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Medullary thyroid carcinoma

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323074/small-cell-medullary-thyroid-carcinoma-a-diagnostic-dilemma
#1
Anuj Verma, Shubhada Kane, Sushant Vinarkar, Anil K D'Cruz
Small cell variant of medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) is a rare variant. In the past, primary thyroid lymphomas were thought to be small cell MTC (SCMTC). However, with the advent of immunohistochemistry, it was realized that SCMTC is rare. Our patient presented with neck mass for 1 year with an outside laboratory report of neoplastic lesion. His serum calcitonin levels were normal, but serum carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) levels were high. He underwent total thyroidectomy and was diagnosed to have small cell variant of MTC...
October 2017: Indian Journal of Pathology & Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29291203/do-you-want-to-participate-in-a-clinical-study-as-a-healthy-control-risk-or-benefit
#2
Hanna Giessen, Christian A Nebiker, Matthias Bruehlmeier, Stefan Spreitzer, Beat Mueller, Philipp Schuetz
A healthy woman volunteered to participate as "healthy control" in a study. An increased level of procalcitonin (PCT) was detected and remained elevated on follow-up measurements. As calcitonin levels were elevated as well, thyroid ultrasound was performed which revealed nodes in both thyroid lobes, one of them showing metabolic activity in positron emission tomography-computed tomography scan. To exclude a malignant thyroid cancer despite the negative findings in a fine needle aspiration the patient underwent thyroidectomy and a medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) was detected in the right lobe...
December 16, 2017: World Journal of Clinical Cases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29286973/a-collision-tumor-involving-a-primary-leiomyosarcoma-of-the-lower-extremity-and-a-metastatic-medullary-thyroid-carcinoma-a-case-report
#3
Daniel C Austin, Jim S Wu, Dimitrios Spentzos, Jeffrey D Goldsmith, Megan E Anderson
CASE: A 49-year-old man presented with a rapidly growing thigh mass. Histologic analyses demonstrated separate regions that were consistent with a collision tumor composed of a primary leiomyosarcoma and a metastatic medullary thyroid carcinoma. After responding to chemotherapy, the patient underwent resection of the tumor and a total thyroidectomy; he was disease-free 9 years after the diagnosis. CONCLUSION: A wide diagnostic differential and thorough histologic analysis are necessary in patients presenting with neoplasms of the extremities...
October 2017: JBJS Case Connector
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284496/high-cea-levels-in-a-case-of-resected-colorectal-cancer-delayed-diagnosis-of-metachronous-medullary-thyroid-cancer
#4
Shih-Wei Chen, Yen-Kung Chen
BACKGROUND: Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) is one of the most widely used tumor markers, and its value in the surveillance of post-operative colorectal cancer is well established. Fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) has been clinically used in colorectal cancer imaging including preoperative staging, evaluation of therapeutic response, detection of disease recurrence, and investigation of unexplained rising tumor markers. CASE PRESENTATION: We report a case of resected colorectal cancer presented with rising CEA levels in 5 years, and FDG-PET revealed no definitive evidence of recurrence except abnormal focal FDG uptake in the right thyroid lobe...
December 29, 2017: World Journal of Surgical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284153/role-of-ret-protein-tyrosine-kinase-inhibitors-in-the-treatment-ret-driven-thyroid-and-lung-cancers
#5
REVIEW
Robert Roskoski, Abdollah Sadeghi-Nejad
RET is a transmembrane receptor protein-tyrosine kinase that is required for the development of the nervous system and several other tissues. The mechanism of activation of RET by its glial-cell derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) ligands differs from that of all other receptor protein-tyrosine kinases owing to the requirement for additional GDNF family receptor-α (GFRα) co-receptors (GFRα1/2/3/4). RET point mutations have been reported in multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN2A, MEN2B) and medullary thyroid carcinoma...
