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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727531/minimum-age-of-sale-for-tobacco-products-and-electronic-cigarettes-ethical-acceptability-of-us-tobacco-21-laws
#1
Stephanie Rubino Morain, Janet Malek
Several US jurisdictions have recently passed laws that raise the minimum age of sale for tobacco products and electronic cigarettes to 21 years (Tobacco 21 laws). Although these laws have been demonstrated to be an effective means to reduce youth smoking initiation, their passage and potential expansion have provoked controversy. Critics have objected to these laws, claiming that they unduly intrude on individual freedom and that they irrationally and paternalistically restrict the freedom of those aged 18 to 20 years, who were previously able to legally purchase tobacco products...
July 20, 2017: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725992/social-profile-of-middle-school-aged-adolescents-who-use-electronic-cigarettes-implications-for-primary-prevention
#2
Alfgeir L Kristjansson, Michael J Mann, Megan L Smith, Inga Dora Sigfusdottir
Electronic cigarette (EC) use continues to increase among adolescents. From a primary prevention point of view, an important gap in our knowledge includes determining whether young smokers that use EC maintain a distinct social profile from kids who use combustible cigarettes (CC). Survey data from middle school students in West Virginia, USA were collected between September and November of 2015 (N = 6547, response rate 84.7%) as part of a state wide school-based mental health intervention program. Data was analyzed using multinomial logistic regression for categorical data...
July 18, 2017: Prevention Science: the Official Journal of the Society for Prevention Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725876/clean-cheap-convenient-promotion-of-electronic-cigarettes-on-youtube
#3
Clara G Sears, Kandi L Walker, Joy L Hart, Alexander S Lee, Allison Siu, Courteney Smith
INTRODUCTION: Videos promoting electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) can be easily accessed on YouTube. Marketing claims present in YouTube videos may help shape the public's opinion of e-cigarettes. Thus, it is important to understand the most frequent marketing claims and video sources. METHODS: The objectives of this study were to 1) identify marketing claims in YouTube videos that are commonly made on e-cigarette retail websites and 2) compare the frequency of marketing claims in user-generated and professional YouTube videos...
April 2017: Tobacco Prevention & Cessation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721536/capsule-commentary-on-kalkhoran-et-al-patterns-of-and-reasons-for-electronic-cigarette-use-in-primary-care-patients
#4
Ellie Grossman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 18, 2017: Journal of General Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721480/intermittent-and-daily-smokers-subjective-responses-to-smoking
#5
Saul Shiffman, Lauren Terhorst
RATIONALE: One third of US smokers are intermittent smokers (ITS) who do not smoke daily. Unlike daily smokers (DS), whose smoking is negatively reinforced by withdrawal relief, ITS may be motivated by immediate positive reinforcement. In contrast, incentive salience theory posits hypothesis that "liking" of drug effects fades in established users, such as DS. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to compare ITS' and DS' hedonic responses to smoking. METHODS: Participants were 109 ITS (smoking 4-27 days/month) and 52 DS (smoking daily 5-25 cigarettes/day), aged ≥21, smoking ≥3 years, and not quitting smoking...
July 18, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720626/family-physicians-perceptions-of-electronic-cigarettes-in-tobacco-use-counseling
#6
Samuel Ofei-Dodoo, Rick Kellerman, Kari Nilsen, Ruth Nutting, Douglas Lewis
BACKGROUND: Recent support has been shown for physicians to recommend e-cigarettes to patients who are trying to quit smoking. Supporters of this recommendation argue that e-cigarettes are not combustible products and are less harmful and more effective cessation products than regular cigarettes, with less inherent risk. Those who oppose this idea argue that little reliable evidence suggests that e-cigarettes are better cigarette cessation devices than currently available nicotine replacement therapies, and that they pose as much risk as cigarettes...
July 2017: Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine: JABFM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712592/risk-factors-for-youth-e-cigarette-vape-trick-behavior
#7
Jessica K Pepper, Youn Ok Lee, Kimberly A Watson, Annice E Kim, James M Nonnemaker, Matthew C Farrelly
PURPOSE: Some adolescent users of e-cigarettes and other electronic vaping products (EVPs) report performing "vape tricks" (exhaling aerosol to make shapes). However, little is known about this behavior. We examined the frequency of performing and watching vape tricks and the characteristics of those most likely to perform vape tricks among a sample of adolescent EVP users. METHODS: We used social media ads to recruit a national convenience sample of U.S. adolescents (n = 1,729) to participate in an online survey in September 2016...
