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Police stress

Stephanie Vandentorren, Philippe Pirard, Alice Sanna, Lyderic Aubert, Yvon Motreff, Nicolas Dantchev, Sophie Lesieur, Pierre Chauvin, Thierry Baubet
BACKGROUND: Terrorist attacks occurred in Paris in January 2015. Aims To assess the mental health impact and the access to psychomedical care of people exposed to the attacks. METHOD: We implemented an open-cohort design 6 and 18 months after the attacks. Exposed civilians and rescue workers were included according to the exposure criteria A for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in DSM-5. A face-to-face questionnaire conducted by trained psychologists was used to collect sociodemographic characteristics, exposure level, scores on psychometric scales, an international neuropsychiatric interview and access to care...
April 2018: British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science
John M Violanti, Desta Fekedulegn, Ja Kook Gu, Penelope Allison, Anna Mnatsakanova, Cathy Tinney-Zara, Michael E Andrew
PURPOSE: We hypothesized that effort-reward imbalance (ERI) is associated with an atypical cortisol response. ERI has been associated with higher job stress. Stress triggers cortisol secretion via the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, and significant deviation from a typical cortisol pattern can indicate HPA axis dysfunction. METHODS: 176 police officers participated from the Buffalo Cardio-Metabolic Occupational Police Stress (BCOPS) Study. ERI was the exposure variable...
March 7, 2018: International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health
Gilava Hedayati Emam, Hossein Alimohammadi, Akram Zolfaghari Sadrabad, Hamidreza Hatamabadi
Introduction: Due to the stressful nature of emergency Department (ED), residents in ED are at risk of violence from patients or their associates. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of workplace violence against ED residents and the reasons for not reporting them. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on ED residents of three educational hospitals, Tehran, Iran, during 2015. The national questionnaire about workplace violence was used for data gathering...
2018: Emergency (Tehran, Iran)
Aline Steinmetz, Luiza Steffens, Ana Moira Morás, Flávia Prezzi, Elizandra Braganhol, Jenifer Saffi, Rafael Scorsatto Ortiz, Helena M T Barros, Dinara Jaqueline Moura
Cocaine is one of the most popular illicit drug worldwide. Due its great addictive potential, which leads to euphoria and hyperactivity, it is considered a public health concern. At the central nervous system, the drug acts inhibiting catecholamine re-uptake. It is now known that in addition to the toxicity of the drug itself, the contaminants present in the street drug have raised concern about the harmful effects on health. Toxicological in vivo and in vitro studies have demonstrated the toxic effects of cocaine correlated with the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which in turn lead to oxidative damage to the cells...
February 20, 2018: Chemico-biological Interactions
Minkyung Han, Sohee Park, Jong Heon Park, Seung-Sik Hwang, Inah Kim
OBJECTIVES: The work of public officers involves repeated and long-term exposure to heavy workloads, high job strain and workplace violence, all of which negatively impact physical and mental health. This study aimed to evaluate and compare the incidences of diseases among different categories of public officers in Korea, in order to further understand the health risks associated with these occupations. DESIGN: A cohort study using the National Health Insurance data...
January 31, 2018: BMJ Open
Izabela M Krzyzewska, Judith B M Ensink, Laura Nawijn, Adri N Mul, Saskia B Koch, Andrea Venema, Vinod Shankar, Jessie L Frijling, Dirk J Veltman, Ramon J L Lindauer, Miranda Olff, Marcel M A M Mannens, Mirjam van Zuiden, Peter Henneman
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a debilitating psychiatric disorder that may develop after a traumatic event. Here we aimed to identify epigenetic and genetic loci associated with PTSD. We included 73 traumatized police officers with extreme phenotypes regarding symptom severity despite similar trauma history: n = 34 had PTSD and n = 39 had minimal PTSD symptoms. Epigenetic and genetic profiles were based on the Illumina HumanMethylation450 BeadChip. We searched for differentially methylated probes (DMPs) and differentially methylated regions (DMRs)...
