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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210234/a-spiking-neuron-model-of-word-associations-for-the-remote-associates-test
#1
Ivana Kajić, Jan Gosmann, Terrence C Stewart, Thomas Wennekers, Chris Eliasmith
Generating associations is important for cognitive tasks including language acquisition and creative problem solving. It remains an open question how the brain represents and processes associations. The Remote Associates Test (RAT) is a task, originally used in creativity research, that is heavily dependent on generating associations in a search for the solutions to individual RAT problems. In this work we present a model that solves the test. Compared to earlier modeling work on the RAT, our hybrid (i.e., non-developmental) model is implemented in a spiking neural network by means of the Neural Engineering Framework (NEF), demonstrating that it is possible for spiking neurons to be organized to store the employed representations and to manipulate them...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208133/how-truncating-are-truncating-languages-evidence-from-russian-and-german
#2
Tamara V Rathcke
Russian and German have pr eviously been described as 'truncating', or cutting off target frequencies of the phrase-final pitch trajectories when the time available for voicing is compromised. However, supporting evidence is rare and limited to only a few pitch categories. This paper reports a production study conducted to document pitch adjustments to linguistic materials, in which the amount of voicing available for the realization of a pitch pattern varies from relatively long to extremely short. Productions of nuclear H+L*, H* and L*+H pitch accents followed by a low boundary tone were investigated in the two languages...
February 23, 2017: Phonetica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205625/%C3%AE-globin-gene-cluster-haplotypes-in-ethnic-minority-populations-of-southwest-china
#3
Hao Sun, Hongxian Liu, Kai Huang, Keqin Lin, Xiaoqin Huang, Jiayou Chu, Shaohui Ma, Zhaoqing Yang
The genetic diversity and relationships among ethnic minority populations of southwest China were investigated using seven polymorphic restriction enzyme sites in the β-globin gene cluster. The haplotypes of 1392 chromosomes from ten ethnic populations living in southwest China were determined. Linkage equilibrium and recombination hotspot were found between the 5' sites and 3' sites of the β-globin gene cluster. 5' haplotypes 2 (+---), 6 (-++-+), 9 (-++++) and 3' haplotype FW3 (-+) were the predominant haplotypes...
February 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203335/is-the-bayley-scales-of-infant-and-toddler-developmental-screening-test-valid-and-reliable-for-persian-speaking-children
#4
Farin Soleimani, Nadia Azari, Roshanak Vameghi, Firoozeh Sajedi, Soheila Shahshahani, Hossein Karimi, Adis Kraskian, Amin Shahrokhi, Robab Teymouri, Masoud Gharib
BACKGROUND: Advances in perinatal and neonatal care have substantially improved the survival of at-risk infants over the past two decades. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to assess the reliability and validity of the Bayley Scales of infant and toddler developmental Screening test in Persian-speaking children. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional prospective study of 403 children aged 1 - 42-months. The Bayley scales screening instrument, which consists of five domains (cognitive, receptive, and expressive communication and fine and gross motor items), was used to measure infants' and toddlers' development...
October 2016: Iranian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202287/cultural-adaptation-to-spanish-spain-of-the-overactive-bladder-family-impact-measure-oab-fim-questionnaire
#5
S Arlandis Guzmán, E Martínez Cuenca, R Martínez García, M A Bonillo García, J Rejas, E Broseta-Rico
OBJECTIVE: The OAB-FIM was developed as a measure of the impact of an overactive bladder (OAB) on relatives who live with the patient. The objective of this study was conduct a cultural adaptation to Spanish (Spain) of the OAB-FIM questionnaire. METHODS: The adaptation included a conceptual and linguistic validation phase, as well as a phase for measuring the psychometric properties in 25 relatives [mean age, 63.0 years (SD, 14.3); 44% women] who regularly live with patients with OAB, who are of either sex and 18 years of age or older...
February 12, 2017: Actas Urologicas Españolas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28201834/short-term-memory-and-aphasia-from-theory-to-treatment
#6
Irene Minkina, Samantha Rosenberg, Michelene Kalinyak-Fliszar, Nadine Martin
This article reviews existing research on the interactions between verbal short-term memory and language processing impairments in aphasia. Theoretical models of short-term memory are reviewed, starting with a model assuming a separation between short-term memory and language, and progressing to models that view verbal short-term memory as a cognitive requirement of language processing. The review highlights a verbal short-term memory model derived from an interactive activation model of word retrieval. This model holds that verbal short-term memory encompasses the temporary activation of linguistic knowledge (e...
