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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778775/prenatal-exposures-to-tobacco-and-cannabis-associations-with-adult-electronic-cigarette-use
#1
Natacha M De Genna, Gale A Richardson, Lidush Goldschmidt, Nancy L Day, Marie D Cornelius
INTRODUCTION: Prenatal exposures to tobacco and cannabis are associated with combustible cigarette use. This study evaluated pathways from these prenatal exposures to adult electronic cigarette use. We tested whether there were indirect effects of these prenatal exposures via childhood behavior dysregulation, early tobacco use, and adolescent tobacco dependence. METHODS: Telephone interviews were conducted with 427 adult offspring (22-33 years old) from 3 prenatal cohorts with trimester-specific data on exposures to tobacco, alcohol, and cannabis...
May 5, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778773/effects-of-electronic-cigarette-liquid-solvents-propylene-glycol-and-vegetable-glycerin-on-user-nicotine-delivery-heart-rate-subjective-effects-and-puff-topography
#2
Tory R Spindle, Soha Talih, Marzena M Hiler, Nareg Karaoghlanian, Matthew S Halquist, Alison B Breland, Alan Shihadeh, Thomas Eissenberg
BACKGROUND: Electronic cigarettes (ECIGs) are a class of tobacco products that produce different effects (e.g., nicotine delivery), depending on the device, liquid, and behavioral factors. However, the influence of the two primary ECIG liquid solvents, propylene glycol (PG) and vegetable glycerin (VG), on ECIG acute effects is unknown. METHODS: Thirty ECIG-experienced, ≥12-h nicotine- abstinent participants completed four conditions consisting of two ECIG-use bouts (10 puffs, 30 s interpuff-interval) differing only by liquid PG:VG ratio (2PG:98VG, 20PG:80VG, 55PG:45VG, 100PG)...
May 1, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778082/a-review-of-the-impacts-of-tobacco-heating-system-on-indoor-air-quality-versus-conventional-pollution-sources
#3
REVIEW
Violeta Kaunelienė, Marija Meišutovič-Akhtarieva, Dainius Martuzevičius
With the introduction of novel and potentially less polluting nicotine containing products to the market, the impacts of their usage to indoor air quality as opposed to conventional pollution sources must be reviewed and considered. This review study aimed to comparatively analyse changes in indoor air quality as the consequence of tobacco heating system (THS) generated pollution against general indoor air quality in various micro-environments, especially with combustion-based pollution sources present. Indoor concentrations of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, benzene, toluene, nicotine and PM2...
May 8, 2018: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775302/free-base-nicotine-determination-in-electronic-cigarette-liquids-by-1-h-nmr-spectroscopy
#4
Anna K Duell, James F Pankow, David H Peyton
E-liquids usually contain significant nicotine, which will exist primarily in two forms, monoprotonated and free-base the proportions are alterable through the effective pH of the medium. The fraction of nicotine in the free-base form is αfb , with 0 < αfb < 1. When dosed via aerosol, the two nicotine forms have different mechanisms and kinetics of delivery, as well as differing implications for harshness of the inhaled aerosol, so αfb is relevant regarding abuse liability. Previous attempts to determine αfb in electronic cigarette liquids and vapor have been flawed...
May 18, 2018: Chemical Research in Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773665/hypersensitivity-pneumonitis-and-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome-from-e-cigarette-use
#5
Casey G Sommerfeld, Daniel J Weiner, Andrew Nowalk, Allyson Larkin
Electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use, or "vaping," is gaining widespread popularity as an alternative to conventional cigarettes among adolescents. Little is known of the health risks of e-cigarette use, especially in children and adolescents. We present a Case Report of a previously healthy 18-year-old woman who presented with dyspnea, cough, and pleuritic chest pain after e-cigarette use. She developed respiratory failure with hypoxia and was intubated, and ultimately met diagnostic criteria for acute respiratory distress syndrome...
May 17, 2018: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755302/the-theory-of-planned-behavior-and-e-cig-use-impulsive-personality-e-cig-attitudes-and-e-cig-use
#6
Alexandra Hershberger, Miranda Connors, Miji Um, Melissa A Cyders
The current paper applied the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB; Ajzen & Fishbein, 1988) to understand how impulsive personality traits and attitudes concerning e-cig use relate to the likelihood of electronic cigarette (e-cig) use. Seven hundred and fourteen participants (Mean age = 34.04, SD = 10.89, 48.6% female) completed cross-sectional measures of e-cig use attitudes (CEAC) and the Short UPPS-P Impulsive Behavior Scale. A structural path analysis suggested that urgency and deficits in conscientiousness were significantly related to e-cig attitudes (CFI = 0...
April 2018: International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754582/altered-lung-biology-of-healthy-never-smokers-following-acute-inhalation-of-e-cigarettes
#7
Michelle R Staudt, Jacqueline Salit, Robert J Kaner, Charleen Hollmann, Ronald G Crystal
BACKGROUND: Little is known about health risks associated with electronic cigarette (EC) use although EC are rising in popularity and have been advocated as a means to quit smoking cigarettes. METHODS: Ten never-smokers, without exposure history to tobacco products or EC, were assessed at baseline with questionnaire, chest X-ray, lung function, plasma levels of endothelial microparticles (EMP), and bronchoscopy to obtain small airway epithelium (SAE) and alveolar macrophages (AM)...
