
2016: European Journal of Psychotraumatology
George T Patterson
Few longitudinal studies have investigated the use of coping strategies among police recruits. This study investigated perceived life and work stressors, appraisal, and coping over a seven-month police recruit academy training program. Participants were 81 police recruits who completed the Ways of Coping Questionnaire at three time points approximately three months apart. The average age of the recruits was 27.6 years (SD = 5.1, range 20-51). Separate repeated measures analyses of variance were conducted to examine coping scores...
October 2016: Psychological Reports
Eamonn Arble, Bengt B Arnetz
The work of first responders is fraught with numerous stressors, ranging from potentially traumatic critical incidents to institutional strains. The severity and pervasiveness of these difficulties prompt a necessary consideration of the coping methods employed by first responders. The present study developed an empirical model of first-responder coping strategies, based upon a nationally representative survey sample of 6240 first responders. Participants were drawn from Swedish first responders in the following occupations: coast guard, customs control, military, emergency medical services, fire department and police services...
August 8, 2016: Stress and Health: Journal of the International Society for the Investigation of Stress
Adriana Feder, Natalie Mota, Ryan Salim, Janice Rodriguez, Ritika Singh, Jamie Schaffer, Clyde B Schechter, Leo M Cancelmo, Evelyn J Bromet, Craig L Katz, Dori B Reissman, Fatih Ozbay, Roman Kotov, Michael Crane, Denise J Harrison, Robin Herbert, Stephen M Levin, Benjamin J Luft, Jacqueline M Moline, Jeanne M Stellman, Iris G Udasin, Philip J Landrigan, Michael J Zvolensky, Rachel Yehuda, Steven M Southwick, Robert H Pietrzak
Trajectories of disaster-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms are often heterogeneous, and associated with common and unique risk factors, yet little is known about potentially modifiable psychosocial characteristics associated with low-symptom and recovering trajectories in disaster responders. A total of 4487 rescue and recovery workers (1874 police and 2613 non-traditional responders) involved during and in the aftermath of the unprecedented World Trade Center (WTC) attacks, were assessed an average of 3, 6, 8, and 12 years post-9/11/2001...
November 2016: Journal of Psychiatric Research
Alyona Mazhnaya, Martha J Bojko, Ruthanne Marcus, Sergii Filippovych, Zahedsul Islam, Sergey Dvoriak, Frederick L Altice
AIMS: To understand how perceived law enforcement policies and practices contribute to the low rates of utilization of opioid agonist therapies (OAT) among people who inject drugs (PWIDs) in Ukraine. METHODS: Qualitative data from 25 focus groups (FGs) with 199 opioid-dependent PWIDs in Ukraine examined domains related to lived or learned experiences with OAT, police, arrest, incarceration, and criminal activity were analyzed using grounded theory principles. FINDINGS: Most participants were male (66%), in their late 30s, and previously incarcerated (85%) mainly for drug-related activities...
2016: Drugs: Education, Prevention, and Policy
Christianne A I van der Meer, Anne Bakker, Annika S Smit, Susanne van Buschbach, Melissa den Dekker, Gré J Westerveld, Renée C Hutter, Berthold P R Gersons, Miranda Olff
Little is known about how age and gender are associated with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and traumatic experiences in treatment-seeking police offers. In this study, we examined 967 diagnostic files of police officers seeking treatment for PTSD. Six hundred twelve (63%) of the referred police officers were diagnosed with PTSD (n = 560) or partial PTSD (n = 52). Police officers reported on average 19.5 different types of traumatic events (range 1-43). Those who experienced a greater variety of traumatic events suffered from more PTSD symptoms...
July 19, 2016: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
Zhuxi Yao, Yi Yuan, Tony W Buchanan, Kan Zhang, Liang Zhang, Jianhui Wu
High-stress jobs require both appropriate physiological regulation and behavioral adjustment to meet the demands of emergencies. Here, we investigated the relationship between the autonomic stress response and behavioral adjustment after errors in special police cadets. Sixty-eight healthy male special police cadets were randomly assigned to perform a first-time walk on an aerial rope bridge to induce stress responses or a walk on a cushion on the ground serving as a control condition. Subsequently, the participants completed a Go/No-go task to assess behavioral adjustment after false alarm responses...
2016: PloS One
Braden Everding, Justus E Hallam, Marian L Kohut, Duck-Chul Lee, Amanda A Anderson, Warren D Franke
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to determine whether sleep quality is associated with an increased risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) or worsened mental health. METHODS: Self-reported sleep quality, 35 inflammatory factors, CVD risk factors, personal stress, police operational and organizational stress, social support, depressive symptoms, and health-related quality of life were compared among a cohort of officers. RESULTS: Of 379 officers, 39% and 27% had poor and borderline sleep quality...
August 2016: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
Sandra L Ramey, Yelena Perkhounkova, Maria Hein, Sophia Chung, Warren D Franke, Amanda A Anderson
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to examine a resilience training intervention that impacts autonomic responses to stress and improves cardiovascular risk, psychological, and physiological outcomes in police. METHODS: Officers [(n = 38) 22 to 54 years] modified emotional and physical responses to stress using self-regulation. Measurements include psychological and physiological measures [eg, heart rate variability (HRV), blood pressure, C-reactive protein)] obtained at three time intervals...
August 2016: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
Shuhei Izawa, Akizumi Tsutsumi, Namiko Ogawa
PURPOSE: Accumulating evidence shows that effort-reward imbalance (ERI) at work can cause various health problems. However, few studies have investigated the biological pathways linking ERI and health outcomes, and their findings have been inconsistent. In this study, we investigated the associations between ERI, the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis, and inflammation in a sample of police officers. METHODS: One hundred forty-two male police officers that were engaged in a working system of 24-h shifts were followed up during the work shift as well as during the two subsequent work-free days...
October 2016: International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health
Ralf Schwarzer, James E Cone, Jiehui Li, Rosemarie M Bowler
BACKGROUND: Exposure to the terrorist attack on the World Trade Center (WTC) on 9/11/2001 resulted in continuing stress experience manifested as Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) Symptoms in a minority of the police responders. The WTC Health Registry has followed up a large number of individuals, including police officers, at three waves of data collection from 2003 to 2011. This analysis examines the relationship between initial exposure levels, long-term PTSD symptoms, and subsequent emotional support among police responders...
2016: BMC Psychiatry
Majid Pourshaikhian, Davood Khorasani-Zavareh, Hassan Abolghasem Gorji, Aidin Aryankhesal, Ahmad Barati
BACKGROUND: Workplace Violence (WPV) is an undesirable social phenomenon that threatens patients and staff safety and work environments. Despite the high prevalence of WPV and its serious consequences, limited studies have been conducted on its roots and formation in pre-hospital emergency. The aim of this study was to explore and explain the process of workplace violence against emergency medical service personnel. METHODS: This qualitative study was performed using grounded theory approach in 2015...
2016: Global Journal of Health Science
Marie Reilly, Jason Fogler, Ellen Selkie, Marilyn Augustyn
Sarah is a 13-year-old eighth grader who was recently diagnosed for the first time with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)-inattentive type, and the family elected to treat her with behavioral interventions to help her organization and attention. She had struggled with distractibility and disorganization since the fourth grade. At home, Sarah's mother described her as "spacey" and unable to complete the morning routine without constant supervision. Over time, her mother observed that it seemed as if Sarah had given up on school...
July 2016: Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics: JDBP
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"