February 2017: Seminars in Speech and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28201833/language-specific-attention-treatment-for-aphasia-description-and-preliminary-findings
#7
Richard K Peach, Meghana R Nathan, Katherine M Beck
The need for a specific, language-based treatment approach to aphasic impairments associated with attentional deficits is well documented. We describe language-specific attention treatment, a specific skill-based approach for aphasia that exploits increasingly complex linguistic tasks that focus attention. The program consists of eight tasks, some with multiple phases, to assess and treat lexical and sentence processing. Validation results demonstrate that these tasks load on six attentional domains: (1) executive attention; (2) attentional switching; (3) visual selective attention/processing speed; (4) sustained attention; (5) auditory-verbal working memory; and (6) auditory processing speed...
February 2017: Seminars in Speech and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199175/sequential-prediction-of-literacy-achievement-for-specific-learning-disabilities-contrasting-in-impaired-levels-of-language-in-grades-4-to-9
#8
Elizabeth A Sanders, Virginia W Berninger, Robert D Abbott
Sequential regression was used to evaluate whether language-related working memory components uniquely predict reading and writing achievement beyond cognitive-linguistic translation for students in Grades 4 through 9 ( N = 103) with specific learning disabilities (SLDs) in subword handwriting (dysgraphia, n = 25), word reading and spelling (dyslexia, n = 60), or oral and written language (oral and written language learning disabilities, n = 18). That is, SLDs are defined on the basis of cascading level of language impairment (subword, word, and syntax/text)...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Learning Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198108/formulaic-sequences-as-a-regulatory-mechanism-for-cognitive-perturbations-during-the-achievement-of-social-goals
#9
Alison Wray
This paper explores two questions central to understanding the nature of formulaic sequences: (1) What are they for? and (2) What determines how many there are? The "Communicative Impact" model draws into a single account how language is shaped by cognitive processing on the one hand and socio-interactional function on the other: Formulaic sequences play a range of coordinated roles in neutralizing unanticipated perturbations in the cognitive management of language, so the speaker's socio-interactional goals can still be achieved...
February 15, 2017: Topics in Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196378/executive-function-in-preschoolers-with-primary-language-impairment
#10
Hui-Chun Yang, Shelley Gray
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether preschoolers with primary language impairment (PLI) show deficits in executive function (EF) compared with their peers with typical development (TD) when inhibition, updating, and mental-set shifting are examined using both linguistically based and visually based tasks. Method: Twenty-two 4- and 5-year-old preschoolers with PLI and 30 preschoolers with TD completed 2 sets of computerized EF tasks: 3 that were linguistically based and 3 that were visually based...
February 14, 2017: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196373/does-naming-therapy-make-ordering-in-a-restaurant-easier-dynamics-of-co-occurring-change-in-cognitive-linguistic-and-functional-communication-skills-in-aphasia
#11
Erin L Meier, Jeffrey P Johnson, Sarah Villard, Swathi Kiran
Purpose: This study was conducted to investigate the static and dynamic relationships between impairment-level cognitive-linguistic abilities and activity-level functional communication skills in persons with aphasia (PWA). Method: In Experiment 1, a battery of standardized assessments was administered to a group of PWA (N = 72) to examine associations between cognitive-linguistic ability and functional communication at a single time point. In Experiment 2, impairment-based treatment was administered to a subset of PWA from Experiment 1 (n = 39) in order to examine associations between change in cognitive-linguistic ability and change in function and associations at a single time point...
February 14, 2017: American Journal of Speech-language Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196359/language-on-the-phenomenology-of-linguistic-experience-in-schizophrenia-ancillary-article-to-eawe-domain-4
#12
Elizabeth Pienkos, Louis Sass
Anomalies of language use and comprehension are common in schizophrenia. However, they are typically studied only from a diagnostic or behavioral perspective and viewed simply as deficits or disruptions of normal functioning. Such approaches ignore what it is like to experience language, and thus are at risk of missing aspects of these linguistic anomalies that may be crucial for understanding them. The Examination of Anomalous World Experience (EAWE) provides one way to inquire into the experiential changes related to and underlying these disturbances...
February 15, 2017: Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194620/mathematical-modeling-of-learning-from-an-inconsistent-source-a-nonlinear-approach
#13
Timmy Ma, Natalia L Komarova
Continuing the discussion of how children can modify and regularize linguistic inputs from adults, we present a new interpretation of existing algorithms to model and investigate the process of a learner learning from an inconsistent source. On the basis of this approach is a (possibly nonlinear) function (the update function) that relates the current state of the learner with an increment that it receives upon processing the source's input, in a sequence of updates. The model can be considered a nonlinear generalization of the classic Bush-Mosteller algorithm...