May 14, 2018: Respiratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753155/assessing-nicotine-dependence-in-adolescent-e-cigarette-users-the-4-item-patient-reported-outcomes-measurement-information-system-promis-nicotine-dependence-item-bank-for-electronic-cigarettes
#8
Meghan E Morean, Suchitra Krishnan-Sarin, Stephanie S O'Malley
BACKGROUND: Adolescent e-cigarette use (i.e., "vaping") likely confers risk for developing nicotine dependence. However, there have been no studies assessing e-cigarette nicotine dependence in youth. We evaluated the psychometric properties of the 4-item Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System Nicotine Dependence Item Bank for E-cigarettes (PROMIS-E) for assessing youth e-cigarette nicotine dependence and examined risk factors for experiencing stronger dependence symptoms...
April 26, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750269/analytical-determination-of-nicotine-and-tar-levels-in-various-dokha-and-shisha-tobacco-products
#9
Bassam Mahboub, Ayesha Begum Mohammad, Ayssar Nahlé, Mayank Vats, Omar Al Assaf, Hamdan Al-Zarooni
In the Middle East, there is no precise data and literature on tobacco-based products, such as dokha and shisha. The proposed study aims to quantify the levels of nicotine and tar in different kinds of dokha and shisha products that are sold in the local marketplace. The amount of nicotine in dokha and shisha products can be quantitatively determined using a combination of the "kissling" and "silicotungstic acid" method proposed by Robert M. Chapin. The tar residue from the smoke sample was collected on a glass wool placed before the stopcock (tap) of a separatory funnel as the smoke passes through the inlet of an electronically controlled vacuum pump...
May 10, 2018: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747109/characterization-of-airborne-particles-emitted-by-an-electrically-heated-tobacco-smoking-system
#10
A Pacitto, L Stabile, M Scungio, V Rizza, G Buonanno
Smoking activities were recognized as a main risk factor for population. Indeed, mainstream smoke aerosol is directly inhaled by smokers then delivering harmful compounds in the deepest regions of the lung. In order to reduce the potential risk of smoking, different nicotine delivery products have been recently developed. The latest device released is an electrically heated tobacco system (iQOS® , Philip Morris) which is able to warm the tobacco with no combustion. In the present paper a dimensional and volatility characterization of iQOS-generated particles was performed through particle number concentration and distribution measurements in the mainstream aerosol...
May 7, 2018: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746421/reducing-the-health-risks-derived-from-exposure-to-addictive-substances
#11
Peter Anderson, Antoni Gual, Jürgen Rehm
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To discuss the health risks due to exposure to alcohol, illegal drugs and nicotine and how these risks might be reduced. RECENT FINDINGS: In 2016, worldwide, alcohol, illegal drugs and nicotine were responsible for some 10 million deaths. There is evolutionary and biological evidence that humans are predisposed to consuming alcohol, illegal drugs and nicotine - present-day problems are caused by high levels of potency, exposure and drug delivery systems...
May 8, 2018: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29744375/counterfeit-electronic-cigarette-products-with-mislabeled-nicotine-concentrations
#12
Esther E Omaiye, Iliana Cordova, Barbara Davis, Prue Talbot
Objectives: We compared nicotine concentrations in one brand of refill fluids that were purchased in 4 countries and labeled 0 mg of nicotine/mL. We then identified counterfeit e-cigarette products from these countries. Methods: Overall, 125 e-cigarette refill fluids were purchased in Nigeria, the United States (US), England, and China. Nicotine concentrations were measured using high performance liquid chromatography and compared to labeled concentrations. Refill fluids were examined to identify physical differences and grouped into authentic and counterfeit products...
July 2017: Tobacco Regulatory Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742683/efficiency-and-adverse-events-of-electronic-cigarettes-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-prisma-compliant-article
#13
Xing Liu, Wan Lu, Sheng Liao, Zhongliang Deng, Zhongrong Zhang, Yun Liu, Weizhong Lu
BACKGROUND: Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are a prevalent smoking cessation aid worldwide; however, a consensus regarding their efficacy and safety has yet to be reached. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review of the literature from related studies written in English or Chinese and published between January 1, 2003, and July 30, 2017. Eligible studies reporting the number of smokers who reduced or quit smoking and suffered from adverse events after e-cigarette use were selected according to predefined criteria; pertinent data were then extracted for a meta-analysis...
May 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742227/symptomatic-bradycardia-due-to-nicotine-intoxication
#14
Jin Hui Paik, Soo Kang, Areum Durey, Ji Hye Kim, Ah Jin Kim
Nicotine is a dangerous substance extracted from tobacco leaves. When nicotine is absorbed in excessive amounts, it can lead to respiratory failure and cardiac arrest. The commercialization of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) has allowed users to directly handle e-cigarette liquid. Consequently, the risk of liquid nicotine exposure has increased. We describe our experience of managing the case of a patient who orally ingested a high concentration of liquid nicotine from e-cigarette liquid. The patient presented with bradycardia and hypotension, which are symptoms of parasympathetic stimulation, together with impaired consciousness...