January 23, 2018: European Journal of Human Genetics: EJHG
N Magnavita, I Capitanelli, S Garbarino, E Pira
PURPOSE: Several studies suggest that work-related stress in police officers may be associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular diseases. A systematic review of studies is, however, still lacking. METHOD: According to PRISMA statement, a systematic search of PubMed, ISI Web of Science, Cinahl and PsychInfo electronic databases was undertaken. Studies published in English between 1/1/2000 and 31/12/2016 were included. A studies quality assessment was performed using the Newcastle Ottawa scale (NOS)...
January 17, 2018: International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health
U Wesemann, P Zimmermann, M Mahnke, O Butler, S Polk, G Willmund
Background: Terrorist attacks induce various responses in emergency responders. Addressing this range of responses in individual workers is of central interest. Aims: To assess the gender- and occupation-specific effects of a terrorist attack, particularly in emergency responders. Methods: This was a pilot study. Emergency responders present during the 2016 terrorist attack at Breitscheidplatz in Berlin were asked to participate. Measures for crisis management had been previously implemented...
December 22, 2017: Occupational Medicine
Stephanie L Mayne, Lindsay R Pool, William A Grobman, Kiarri N Kershaw
BACKGROUND: Adverse pregnancy outcomes are associated with higher cardiovascular disease risk among mothers and future health problems of offspring. Neighbourhood crime may contribute to adverse pregnancy outcomes by increasing chronic stress, yet the association has been relatively understudied. METHODS: Electronic health records from 34 383 singleton births at a single hospital in Chicago (2009-2013) were geocoded and linked to 1-year rates of police-recorded crime at the neighbourhood (Chicago community area) level...
March 2018: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
Allison Cheng, Rita Manfredi, Gia Badolato, Monika Goyal
OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to describe coping mechanisms used by adolescents during emergency treatment. METHODS: A convenience sample of adolescent patients (aged 12-18 years) was surveyed in our large (87,000 annual visits) urban academic pediatric emergency department (ED) with an adapted Adolescent Coping Orientation for Problem Experiences survey. Parents were surveyed about their perceptions of their child's coping mechanisms. Participants were excluded if they were non-English speaking, in police custody, had altered mental status, or were hemodynamically unstable...
January 2, 2018: Pediatric Emergency Care
Egbert Zavala
This study analyzed data from the Police Stress and Domestic Violence in Police Families in Baltimore, Maryland, 1997-1999 ( N = 753) to examine propositions derived from target congruence theory in the context of intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization experienced by police officers. Specifically, this study tested the influence of target vulnerability, target gratifiability, and target antagonism on IPV victimization. Results from logistic regression models showed that all three theoretical constructs positively and significantly predicted IPV victimization...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
Tobias Weiss, Hannah Schneider, Manuela Silginer, Alexander Steinle, Martin N Pruschy, Bojan Polic, Michael Weller, Patrick Roth
PURPOSE: NKG2D is a potent activating immune cell receptor and glioma cells express the cognate ligands (NKG2DL). These ligands are inducible by cellular stress and temozolomide (TMZ) or irradiation (IR), the standard treatment of glioblastoma, could affect their expression. However, a role of NKG2DL for the efficacy of TMZ and IR has never been addressed. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We assessed the effect of TMZ and IR on NKG2DL in vitro and in vivo in a variety of murine and human glioblastoma models including glioma-initiating cells and a cohort of paired glioblastoma samples from patients before and after therapy...
November 21, 2017: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
Freya MacMillan, Diana Karamacoska, Aymen El Masri, Kate A McBride, Genevieve Z Steiner, Amelia Cook, Gregory S Kolt, Nerida Klupp, Emma S George
To systematically review studies of health promotion intervention in the police force. Four databases were searched for articles reporting on prepost single and multigroup studies in police officers and trainees. Data were extracted and bias assessed to evaluate study characteristics, intervention design and the impact of interventions on health. Database searching identified 25 articles reporting on 21 studies relevant to the aims of this review. Few studies (n=3) were of long duration (≥6 months). Nine of 21 studies evaluated structured physical activity and/or diet programmes only, 5 studies used education and behaviour change support-only interventions, 5 combined structured programmes with education and behaviour change support, and 2 studies used computer prompts to minimise sedentary behaviour...
