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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036331/early-reading-development-in-chinese-speaking-children-with-hearing-loss
#1
Yi-Chih Chan, You-Jhen Yang
This study aims to explore early reading comprehension in Chinese-speaking children with hearing loss (HL) by examining character recognition and linguistic comprehension. Twenty-five children with HL received three measures relevant to character reading: phonological awareness (PA), morphological awareness (MA), and character recognition; two linguistic-comprehension measures: receptive vocabulary knowledge and listening comprehension; and one reading comprehension measure. Three demographic variables pertinent to children with HL were also taken into account...
September 28, 2017: Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034268/language-emergence
#2
Diane Brentari, Susan Goldin-Meadow
Language emergence describes moments in historical time when nonlinguistic systems become linguistic. Because language can be invented de novo in the manual modality, this offers insight into the emergence of language in ways that the oral modality cannot. Here we focus on homesign, gestures developed by deaf individuals who cannot acquire spoken language and have not been exposed to sign language. We contrast homesign with (a) gestures that hearing individuals produce when they speak, as these cospeech gestures are a potential source of input to homesigners, and (b) established sign languages, as these codified systems display the linguistic structure that homesign has the potential to assume...
2017: Annual Review of Linguistics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033809/characterizing-neural-entrainment-to-hierarchical-linguistic-units-using-electroencephalography-eeg
#3
Nai Ding, Lucia Melloni, Aotian Yang, Yu Wang, Wen Zhang, David Poeppel
To understand speech, listeners have to combine the words they hear into phrases and sentences. Recent magnetoencephalography (MEG) and electrocorticography (ECoG) studies show that cortical activity is concurrently entrained/synchronized to the rhythms of multiple levels of linguistic units including words, phrases, and sentences. Here we investigate whether this phenomenon can be observed using electroencephalography (EEG), a technique that is more widely available than MEG and ECoG. We show that the EEG responses concurrently track the rhythms of hierarchical linguistic units such as syllables/words, phrases, and sentences...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033804/second-language-word-learning-through-repetition-and-imitation-functional-networks-as-a-function-of-learning-phase-and-language-distance
#4
Ladan Ghazi-Saidi, Ana Ines Ansaldo
Introduction and Aim: Repetition and imitation are among the oldest second language (L2) teaching approaches and are frequently used in the context of L2 learning and language therapy, despite some heavy criticism. Current neuroimaging techniques allow the neural mechanisms underlying repetition and imitation to be examined. This fMRI study examines the influence of verbal repetition and imitation on network configuration. Integration changes within and between the cognitive control and language networks were studied, in a pair of linguistically close languages (Spanish and French), and compared to our previous work on a distant language pair (Ghazi-Saidi et al...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033477/is-lhasa-tibetan-sign-language-emerging-endangered-or-both
#5
Theresia Hofer
This article offers the first overview of the recent emergence of Tibetan Sign Language (TibSL) in Lhasa, capital of the Tibet Autonomous Region (TAR), China. Drawing on short anthropological fieldwork, in 2007 and 2014, with people and organisations involved in the formalisation and promotion of TibSL, the author discusses her findings within the nine-fold UNESCO model for assessing linguistic vitality and endangerment. She follows the adaptation of this model to assess signed languages by the Institute of Sign Languages and Deaf Studies (iSLanDS) at the University of Central Lancashire...
May 24, 2017: International Journal of the Sociology of Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032310/building-addiction-recovery-capital-through-online-participation-in-a-recovery-community
#6
Ana-Maria Bliuc, David Best, Muhammad Iqbal, Katie Upton
RATIONALE: This study examines how online participation in a community of recovery contributes to personal journeys of recovery. It investigates whether recovery capital building - as indicated by increased levels and quality of online social interactions - and markers of positive identity development predict retention in a recovery program designed around fostering community involvement for early stage recovery addicts. HYPOTHESES: It was predicted that online participation on the group's Facebook page and positive identity development are associated to retention in the program...
September 30, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031740/eyetracking-metrics-reveal-impaired-spatial-anticipation-in-behavioural-variant-frontotemporal-dementia
#7
Silvia Primativo, Camilla Clark, Keir Xx Yong, Nicholas C Firth, Jennifer Nicholas, Daniel Alexander, Jason D Warren, Jonathan D Rohrer, Sebastian J Crutch
Eyetracking technology has had limited application in the dementia field to date, with most studies attempting to discriminate syndrome subgroups on the basis of basic oculomotor functions rather than higher-order cognitive abilities. Eyetracking-based tasks may also offer opportunities to reduce or ameliorate problems associated with standard paper-and-pencil cognitive tests such as the complexity and linguistic demands of verbal test instructions, and the problems of tiredness and attention associated with lengthy tasks that generate few data points at a slow rate...
