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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29916979/deliberate-practice-preliminary-results-of-a-useful-strategy-for-correcting-articulation-in-children-with-cleft-palate
#1
María Del Carmen Pamplona, Pablo Antonio Ysunza
Children with cleft palate frequently show speech and language disorders. In the related scientific literature, several reports have described the use of different strategies for treating speech disorders in children with cleft palate. However, only a few studies have addressed the use of these strategies within a meaningful linguistic context.Deliberate practice is a procedure or strategy, which proposes that the key for achieving high levels of expert performance is dedicating long time for practice. Deliberate practice has been studied mainly in the areas of sports and intellectual games...
June 18, 2018: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29916785/cortical-tracking-of-global-and-local-variations-of-speech-rhythm-during-connected-natural-speech-perception
#2
Anna Maria Alexandrou, Timo Saarinen, Jan Kujala, Riitta Salmelin
During natural speech perception, listeners must track the global speaking rate, that is, the overall rate of incoming linguistic information, as well as transient, local speaking rate variations occurring within the global speaking rate. Here, we address the hypothesis that this tracking mechanism is achieved through coupling of cortical signals to the amplitude envelope of the perceived acoustic speech signals. Cortical signals were recorded with magnetoencephalography (MEG) while participants perceived spontaneously produced speech stimuli at three global speaking rates (slow, normal/habitual, and fast)...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29915008/learning-abstract-words-and-concepts-insights-from-developmental-language-disorder
#3
Marta Ponari, Courtenay Frazier Norbury, Armand Rotaru, Alessandro Lenci, Gabriella Vigliocco
Some explanations of abstract word learning suggest that these words are learnt primarily from the linguistic input, using statistical co-occurrences of words in language, whereas concrete words can also rely on non-linguistic, experiential information. According to this hypothesis, we expect that, if the learner is not able to fully exploit the information in the linguistic input, abstract words should be affected more than concrete ones. Embodied approaches instead argue that both abstract and concrete words can rely on experiential information and, therefore, there might not be any linguistic primacy...
August 5, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29915007/olfactory-language-and-abstraction-across-cultures
#4
Asifa Majid, Niclas Burenhult, Marcus Stensmyr, Josje de Valk, Bill S Hansson
Olfaction presents a particularly interesting arena to explore abstraction in language. Like other abstract domains, such as time, odours can be difficult to conceptualize. An odour cannot be seen or held, it can be difficult to locate in space, and for most people odours are difficult to verbalize. On the other hand, odours give rise to primary sensory experiences. Every time we inhale we are using olfaction to make sense of our environment. We present new experimental data from 30 Jahai hunter-gatherers from the Malay Peninsula and 30 matched Dutch participants from the Netherlands in an odour naming experiment...
August 5, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29915002/abstract-concepts-language-and-sociality-from-acquisition-to-inner-speech
#5
REVIEW
Anna M Borghi, Laura Barca, Ferdinand Binkofski, Luca Tummolini
The problem of representation of abstract concepts, such as 'freedom' and 'justice', has become particularly crucial in recent years, owing to the increased success of embodied and grounded views of cognition. We will present a novel view on abstract concepts and abstract words. Since abstract concepts do not have single objects as referents, children and adults might rely more on input from others to learn them; we, therefore, suggest that linguistic and social experience play an important role for abstract concepts...
August 5, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29914997/the-case-of-cause-neurobiological-mechanisms-for-grounding-an-abstract-concept
#6
REVIEW
Friedemann Pulvermüller
How can we understand causal relationships and how can we understand words such as 'cause'? Some theorists assume that the underlying abstract concept is given to us, and that perceptual correlation provides the relevant hints towards inferring causation from perceived real-life events. A different approach emphasizes the role of actions and their typical consequences for the emergence of the concept of causation and the application of the related term. A model of causation is proposed that highlights the family resemblance between causal actions and postulates that symbols are necessary for binding together the different partially shared semantic features of subsets of causal actions and their goals...
August 5, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29914995/dynamic-grounding-of-emotion-concepts
#7
REVIEW
Piotr Winkielman, Seana Coulson, Paula Niedenthal
Emotion concepts are important. They help us to understand, experience and predict human behaviour. Emotion concepts also link the realm of the abstract with the realm of bodily experience and actions. Accordingly, the key question is how such concepts are created, represented and used. Embodied cognition theories hold that concepts are grounded in neural systems that produce experiential and motor states. Concepts are also contextually situated and thus engage sensorimotor resources in a dynamic, flexible way...
August 5, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29914992/sentential-negation-of-abstract-and-concrete-conceptual-categories-a-brain-decoding-multivariate-pattern-analysis-study
#8
Marta Ghio, Karolin Haegert, Matilde M Vaghi, Marco Tettamanti
We rarely use abstract and concrete concepts in isolation but rather embedded within a linguistic context. To examine the modulatory impact of the linguistic context on conceptual processing, we isolated the case of sentential negation polarity, in which an interaction occurs between the syntactic operator not and conceptual information in the negation's scope. Previous studies suggested that sentential negation of concrete action-related concepts modulates activation in the fronto-parieto-temporal action representation network...