June 29, 2017: Journal of Adolescent Health: Official Publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710596/patterns-of-and-reasons-for-electronic-cigarette-use-in-primary-care-patients
#8
Sara Kalkhoran, Nicholas Alvarado, Maya Vijayaraghavan, Paula J Lum, Patrick Yuan, Jason M Satterfield
BACKGROUND: Electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use is rising in both the general and clinical populations. Little is known about e-cigarette use in primary care, where physicians report discussing e-cigarette use with patients. OBJECTIVE: Identify how and why smokers in primary care use e-cigarettes. DESIGN: Cross-sectional secondary data analysis from a randomized controlled trial of a tablet intervention to deliver the 5As for smoking cessation in primary care...
July 14, 2017: Journal of General Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709848/hydrogen-sulfide-alleviates-placental-injury-induced-by-maternal-cigarette-smoke-exposure-during-pregnancy-in-rats
#9
Fusheng Zhao, Fang Lei, Senfeng Zhang, Xiang Yan, Wen Wang, Yu Zheng
Maternal cigarette smoke exposure (CSE) during pregnancy is a well recognized causative factor for placental injury. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S), a gaseous signal molecule, has been shown to exert a protective effect against tissue injury in many organs. This study aimed to investigate whether H2S could alleviate CSE-induced placental injury in rats. Pregnant SD rats were randomly divided into 4 groups: NaCl, CSE, CSE + NaHS (a donor of H2S) and NaHS. On gestational day 21, placental weight was measured. Placental H2S content was assessed by methylene blue method...
July 11, 2017: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706340/transport-phenomena-governing-nicotine-emissions-from-electronic-cigarettes-model-formulation-and-experimental-investigation
#10
Soha Talih, Zainab Balhas, Rola Salman, Rachel El-Hage, Nareg Karaoghlanian, Ahmad El-Hellani, Mohamad Baassiri, Ezzat Jaroudi, Thomas Eissenberg, Najat Saliba, Alan Shihadeh
Electronic cigarettes (ECIGs) electrically heat and aerosolize a liquid containing propylene glycol (PG), vegetable glycerin (VG), flavorants, water, and nicotine. ECIG effects and proposed methods to regulate them are controversial. One regulatory focal point involves nicotine emissions. We describe a mathematical model that predicts ECIG nicotine emissions. The model computes the vaporization rate of individual species by numerically solving the unsteady species and energy conservation equations. To validate model predictions, yields of nicotine, total particulate matter, PG, and VG were measured while manipulating puff topography, electrical power, and liquid composition across 100 conditions...
2017: Aerosol Science and Technology: the Journal of the American Association for Aerosol Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700729/the-association-between-electronic-cigarette-use-and-self-reported-oral-symptoms-including-cracked-or-broken-teeth-and-tongue-and-or-inside-cheek-pain-among-adolescents-a-cross-sectional-study
#11
Jun Ho Cho
BACKGROUND: Little is known about oral health related to electronic-cigarette (EC) use, even though EC use is increasing rapidly. The aim of this study is to assess the relationship between EC use and oral health, including 'gingival pain and/or bleeding', 'tongue and/or inside-cheek pain', and 'cracked or broken teeth' among adolescents. METHODS: A total of 65,528 students in 2016 were included in this cross-sectional study. RESULTS: For EC use, 0...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693556/evidence-for-a-comprehensive-approach-to-aboriginal-tobacco-control-to-maintain-the-decline-in-smoking-an-overview-of-reviews-among-indigenous-peoples
#12
Catherine Chamberlain, Susan Perlen, Sue Brennan, Lucie Rychetnik, David Thomas, Raglan Maddox, Noore Alam, Emily Banks, Andrew Wilson, Sandra Eades
BACKGROUND: Tobacco smoking is a leading cause of disease and premature mortality among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander (Indigenous) Australians. While the daily smoking prevalence among Indigenous Australians has declined significantly from 49% in 2001, it remains about three times higher than that of non-Indigenous Australians (39 and 14%, respectively, for age ≥15 years in 2014-15). This overview of systematic reviews aimed to synthesise evidence about reducing tobacco consumption among Indigenous peoples using a comprehensive framework for Indigenous tobacco control in Australia comprised of the National Tobacco Strategy (NTS) and National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health Plan (NATSIHP) principles and priorities...
July 10, 2017: Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688060/community-based-study-recruitment-of-american-indian-cigarette-smokers-and-electronic-cigarette-users
#13
Dana Mowls Carroll, Lacy S Brame, Lancer D Stephens, Theodore L Wagener, Janis E Campbell, Laura A Beebe
Data on the effectiveness of strategies for the recruitment of American Indians (AIs) into research is needed. This study describes and compares methods for identifying and recruiting AI tobacco users into a pilot study. Community-based strategies were used to recruit smokers (n = 35), e-cigarette users (n = 28), and dual users (n = 32) of AI descent. Recruitment was considered proactive if study staff contacted the individual at a pow wow, health fair, or vape shop and participation on-site or reactive if the individual contacted the study staff and participation occurred later...