December 25, 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283440/cabozantinib-a-multi-targeted-oral-tyrosine-kinase-inhibitor
#6
Jordan N Markowitz, Karen M Fancher
Cabozantinib is an oral, small-molecule, multitargeted tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) that may confer an advantage over other TKIs that target a single receptor. It has been approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of both advanced renal cell carcinoma and progressive metastatic medullary thyroid cancer, and is being investigated for a wide array of other malignancies. Rationale for use, clinical trial data, and current recommendations for cabozantinib in renal cell cancer, thyroid cancer, prostate cancer, hepatocellular cancer, and lung cancer are detailed in this article...
December 28, 2017: Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29281951/gene-fusions-in-thyroid-cancer
#7
Valentina D Yakushina, Larisa V Lerner, Alexander V Lavrov
Gene fusions are known in many cancers as driver or passenger mutations. They play an important role in both etiology and pathogenesis of cancer and are considered as potential diagnostic and prognostic markers and possible therapeutic targets. Spectrum and prevalence of gene fusions in thyroid cancer ranges from single cases up to 80% depending on specific type of cancer. During last three years massive parallel sequencing technologies revealed new fusions and allowed detailed characteristics of fusions in different types of thyroid cancer...
December 27, 2017: Thyroid: Official Journal of the American Thyroid Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29279300/no-evidence-of-increase-in-calcitonin-concentrations-or-development-of-c-cell-malignancy-in-response-to-liraglutide-for-up-to-5-years-in-the-leader-trial
#8
Laszlo Hegedüs, Steven I Sherman, R Michael Tuttle, Bernt J von Scholten, Søren Rasmussen, Julie D Karsbøl, Gilbert H Daniels
OBJECTIVE: To describe the changes in serum levels of calcitonin in liraglutide- and placebo-treated patients in the Liraglutide Effect and Action in Diabetes: Evaluation of Cardiovascular Outcome Results (LEADER) trial over a 3.5-5-year period. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Patients (n = 9,340) with type 2 diabetes and high risk for cardiovascular events were randomized 1:1 to liraglutide or placebo. We analyzed calcitonin levels throughout the trial, and thyroid and C-cell adverse events and neoplasms...
December 26, 2017: Diabetes Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29261627/incidental-detection-of-medullary-thyroid-carcinoma-by-68ga-dotatate-pet-ct-in-a-patient-with-neuroendocrine-tumor-liver-metastases
#9
Sonia Mahajan, Ashok Shaha, Ravinder K Grewal
Ga-DOTATATE, a positron-emitting somatostatin analog, has been approved by the Food and Drug Administration for imaging neuroendocrine tumors (NETs). The presence of a second primary malignancy is common in NETs; however, synchronous primary malignancy in the thyroid has rarely been reported. The value of Ga-DOTATATE in medullary thyroid cancer is being investigated and is currently recommended for use when treatment with somatostatin analogs is an option. We present a 55-year-old man with abdominal pain associated with well-differentiated NET liver metastases and incidental medullary thyroid carcinoma demonstrated on a Ga-DOTATATE PET/CT...
December 19, 2017: Clinical Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29260252/-functional-diagnostics-in-endocrinology
#10
REVIEW
C J Auernhammer, M Reincke
When investigating many endocrinological diseases, basal laboratory parameters are not sufficient to distinguish between physiological and pathological hormone secretion. Functional diagnostics plays a decisive role in this context. Stimulation and suppression tests are used depending on whether under- or over-function needs to be diagnosed. This review article discusses selected functional tests, each of which plays an important role in current guidelines. Indications and test principles, including their performance, reliability, and limitations, are discussed...