October 11, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029239/what-does-the-sleeping-brain-say-syntax-and-semantics-of-sleep-talking-in-healthy-subjects-and-in-parasomnia-patients
#8
Isabelle Arnulf, Ginevra Uguccioni, Frederick Gay, Etienne Baldayrou, Jean-Louis Golmard, Frederique Gayraud, Alain Devevey
Objectives: Speech is a complex function in humans, but the linguistic characteristics of sleep talking are unknown. We analyzed sleep-associated speech in adults, mostly (92%) during parasomnias. Methods: The utterances recorded during night-time video-polysomnography were analyzed for number of words, propositions and speech episodes, frequency, gaps and pauses (denoting turn-taking in the conversation), lemmatization, verbosity, negative/imperative/interrogative tone, first/second person, politeness and abuse...
October 5, 2017: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028583/influence-of-semantic-consistency-and-perceptual-features-on-visual-attention-during-scene-viewing-in-toddlers
#9
Andrea Helo, Sandrien van Ommen, Sebastian Pannasch, Lucile Danteny-Dordoigne, Pia Rämä
Conceptual representations of everyday scenes are built in interaction with visual environment and these representations guide our visual attention. Perceptual features and object-scene semantic consistency have been found to attract our attention during scene exploration. The present study examined how visual attention in 24-month-old toddlers is attracted by semantic violations and how perceptual features (i. e. saliency, centre distance, clutter and object size) and linguistic properties (i. e. object label frequency and label length) affect gaze distribution...
October 10, 2017: Infant Behavior & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027506/coprolalia-in-aphasic-patients-with-stroke-a-longitudinal-observation-from-the-blas2t-database
#10
Fazlallah Afshangian, Mohammad Nami, Amin Abolhasani Foroughi, Amir Rahimi, Ryan Husak, Franco Fabbro, Barbara Tomasino, Christine Kremer
The BLAS2T (bilingual aphasia in stroke-study team) initiative has been a multi-center attempt to investigate longitudinal changes in language function in a cohort of stroke subjects. This report discusses linguistic performance in four cases from the BLAS2T database who demonstrated coprolalia as an irresistible urge to say obscene words.  Coprolalia was found to partly resolve in a 30-day follow-up in three cases. Recognition of coprolalia and language recovery patterns in bilingual aphasic patients with stroke would potentially lead to their even better individualized care and neurolinguistic/cognitive rehabilitation...
October 13, 2017: Neurocase
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024916/can-monolinguals-be-like-bilinguals-evidence-from-dialect-switching
#11
Neil W Kirk, Vera Kempe, Kenneth C Scott-Brown, Andrea Philipp, Mathieu Declerck
Bilinguals rely on cognitive control mechanisms like selective activation and inhibition of lexical entries to prevent intrusions from the non-target language. We present cross-linguistic evidence that these mechanisms also operate in bidialectals. Thirty-two native German speakers who sometimes use the Öcher Platt dialect, and thirty-two native English speakers who sometimes use the Dundonian Scots dialect completed a dialect-switching task. Naming latencies were higher for switch than for non-switch trials, and lower for cognate compared to non-cognate nouns...
October 9, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024818/differential-cortical-contribution-of-syntax-and-semantics-an-fmri-study-on-two-word-phrasal-processing
#12
Marianne Schell, Emiliano Zaccarella, Angela D Friederici
Linguistic expressions consist of sequences of words combined together to form phrases and sentences. The neurocognitive process handling word combination is drawing increasing attention among the neuroscientific community, given that the underlying syntactic and semantic mechanisms of such basic combinations-although essential to the generation of more complex structures-still need to be consistently determined. The current experiment was conducted to disentangle the neural networks supporting syntactic and semantic processing at the level of two-word combinations...
September 20, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023964/linguistic-and-perceptual-mapping-in-spatial-representations-an-attentional-account
#13
Berenice Valdés-Conroy, José A Hinojosa, Francisco J Román, Verónica Romero-Ferreiro
Building on evidence for embodied representations, we investigated whether Spanish spatial terms map onto the NEAR/FAR perceptual division of space. Using a long horizontal display, we measured congruency effects during the processing of spatial terms presented in NEAR or FAR space. Across three experiments, we manipulated the task demands in order to investigate the role of endogenous attention in linguistic and perceptual space mapping. We predicted congruency effects only when spatial properties were relevant for the task (reaching estimation task, Experiment 1) but not when attention was allocated to other features (lexical decision, Experiment 2; and color, Experiment 3)...
