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Non-Suicidal Self-Injury in Adults

Katie Dhingra, Parveen Ali
Non-suicidal self-injury is a common behaviour in adolescents and young adults, and may be associated with mental health disorders, risk of suicidal behaviour (ideation and attempts), and a need for clinical services. Nurses, in particular those working in emergency departments and mental health settings, have a crucial role in the assessment, treatment and care of individuals who have self-injured. It is essential for nurses to assess an individual's risk of more serious harm or accidental death, regardless of intent...
September 28, 2016: Nursing Standard
Alexandra Gómez-Expósito, Ines Wolz, Ana B Fagundo, Roser Granero, Trevor Steward, Susana Jiménez-Murcia, Zaida Agüera, Fernando Fernández-Aranda
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine the implication of personality, impulsivity, and emotion regulation difficulties in patients with a bulimic-spectrum disorder (BSD) and suicide attempts (SA), BSD patients with non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI), and BSD patients without these behaviors. METHOD: One hundred and twenty-two female adult BSD patients were assessed using self-report questionnaires. Patients were clustered post-hoc into three groups depending on whether they presented BSD without NSSI or SA (BSD), BSD with lifetime NSSI (BSD + NSSI) or BSD with lifetime SA (BSD + SA)...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Dominique F Maciejewski, Miguel E Renteria, Abdel Abdellaoui, Sarah E Medland, Lauren R Few, Scott D Gordon, Pamela A F Madden, Grant Montgomery, Timothy J Trull, Andrew C Heath, Dixie J Statham, Nicholas G Martin, Brendan P Zietsch, Karin J H Verweij
Non-suicidal and suicidal self-injury are very destructive, yet surprisingly common behaviours. Depressed mood is a major risk factor for non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI), suicidal ideation and suicide attempts. We conducted a genetic risk prediction study to examine the polygenic overlap of depressive symptoms with lifetime NSSI, suicidal ideation, and suicide attempts in a sample of 6237 Australian adult twins and their family members (3740 females, mean age = 42.4 years). Polygenic risk scores for depressive symptoms significantly predicted suicidal ideation, and some predictive ability was found for suicide attempts; the polygenic risk scores explained a significant amount of variance in suicidal ideation (lowest p = 0...
September 2, 2016: Behavior Genetics
Hayley Chartrand, Huntae Kim, Jitender Sareen, Minoo Mahmoudi, James M Bolton
BACKGROUND: Non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) in DSM-5 Section 3 is restricted to damaging the skin, while self-poisoning is not considered NSSI even if there was no suicidal intent. The objective of this study was to compare correlates of people who self-cut and those who self-poison without suicidal intent, to determine whether people who harm themselves by cutting are a distinct subgroup. METHODS: There were 12,435 presentations to adult psychiatric services in the emergency departments of tertiary care hospitals in Manitoba between January 2009 and December 2013...
November 15, 2016: Journal of Affective Disorders
Keith Hawton, Katrina G Witt, Tatiana L Taylor Salisbury, Ella Arensman, David Gunnell, Philip Hazell, Ellen Townsend, Kees van Heeringen
BACKGROUND: Self-harm (intentional acts of non-fatal self-poisoning or self-injury) is common, particularly in young adults aged 15-35 years, often repeated, and strongly associated with suicide. Effective aftercare of individuals who self-harm is therefore important. We have undertaken a Cochrane systematic review and meta-analysis of the effectiveness of psychosocial interventions for self-harm in adults. METHODS: We searched five electronic databases (CCDANCTR-Studies and References, CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, and PsycINFO) between Jan 1, 1998, and April 29, 2015, for randomised controlled trials of psychosocial interventions for adults after a recent (within 6 months) episode of self-harm...
August 2016: Lancet Psychiatry
Brenna B Maddox, Andrea Trubanova, Susan W White
Recent studies have examined non-suicidal self-injury in community and clinical samples, but there is no published research on non-suicidal self-injury in individuals with autism spectrum disorder. This lack of research is surprising, since individuals with autism spectrum disorder have high rates of risk factors for non-suicidal self-injury, including depression and poor emotion regulation skills. Using an online survey, we examined non-suicidal self-injury methods, frequency, severity, functions, and initial motivations in adults with autism spectrum disorder (n = 42)...