December 2017: Occupational and Environmental Medicine
Sarah E Golding, Claire Horsfield, Annette Davies, Bernadette Egan, Martyn Jones, Mary Raleigh, Patricia Schofield, Allison Squires, Kath Start, Tom Quinn, Mark Cropley
BACKGROUND: The study objective was to investigate and synthesize available evidence relating to the psychological health of Emergency Dispatch Centre (EDC) operatives, and to identify key stressors experienced by EDC operatives. METHODS: Eight electronic databases (Embase, PubMed, Medline, CINAHL, PsycInfo, PsycArticles, The Psychology and Behavioural Sciences Collection, and Google Scholar) were searched. All study designs were included, and no date limits were set...
2017: PeerJ
Aileen O'Brien, Faisil Sethi, Mark Smith, Annie Bartlett
The interface between mental health services and the criminal justice system presents challenges both for professionals and patients. Both systems are stressed and inherently complex. Section 136 of the Mental Health Act is unusual being both an aspect of the Mental Health Act and a power of arrest. It has a long and controversial history related to concerns about who has been detained and how the section was applied. More recently, Section 136 has had a public profile stemming from the use of police cells as places of safety for young, mentally disturbed individuals...
October 23, 2017: Journal of Medical Ethics
Egbert Zavala
While a number of studies have attributed critical incident stressors to alcohol abuse among police officers, no study has examined the role gambling, if any, plays on problematic alcohol consumption. Therefore, data from the Police Stress and Domestic Violence in Police Families in Baltimore, Maryland, 1997-1999 are analyzed to test the influence of gambling on problematic alcohol consumption engaged by police officers. Results indicated that gambling is significant in predicting problematic alcohol consumption...
October 17, 2017: Journal of Gambling Studies
Stéphanie Habersaat, Sid Abdellaoui, Ashley M Geiger, Sébastien Urben, Jutta M Wolf
The objective of this study was to assess basal autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity as a pathway linking subjective social status to health in a high-demand work environment. It was hypothesized that officers with a lower status experienced more chronic stress (higher basal ANS activity) and that chronic stress was related to more health problems. Fifty-six male and female Swiss police officers self-reported on subjective social status (country, community, friends, police) and their health (depression, post-traumatic stress, physical symptoms) and collected 12 saliva samples over two days for basal α-amylase activation (sAA) assessment...
October 16, 2017: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
Takashi Yamauchi, Toru Yoshikawa, Takeshi Sasaki, Shun Matsumoto, Masaya Takahashi, Machi Suka, Hiroyuki Yanagisawa
In Japan, overwork-related disorders occur among local public employees as well as those in private businesses. However, to date, there are no studies reporting the state of compensation for cerebrovascular/cardiovascular diseases (CCVD) and mental disorders due to overwork or work-related stress among local public employees in Japan over multiple years. This report examined the recent trend of overwork-related CCVD and mental disorders, including the incidence rates of these disorders, among local public employees in Japan from the perspective of compensation for public accidents, using data from the Japanese Government and relevant organizations...
October 11, 2017: Industrial Health
P Duff, J Sou, J Chapman, S Dobrer, M Braschel, S Goldenberg, K Shannon
Background: While sex work is often considered the world's oldest profession, there remains a dearth of research on work stress among sex workers (SWs) in occupational health epidemiological literature. A better understanding of the drivers of work stress among SWs is needed to inform sex work policy, workplace models and standards. Aims: To examine the factors that influence work stress among SWs in Metro Vancouver. Methods: Analyses drew from a longitudinal cohort of SWs, known as An Evaluation of Sex Workers' Health Access (AESHA) (2010-14)...
August 23, 2017: Occupational Medicine
Elizabeth Brondolo, Pegah Eftekharzadeh, Christine Clifton, Joseph E Schwartz, Douglas Delahanty
OBJECTIVE: First-responder employees, including firefighters, police, and medical examiners, are at risk for the development of depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) as a result of exposure to workplace trauma. However, pathways linking workplace trauma exposure to mental health symptoms are not well understood. In the context of social-cognitive models of depression/PTSD, we examined the role of negative cognitions as mediators of the cross-sectional and longitudinal relationship of workplace trauma exposure to symptoms of depression/PTSD in medical examiner (ME) employees...
October 5, 2017: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
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