December 19, 2017: Der Internist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29259627/mediastinal-lymph-node-metastases-in-thyroid-cancer-characteristics-predictive-factors-and-prognosis
#11
Ting-Ting Zhang, Ning Qu, Jia-Qian Hu, Rong-Liang Shi, Duo Wen, Guo-Hua Sun, Qing-Hai Ji
Background: Mediastinal lymph node metastases (MLNM) have not been extensively studied. The aim of this study is to investigate the characteristics, predictive factors, and prognosis of MLNM in thyroid cancer. Methods: This is a retrospective study based on the thyroid cancer patients with MLNM at our institution from 2008 to 2015. Results: In total, 73 thyroid cancer patients with positive MLNM were included in this study. It contained sixty patients (82...
2017: International Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29250686/ovarian-strumal-carcinoid-case-report
#12
Delia Gabriela Ciobanu Apostol, Tudor Andrei BuŢureanu, Demetra Gabriela Socolov, Daniela Claudia Scripcaru, Oana LuminiŢa Rosin, Ludmila Lozneanu
Strumal carcinoid represents a rare form of ovarian teratoma, consisting of both thyroid tissue and carcinoid structures. The carcinoid component is a well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumor with excellent prognosis. Strumal carcinoid tumors are commonly found in peri-menopausal women who are not usually interested in preserving their fertility and who are thus open to radical surgical treatment. In this report, we present a 24-year-old, nulliparous patient with strumal carcinoid, confirmed by histopathology and a large panel of immunohistochemistry (IHC) markers, who wished to preserve her fertility...
2017: Romanian Journal of Morphology and Embryology, Revue Roumaine de Morphologie et Embryologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239042/special-types-of-thyroid-carcinoma
#13
REVIEW
Zubair W Baloch, Virginia A LiVolsi
This article reviews the small percentage of thyroid tumours that are not classified as classic papillary thyroid carcinoma, follicular thyroid carcinoma, and medullary thyroid carcinoma. It includes subtypes of papillary thyroid carcinoma, including, tall-cell, hobnail/micropapillary, columnar cell, diffuse sclerosing and solid variants. Poorly differentiated carcinoma, high-grade carcinoma and anaplastic thyroid carcinoma are reviewed. Also discussed are entities that are unusual but need to be recognized as primary thyroid neoplasms, i...
January 2018: Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239041/hereditary-and-familial-thyroid-tumours
#14
REVIEW
Julie Guilmette, Vania Nosé
The worldwide incidence of thyroid malignancies has been increasing rapidly. Sensitive imaging modalities and early detection of thyroid lesions have made thyroid cancers the most rapidly increasing cancers in the USA in 2017 (SEER Cancer Facts, 2017). Clinical awareness of potential risk factors, such as inherited thyroid cancers, has allowed earlier recognition of more vulnerable population clusters. Hereditary thyroid neoplasms arising from calcitonin-producing C cells are known as familial medullary thyroid carcinomas (FMTCs), and include well-documented syndromes such as multiple endocrine neoplasia IIA or IIB, and pure familial medullary thyroid carcinoma syndrome...
January 2018: Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237502/initial-clinical-presentation-of-single-soft-tissue-metastasis-of-medullary-thyroid-carcinoma-without-primary-tumor-in-the-thyroid-gland
#15
Masanori Okamoto, Akira Takazawa, Kaoru Aoki, Yasuo Yoshimura, Hiroyuki Kato, Toshiaki Otsuki, Kazuma Maeno, Tomonobu Koizumi
BACKGROUND: Single soft tissue metastasis of medullary thyroid carcinoma is extremely rare. In addition, several occult medullary thyroid carcinomas with distant metastasis were reported, but undetectable primary lesion at diagnosis was also extremely rare. CASE PRESENTATION: A 74-year-old man was admitted to our hospital because of a painful nodule in his left buttock for over 1 year. Needle biopsy was performed, and the histological findings revealed adenocarcinoma positive for thyroid transcription factor-1...