May 12, 2016: Autism: the International Journal of Research and Practice
Erik M Benau, Abigail L Jenkins, Bradley T Conner
Being non-heterosexual, particularly bisexual, is associated with high rates of engagement in NSSI amongst young adults. The goal of the present study was to determine if parenting practices, specifically parental monitoring, and sexual orientation moderate engagement with NSSI. Undergraduates (N = 1353) completed a survey on sexual orientation, non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) acts, and multiple aspects of perceived parental monitoring during high school. Moderation analyses revealed that most facets of parental monitoring were similarly negatively correlated with NSSI for both individuals whose sexual orientation where nearly, or entirely, gay and heterosexual youth...
May 2, 2016: Archives of Suicide Research: Official Journal of the International Academy for Suicide Research
Raffaella Calati, Philippe Courtet
OBJECTIVE: To determine the efficacy of psychotherapy interventions for reducing suicidal attempts (SA) and non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI). METHODS: Meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing psychotherapy interventions and treatment as usual (TAU; including also enhanced usual care, psychotropic treatment alone, cognitive remediation, short-term problem-oriented approach, supportive relationship treatment, community treatment by non-behavioral psychotherapy experts, emergency care enhanced by provider education, no treatment) for SA/NSSI...
August 2016: Journal of Psychiatric Research
Sandor Kalmar
The author lays down that non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) constitutes an increasingly more common and serious public health problem, especially during the age of adolescence. In spite of the fact that the phenomenon has been known since the beginning of human mankind even in animals, we have not been able to either give a clear explanation or prevent its spreading yet. The author reviews the conceptual disturbances, behavioural phenotypes, cultural-historical and mythological antecedents related to self-injury, just as the controversial concepts, reasons of unclearness of the concepts, and clinical classification of self-injuries, and he outlines a new categorisation/ classification of the explanation of autotelic activities aimed at the alteration of the human body...
March 2016: Neuropsychopharmacologia Hungarica
Erin F Ward-Ciesielski, Connor B Jones, Madeline D Wielgus, Chelsey R Wilks, Marsha M Linehan
BACKGROUND: Individuals who are not engaged in treatment are commonly overlooked in the design of intervention trials targeting suicidal populations as a result of recruitment methodology that requires individuals to be referred from their current provider. In fact, research suggests that the majority of individuals who die by suicide have not been in contact with mental health services in the year before their death. METHODS/DESIGN: A randomized controlled trial of two brief, one-session interventions for adults who are not engaged in mental health treatment...
2016: BMC Psychology
Abebaw Fekadu, Girmay Medhin, Medhin Selamu, Tsion Shiferaw, Maji Hailemariam, Sujit D Rathod, Mark Jordans, Solomon Teferra, Crick Lund, Erica Breuer, Martin Prince, Tedla W Giorgis, Atalay Alem, Charlotte Hanlon
BACKGROUND: Injury related to self-harm is one of the leading causes of global disease burden. As a formative work for a programme to implement comprehensive mental healthcare in a rural district in Ethiopia, we determined the 12-month prevalence of non-fatal suicidal behaviour as well as factors associated with this behaviour to understand the potential burden of the behaviour in the district. METHOD: Population-based (n = 1485) and facility-based (n = 1014) cross-sectional surveys of adults, using standardised, interview-based measures for suicidality (items on suicide from the Composite International Diagnostic Interview), depressive symptoms (the Patient Health Questionnaire) and alcohol use disorders (Alcohol Use Disorder Investigation Test; AUDIT)...
2016: BMC Psychiatry
Ettore Beghi
Epilepsy is a heterogeneous clinical condition characterized by recurrent unprovoked seizures, their causes and complications. The incidence, prevalence and mortality of epilepsy vary with age, place and time contributing to a variable extent to the burden of the disease. Diagnostic misclassification may have strong impact on personal and societal reflections of the disease in light of its clinical manifestations and the need for chronic treatment. Epilepsy accounts for a significant proportion of the world's disease burden ranking fourth after tension-type headache, migraine and Alzheimer disease...
May 2016: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
Aliona Tsypes, Robert Lane, Elise Paul, Janis Whitlock
OBJECTIVE: Despite consistently greater rates of non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) and suicidal thoughts and behaviors (STBs; i.e., suicidal ideation, method/plan, and attempts) in lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) individuals, prevalence, characteristics, and relations between these dangerous thoughts and behaviors are equivocal. The present study sought to examine and compare the rates of NSSI and STBs in a large sample of sexual minority and majority young adults. METHODS: Participants were 12,422 college students (ages 18-29; 57...