July 7, 2017: Journal of Community Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686988/prevalence-correlates-comorbidity-and-treatment-of-electronic-nicotine-delivery-system-use-in-the-united-states
#14
S Patricia Chou, Tulshi D Saha, Haitao Zhang, W June Ruan, Boji Huang, Bridget F Grant, Carlos Blanco, Wilson Compton
INTRODUCTION: This study presents nationally representative data on the prevalence, correlates, psychiatric comorbidity and treatment (including pharmacological and nonpharmacological) among electronic nicotine delivery system (ENDS) users. METHODS: Face-to-face interviews in the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions-III. RESULTS: Prevalences of 12-month and lifetime ENDS use were 3.8% (SE=0.14) and 5.4% (SE=0.17)...
June 24, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686840/carboxylate-counter-anions-in-electronic-cigarette-liquids-influence-on-nicotine-emissions
#15
Ahmad El Hellani, Rachel El-Hage, Rola Salman, Soha Talih, Alan Shihadeh, Najat Aoun Saliba
The wide pH range reported for electronic cigarette (ECIG) liquids indicates that nicotine may be present in one or more chemical forms. The nicotine form affects the bioavailability and delivery of nicotine from inhaled products. Protonated nicotine are normally associated with counter anions in tobacco products. The chemical and physical properties of counter anions may differently influence the nicotine form and emissions in ECIG aerosols. In this study, we examined how these anions influence nicotine emissions as well as their evaporation behavior and potential decomposition during ECIG operation...
July 7, 2017: Chemical Research in Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683797/mining-online-e-liquid-reviews-for-opinion-polarities-about-e-liquid-features
#16
Zhipeng Chen, Daniel D Zeng
BACKGROUND: In recent years, the emerging electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) marketplace has developed prosperously all over the world. By analyzing online e-liquid reviews, we seek to identify the features attracting users. METHODS: We collected e-liquid reviews from one of the largest online e-liquid review websites and extracted the e-liquid features by keywords. Then we used sentiment analysis to classify the features into two polarities: positive and negative...
July 7, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681280/elevated-nicotine-dependence-scores-among-electronic-cigarette-users-at-an-electronic-cigarette-convention
#17
Jona M Johnson, Jessica L Muilenburg, Stephen L Rathbun, Xiaozhong Yu, Luke P Naeher, Jia-Sheng Wang
Electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) conventions are trade shows held across the globe to promote e-cigarette products and provide a venue for users to socialize. E-cigarette users that attend these events likely represent the most intensive e-cigarette user group. No study has characterized addiction and behavior characteristics in this population. We surveyed 131 e-cigarette users attending a large Southeastern e-cigarette convention in Fall 2015. All questions from the Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND), select questions from the Penn State Electronic Cigarette Dependence Index, and novel user behavior questions were included...
July 5, 2017: Journal of Community Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28678400/nicotine-vapor-method-to-induce-nicotine-dependence-in-rodents
#18
Marsida Kallupi, Olivier George
Nicotine, the main addictive component of tobacco, induces potentiation of brain stimulation reward, increases locomotor activity, and induces conditioned place preference. Nicotine cessation produces a withdrawal syndrome that can be relieved by nicotine replacement therapy. In the last decade, the market for electronic cigarettes has flourished, especially among adolescents. The nicotine vaporizer or electronic nicotine delivery system is a battery-operated device that allows the user to simulate the experience of tobacco smoking without inhaling smoke...
July 5, 2017: Current Protocols in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676036/tobacco-use-among-kyrgyzstan-medical-students-an-11-year-follow-up-cross-sectional-study
#19
Nurlan Brimkulov, Denis Vinnikov, Zhamilia Dzhilkiadarova, Aigerim Aralbaeva
BACKGROUND: Medical students are the first line active force to combat tobacco epidemic, but they may suffer from high smoking prevalence and wrong attitude themselves. The aim of the study was to assess the effect of current curriculum on smoking behavior of medical students in Kyrgyzstan. METHODS: 20% random sample of all 6 years of the School of Medicine in Kyrgyz State Medical Academy were interviewed in spring 2016. The questionnaire included sections on tobacco products consumption and knowledge and attitude to counseling...
July 4, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28670812/adolescent-use-of-electronic-cigarettes
#20
David Isaacs
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2017: Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health
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