February 13, 2017: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194122/social-salience-discriminates-learnability-of-contextual-cues-in-an-artificial-language
#14
Péter Rácz, Jennifer B Hay, Janet B Pierrehumbert
We investigate the learning of contextual meaning by adults in an artificial language. Contextual meaning here refers to the non-denotative contextual information that speakers attach to a linguistic construction. Through a series of short games, played online, we test how well adults can learn different contextual meanings for a word-formation pattern in an artificial language. We look at whether learning contextual meanings depends on the social salience of the context, whether our players interpret these contexts generally, and whether the learned meaning is generalized to new words...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194120/sincere-deceitful-and-ironic-communicative-acts-and-the-role-of-the-theory-of-mind-in-childhood
#15
Francesca M Bosco, Ilaria Gabbatore
The aim of the study is to investigate the relationship among age, first- and second-order Theory of Mind and the increasing ability of children to understand and produce different kinds of communicative acts - sincere, ironic, and deceitful communicative acts - expressed through linguistic and extralinguistic expressive means. To communicate means to modify an interlocutor's mental states (Grice, 1989), and pragmatics studies the inferential processes that are necessary to fill the gap, which often exists in human communication, between the literal meaning of a speaker's utterance and what the speaker intends to communicate to the interlocutor...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193452/the-core-and-beyond-in-the-language-ready-brain
#16
REVIEW
Peter Hagoort
In this paper a general cognitive architecture of spoken language processing is specified. This is followed by an account of how this cognitive architecture is instantiated in the human brain. Both the spatial aspects of the networks for language are discussed, as well as the temporal dynamics and the underlying neurophysiology. A distinction is proposed between networks for coding/decoding linguistic information and additional networks for getting from coded meaning to speaker meaning, i.e. for making the inferences that enable the listener to understand the intentions of the speaker...
February 10, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193135/a-longitudinal-investigation-of-the-relationship-between-motivation-and-late-second-language-speech-learning-in-classroom-settings
#17
Kazuya Saito, Jean-Marc Dewaele, Keiko Hanzawa
The current study set out to examine the role of learner motivation in second language (L2) speech learning in English-as-a-Foreign-Language classrooms. The motivational orientations of 40 first-year university Japanese students were surveyed via a tailored questionnaire and linked to their spontaneous speech development, elicited via a timed picture description task at the onset and end of one academic semester, in terms of perceived comprehensibility (i.e., ease of understanding) and accentedness (i.e., linguistic nativelikeness)...
January 1, 2017: Language and Speech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191001/acoustic-properties-predict-perception-of-unfamiliar-dutch-vowels-by-adult-australian-english-and-peruvian-spanish-listeners
#18
Samra Alispahic, Karen E Mulak, Paola Escudero
Research suggests that the size of the second language (L2) vowel inventory relative to the native (L1) inventory may affect the discrimination and acquisition of L2 vowels. Models of non-native and L2 vowel perception stipulate that naïve listeners' non-native and L2 perceptual patterns may be predicted by the relationship in vowel inventory size between the L1 and the L2. Specifically, having a smaller L1 vowel inventory than the L2 impedes L2 vowel perception, while having a larger one often facilitates it...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190942/cognitive-and-linguistic-predictors-of-mathematical-word-problems-with-and-without-irrelevant-information
#19
Amber Y Wang, Lynn S Fuchs, Douglas Fuchs
The purpose of this study was to identify cognitive and linguistic predictors of word problems with versus without irrelevant information. The sample was 701 2nd-grade students who received no specialized intervention on word problems. In the fall, they were assessed on initial arithmetic and word-problem skill as well as language ability, working memory capacity, and processing speed; in the spring, they were tested on a word-problem measure that included items with versus without irrelevant information. Significant predictors common to both forms of word problems were initial arithmetic and word problem-solving skill as well as language and working memory...
December 2016: Learning and Individual Differences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28189101/the-structural-linguistic-complexity-of-lawyers-questions-and-children-s-responses-in-scottish-criminal-courts
#20
Samantha J Andrews, Michael E Lamb
In the first study to systematically assess the structural linguistic complexity of lawyers' questions of children in Scotland, we examined 56 trial transcripts of 5- to 17-year-old children testifying as alleged victims of sexual abuse. Complexity was assessed using 8 quantitative measures of each utterance's components (number of questions, phrases, clauses, sentences, false starts, average word count, word length, and sentence length) and a composite measure was used in the analyses. Lawyers did not alter the complexity of questions when prompting children of different ages...
February 8, 2017: Child Abuse & Neglect
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