February 2016: Comprehensive Psychiatry
Brooke A Ammerman, Taylor A Burke, Lauren B Alloy, Michael S McCloskey
Non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) has been identified as a correlate and predictor of suicidal ideation and attempts. Given the high-rates of NSSI presence among adolescents and young adults, it is important to identify specific characteristics of NSSI that might place individuals who engage in this behavior at highest risk for suicidal behavior. NSSI is thought to increase the acquired capability for suicide via habituation to self-harm, though the NSSI characteristics most responsible for this relationship are unclear...
February 28, 2016: Psychiatry Research
Deborah Badoud, Patrick Luyten, Eduardo Fonseca-Pedrero, Stephan Eliez, Peter Fonagy, Martin Debbané
INTRODUCTION: The capacity to understand one's own actions and those of others in terms of cognitive and affective mental states (i.e., reflective functioning or mentalizing) is thought to play a critical role in both typical and atypical development. To date, however, no self-report tool is available for assessing reflective functioning ability in French-speaking samples. The first aim of this study is to investigate the reliability and validity of the reflective functioning questionnaire (RFQ) in French-speaking adolescents and adults...
2015: PloS One
A Ann Emery, Nancy L Heath, Devin J Mills
Non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) is a public health concern that affects young adults at alarming rates. The present study examines the role of satisfaction of self-determination theory's three basic needs for autonomy, competence, and relatedness in young adults' NSSI engagement. University students who reported ever having engaged in NSSI (n = 40, 85 % female; Mage = 20.10, SD = 1.66) reported significantly lower levels of the satisfaction of all three needs, as well as more difficulties with all aspects of emotion regulation (non-acceptance of emotional responses, difficulty engaging in goal directed behavior, impulse control, lack of emotional awareness, limited access to regulation strategies, lack of emotional clarity), compared to students with no history of NSSI (n = 46, 91 % female; Mage = 19...
March 2016: Journal of Youth and Adolescence
Sarah Swannell, Graham Martin, Andrew Page
OBJECTIVES: This study investigated associations between sexual orientation and measures of suicidality and non-suicidal self-injury in Australian adults. Previous studies of sexual orientation and suicidality have been limited by unclear conceptualisations of suicidal intent, failure to differentiate between homosexuality and bisexuality, inattention to gender differences and use of convenience-based samples. METHODS: A large (N = 10,531) representative national sample of Australian adults was used to investigate associations between sexual orientation (heterosexual, homosexual, bisexual) and (1) suicidal ideation, (2) attempted suicide and (3) non-suicidal self-injury, for males and females separately, in a series of sequentially adjusted logistic regression models...
February 2016: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry
Penelope Hasking, Clare S Rees, Graham Martin, Jessie Quigley
BACKGROUND: Non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) is associated with significant adverse consequences, including increased risk of suicide, and is a growing public health concern. Consequently, facilitating help-seeking in youth who self-injure is an important goal. Although young people who disclose their NSSI typically confide in peers and family, it is unclear how this disclosure and related variables (e.g. support from family and friends, coping behaviours, reasons for living) affect help-seeking over time...
2015: BMC Public Health
Brianna J Turner, Katherine L Dixon-Gordon, Sara B Austin, Marcus A Rodriguez, M Zachary Rosenthal, Alexander L Chapman
Although non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) occurs in people with and without borderline personality disorder (BPD), few studies have compared the clinical characteristics of these two groups. The present study sampled adults with a history of NSSI and compared those with and without BPD on (a) NSSI features, (b) co-occurring psychiatric disorders, and (c) severity of depression, suicidal ideation and emotion dysregulation. Participants (NSSI+BPD, n=46; NSSI Only, n=54) completed semi-structured interviews and self-report measures...
November 30, 2015: Psychiatry Research
Warren Bareiss
Media representations of illnesses, particularly those associated with stigma such as non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI), not only define health conditions for mass audiences, but generally do so in ways that are consistent with dominant ideologies. This article examines the construction of non-suicidal self-injury as practiced by female adolescents and young adults in four US films: Girl, Interrupted, Painful Secrets, Prozac Nation, and Thirteen. The methodology used to examine the films' narrative structure is Kenneth Burke's dramatism, while Julia Kristeva's concept of abjection informs the analysis...
August 6, 2015: Journal of Medical Humanities
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