March 2018: Revista Brasileira de Terapia Intensiva
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29741713/electronic-cigarette-and-cigarette-social-environments-and-ever-use-of-each-product-a-prospective-study-of-young-adults-in-southern-california
#15
Robert Urman, Rob McConnell, Jennifer B Unger, Tess Boley Cruz, Jonathan M Samet, Kiros Berhane, Jessica L Barrington-Trimis
Background: A supportive youth cigarette social environment, e.g. friends' approval of use, leads to cigarette use initiation, and cigarette users develop a more supportive social environment. Whether there is a bidirectional relationship of e-cigarette social environment with e-cigarette use has not been studied. Methods: Prospective data were collected from 1441 Children's Health Study participants in 2014 (median age=17.3 years) and at follow-up 1.5 years later...
May 8, 2018: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29741711/engagement-with-online-tobacco-marketing-among-adolescents-in-the-us-2013-2014-to-2014-2015
#16
Samir Soneji, JaeWon Yang, Meghan Bridgid Moran, Andy S L Tan, James Sargent, Kristin E Knutzen, Kelvin Choi
Objective: To assess changes in engagement with online tobacco and electronic cigarette marketing ('online tobacco marketing') among adolescents in the US between 2013 and 2015. Methods: We assessed the prevalence of 6 forms of engagement with online tobacco marketing, both overall and by brand, among adolescents sampled in Wave 1 (2013-2014; N=13,651) and Wave 2 (2014-2015; N=12,172) of the nationally representative Population Assessment for Tobacco and Health Study...
May 5, 2018: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740339/induction-of-metallothionein-expression-after-exposure-to-conventional-cigarette-smoke-but-not-electronic-cigarette-ecig-generated-aerosol-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#17
Eric Cobb, Julie Hall, Dominic L Palazzolo
Aim: With the invention of electronic cigarettes (ECIG), many questions have been raised regarding their safety as an alternative to smoking conventional cigarettes. Conventional cigarette smoke contains a variety of toxicants including heavy metals. However, ECIG-generated aerosol contains only trace amounts of metals, adding to the argument for it being a safer alternative. In response to heavy metal exposure, metallothioneins are induced in cells to help store the metal, detoxify the body, and are also known responders to oxidative stress...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29736335/effects-of-tobacco-smoke-and-electronic-cigarette-vapor-exposure-on-the-oral-and-gut-microbiota-in-humans-a-pilot-study
#18
Christopher J Stewart, Thomas A Auchtung, Nadim J Ajami, Kenia Velasquez, Daniel P Smith, Richard De La Garza, Ramiro Salas, Joseph F Petrosino
Background: The use of electronic cigarettes (ECs) has increased drastically over the past five years, primarily as an alternative to smoking tobacco cigarettes. However, the adverse effects of acute and long-term use of ECs on the microbiota have not been explored. In this pilot study, we sought to determine if ECs or tobacco smoking alter the oral and gut microbiota in comparison to non-smoking controls. Methods: We examined a human cohort consisting of 30 individuals: 10 EC users, 10 tobacco smokers, and 10 controls...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29734027/are-glass-fiber-particles-released-during-the-use-of-electronic-cigarettes-development-of-a-semi-quantitative-approach-to-detect-glass-particle-emission-due-to-vaping
#19
Jae-Won Shin, Sang-Hee Jo, Ki-Hyun Kim, Hee-Nam Song, Chang-Hee Kang, Nanthi Bolan, Jongki Hong
This study investigated the emission characteristics of glass particles resulting from smoking electronic cigarettes (ECs). First, the most suitable filter for the collection of glass particles was explored by examining the performance (reliability) of various types of filters. A polycarbonate filter was determined as the optimum choice to collect glass particles in EC aerosol. A cartomizer was filled with EC refill solution composed of an equal volume of propylene glycol (PG) and vegetable glycol (VG). To simulate the potential conditions for glass particle emission, EC vaped aerosols were collected at three distinctive puffing intervals: (1) 0-10 puffs, (2) 101-110 puffs, and (3) 201-210 puffs (flow rate of 1 L min-1 , 2 s per puff, and 10 puffs per sample)...
May 4, 2018: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729841/cadmium-effects-on-sperm-morphology-and-semenogelin-with-relates-to-increased-ros-in-infertile-smokers-an-in-vitro-and-in-silico-approach
#20
Parameswari Ranganathan, Kamini A Rao, Jesu Jaya Sudan, Sridharan Balasundaram
Smoking releases cadmium (Cd), the metal toxicant which causes an imbalance in reactive oxygen species level in seminal plasma. This imbalance is envisaged to impair the sperm DNA morphology and thereby result in male infertility. In order to correlate this association, we performed in vitro and in silico studies and evaluated the influence of reactive oxygen species imbalance on sperm morphology impairments due to smoking. The study included 76 infertile smokers, 72 infertile non-smokers, 68 fertile smokers and 74 fertile non-smokers (control)...
May 2, 2018: Reproductive Biology
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