October 10, 2017: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023628/ethnic-derivation-of-the-ainu-inferred-from-ancient-mitochondrial-dna-data
#14
Noboru Adachi, Tsuneo Kakuda, Ryohei Takahashi, Hideaki Kanzawa-Kiriyama, Ken-Ichi Shinoda
OBJECTIVES: The Ainu, the indigenous people living on the northernmost island of Japan, Hokkaido, have long been a focus of anthropological interest because of their cultural, linguistic, and physical identity. A major problem with genetic studies on the Ainu is that the previously published data stemmed almost exclusively from only 51 modern-day individuals living in Biratori Town, central Hokkaido. To clarify the actual genetic characteristics of the Ainu, individuals who are less influenced by mainland Japanese, who started large-scale immigration into Hokkaido about 150 years ago, should be examined...
October 11, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021889/linguistic-camouflage-in-girls-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#15
Julia Parish-Morris, Mark Y Liberman, Christopher Cieri, John D Herrington, Benjamin E Yerys, Leila Bateman, Joseph Donaher, Emily Ferguson, Juhi Pandey, Robert T Schultz
BACKGROUND: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is diagnosed more frequently in boys than girls, even when girls are equally symptomatic. Cutting-edge behavioral imaging has detected "camouflaging" in girls with ASD, wherein social behaviors appear superficially typical, complicating diagnosis. The present study explores a new kind of camouflage based on language differences. Pauses during conversation can be filled with words like UM or UH, but research suggests that these two words are pragmatically distinct (e...
2017: Molecular Autism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021751/language-learning-variability-within-the-dorsal-and-ventral-streams-as-a-cue-for-compensatory-mechanisms-in-aphasia-recovery
#16
REVIEW
Diana López-Barroso, Ruth de Diego-Balaguer
Dorsal and ventral pathways connecting perisylvian language areas have been shown to be functionally and anatomically segregated. Whereas the dorsal pathway integrates the sensory-motor information required for verbal repetition, the ventral pathway has classically been associated with semantic processes. The great individual differences characterizing language learning through life partly correlate with brain structure and function within these dorsal and ventral language networks. Variability and plasticity within these networks also underlie inter-individual differences in the recovery of linguistic abilities in aphasia...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021528/forecasting-the-onset-and-course-of-mental-illness-with-twitter-data
#17
Andrew G Reece, Andrew J Reagan, Katharina L M Lix, Peter Sheridan Dodds, Christopher M Danforth, Ellen J Langer
We developed computational models to predict the emergence of depression and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder in Twitter users. Twitter data and details of depression history were collected from 204 individuals (105 depressed, 99 healthy). We extracted predictive features measuring affect, linguistic style, and context from participant tweets (N = 279,951) and built models using these features with supervised learning algorithms. Resulting models successfully discriminated between depressed and healthy content, and compared favorably to general practitioners' average success rates in diagnosing depression, albeit in a separate population...
October 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018982/estimating-emotions-through-language-statistics-and-embodied-cognition
#18
Richard Tillman, Max Louwerse
Recent research has suggested that language processing activates perceptual simulations. We have demonstrated that findings that have been attributed to an embodied cognition account can also be explained by language statistics, because language encodes perceptual information. We investigated whether comprehension of emotion words can be explained by an embodied cognition or a language statistics account. A corpus linguistic study comparing emotions words showed that words denoting the same emotions (happy-delighted) co-occur more frequently than different emotions (happy-angry)...
October 10, 2017: Journal of Psycholinguistic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018375/one-label-or-two-linguistic-influences-on-the-similarity-judgment-of-objects-between-english-and-japanese-speakers
#19
Takahiko Masuda, Keiko Ishii, Koji Miwa, Marghalara Rashid, Hajin Lee, Rania Mahdi
Recent findings have re-examined the linguistic influence on cognition and perception, while identifying evidence that supports the Whorfian hypothesis. We examine how English and Japanese speakers perceive similarity of pairs of objects, by using two sets of stimuli: one in which two distinct linguistic categories apply to respective object images in English, but only one linguistic category applies in Japanese; and another in which two distinct linguistic categories apply to respective object images in Japanese, but only one applies in English...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016168/voice-only-communication-enhances-empathic-accuracy
#20
Michael W Kraus
This research tests the prediction that voice-only communication increases empathic accuracy over communication across senses. We theorized that people often intentionally communicate their feelings and internal states through the voice, and as such, voice-only communication allows perceivers to focus their attention on the channel of communication most active and accurate in conveying emotions to others. We used 5 experiments to test this hypothesis (N = 1,772), finding that voice-only communication elicits higher rates of empathic accuracy relative to vision-only and multisense communication both while engaging in interactions and perceiving emotions in recorded interactions of strangers...
October 2017: American Psychologist
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