December 13, 2017: World Journal of Surgical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234625/insight-into-differentiated-thyroid-cancer-gross-pathological-specimen-shrinkage-and-its-influence-on-tnm-staging
#16
Alexis Lacout, Emmanuel Chamorey, Juliette Thariat, Mostafa El Hajjam, Carole Chevenet, Renaud Schiappa, Pierre Yves Marcy
Introduction: This study aimed at comparing thyroid cancer staging when taking into account the differences between the "T" assessment" using ultrasound (US) and histopathological measurements. Material and Methods: This retrospective study included all consecutive differentiated follicular thyroid cancer (DTC) and medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) patients who underwent postoperative histopathological staging assessment at a single institution. Anaplastic thyroid carcinomas were excluded from the present study...
November 2017: European Thyroid Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218595/quantitative-testing-of-prescriber-knowledge-regarding-the-risks-and-safe-use-of-albiglutide
#17
Carol Koro, Janet Pientka, Veronica Bainbridge, Natalie O'Donnell, Monika Stender, Annette Stemhagen
BACKGROUND: The risk of pancreatitis and potential risk of medullary thyroid carcinoma associated with glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists prompted the US Food and Drug Administration to require a Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategy for albiglutide, including education for prescribers and subsequent assessment of their knowledge of the risks and safe use of albiglutide via a quantitative survey. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to assess prescribers' knowledge of the risks related to medullary thyroid carcinoma, pancreatitis, and the appropriate patient population for albiglutide...
December 7, 2017: Drugs—Real World Outcomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29200250/intraoperative-calcitonin-stimulation-testing-in-the-surgical-treatment-of-c-cell-disease
#18
(no author information available yet)
OBJECTIVE: The prognosis of medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC), derived from parafollicular C-cells, depends on the completeness of the initial surgical excision. The C-cells produce calcitonin, a peptide hormone used as a biochemical and immunohistochemical tumor marker. The aim of the study was to evaluate an individualized approach to patients with C-cell disease, i.e. MTC and C-cell hyperplasia (CCH), using the intraoperative calcitonin testing-assisted surgical strategy as a predictor of the final outcome...
November 4, 2017: Neuro Endocrinology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187393/outcomes-of-children-and-adolescents-with-advanced-hereditary-medullary-thyroid-carcinoma-treated-with-vandetanib
#19
Ira Lignugaris Kraft, Srivandana Akshintala, Yuelin J Zhu, Haiyan Lei, Claudia Derse-Anthony, Eva Dombi, Seth M Steinberg, Maya Lodish, Steven Waguespack, Oxana Kapustina, Elizabeth Fox, Frank M Balis, Maria J Merino, Paul S Meltzer, John Glod, Jack F Shern, Brigitte C Widemann
PURPOSE: Vandetanib is well-tolerated in patients with advanced medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC). Long-term outcomes and mechanisms of MTC progression have not been reported previously.  Experimental Design:We monitored toxicities and disease status in patients taking vandetanib for hereditary, advanced MTC. Tumor samples were analyzed for molecular mechanisms of disease progression. RESULTS: Seventeen patients (8 male, age 13 (9-17)* years) enrolled; 16 had a RET p...
November 29, 2017: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29169281/pitfalls-of-frozen-section-diagnosis-for-paraganglioma-a-clinicopathologic-analysis-and-review-of-the-literature
#20
Bomi Kim, Youngeun Yoo, Junghye Lee, Sanghui Park, Min-Sun Cho, Sun Hee Sung, Ghee Young Kwon
Few paraganglioma (PG) cases include frozen section diagnoses, and therefore, the accuracy of frozen section diagnosis for PG remains unknown. To better understand the histologic characteristics and pitfalls of frozen section findings for PG, 15 PG cases with frozen section diagnoses were selected from 12 articles through PubMed (1984-2015). In addition, we included 3 cases of PG for which intraoperative consultations were requested during a 5-year period (2012-2016) in 2 hospitals. Seven PGs were from the thyroid; 2 from the pancreas; 4 from the mediastinum, retroperitoneum, or mesentery; 1 from the middle ear; and 4 from the urinary bladder (UB)...
November 1, 2017: International Journal of Surgical Pathology
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