August 5, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29914990/varieties-of-abstract-concepts-development-use-and-representation-in-the-brain
#9
Anna M Borghi, Laura Barca, Ferdinand Binkofski, Luca Tummolini
The capacity for abstract thought is one of the hallmarks of human cognition. However, the mechanisms underlying the ability to form and use abstract concepts like 'fantasy' and 'grace' have not been elucidated yet. This theme issue brings together developmental, social and cognitive psychologists, linguists, anthropologists, cognitive scientists, neuroscientists, philosophers and computer scientists to present theoretical insights and novel evidence on how abstract concepts are acquired, used and represented in the brain...
August 5, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29913382/the-perception-of-text-triggers-reflexive-oculomotor-orienting
#10
Keren Taub, Shlomit Yuval-Greenberg
As you read this text, your brain is busy integrating numerous different processes-perceptual, cognitive and motor. While you acquire the semantic and linguistic contents of this abstract, your eyes traverse its lines with speed and coordination. The oculomotor response to text is so rapid and precise that it is hypothesized it to be partially based on reflexive orienting mechanisms. In this study we examined the hypothesis that the presentation of written text triggers reflexive orienting toward the direction of reading, similarly to the effect of peripheral stimulation or that of symbolic directional cues (arrows or gazing eyes)...
May 9, 2018: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29913324/substance-use-recovery-and-linguistics-the-impact-of-word-choice-on-explicit-and-implicit-bias
#11
Robert D Ashford, Austin M Brown, Brenda Curtis
BACKGROUND: The general public, treatment professionals, and healthcare professionals have been found to exhibit an explicit negative bias towards substance use and individuals with a substance use disorder (SUD). Terms such as "substance abuser" and "opioid addict" have shown to elicit greater negative explicit bias. However, other common terms have yet to be empirically studied. METHODS: 1,288 participants were recruited from ResearchMatch...
June 13, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29911176/differences-in-hearing-acuity-among-normal-hearing-young-adults-modulate-the-neural-basis-for-speech-comprehension
#12
Yune S Lee, Arthur Wingfield, Nam-Eun Min, Ethan Kotloff, Murray Grossman, Jonathan E Peelle
In this paper, we investigate how subtle differences in hearing acuity affect the neural systems supporting speech processing in young adults. Auditory sentence comprehension requires perceiving a complex acoustic signal and performing linguistic operations to extract the correct meaning. We used functional MRI to monitor human brain activity while adults aged 18-41 years listened to spoken sentences. The sentences varied in their level of syntactic processing demands, containing either a subject-relative or object-relative center-embedded clause...
May 2018: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907920/atypical-predictive-processing-during-visual-statistical-learning-in-children-with-developmental-dyslexia-an-event-related-potential-study
#13
Sonia Singh, Anne M Walk, Christopher M Conway
Previous research suggests that individuals with developmental dyslexia perform below typical readers on non-linguistic cognitive tasks involving the learning and encoding of statistical-sequential patterns. However, the neural mechanisms underlying such a deficit have not been well examined. The aim of the present study was to investigate the event-related potential (ERP) correlates of sequence processing in a sample of children diagnosed with dyslexia using a non-linguistic visual statistical learning paradigm...
June 15, 2018: Annals of Dyslexia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907908/russian-sentence-corpus-benchmark-measures-of-eye-movements-in-reading-in-russian
#14
Anna K Laurinavichyute, Irina A Sekerina, Svetlana Alexeeva, Kristine Bagdasaryan, Reinhold Kliegl
This article introduces a new corpus of eye movements in silent reading-the Russian Sentence Corpus (RSC). Russian uses the Cyrillic script, which has not yet been investigated in cross-linguistic eye movement research. As in every language studied so far, we confirmed the expected effects of low-level parameters, such as word length, frequency, and predictability, on the eye movements of skilled Russian readers. These findings allow us to add Slavic languages using Cyrillic script (exemplified by Russian) to the growing number of languages with different orthographies, ranging from the Roman-based European languages to logographic Asian ones, whose basic eye movement benchmarks conform to the universal comparative science of reading (Share, 2008)...
June 15, 2018: Behavior Research Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29905145/workload-of-french-speaking-family-physicians-in-francophone-rural-and-northern-communities-in-ontario
#15
Patrick E Timony, Alain P Gauthier, Boroma Sanou, Elizabeth F Wenghofer
INTRODUCTION: Previous studies have shown that French-speaking family physicians (FSPs) in Ontario are less numerous in areas with high proportions of francophones. The purpose of the current study was to assess whether the degree of concordance between physicians' language of competence and the linguistic profile of the community in which they practise is associated with workload and to explore variations in this relation in rural and northern regions of the province. METHODS: This was a secondary analysis of the 2013 College of Physicians and Surgeons of Ontario Annual Membership Renewal Survey...
2018: Canadian Journal of Rural Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29904544/interventions-for-supporting-and-assessing-science-writing-communication-cases-of-asian-english-language-learners
#16
Beverly L Smith-Keiling, Lidia K Swanson, Joanne M Dehnbostel
In seeking to support diversity, one challenge lies in adequately supporting and assessing science cognitions in a writing-intensive Biochemistry laboratory course when highly engaged Asian English language learners (Asian ELLs) struggle to communicate and make novice errors in English. Because they may understand advanced science concepts, but are not being adequately assessed for their deeper scientific understanding, we sought and examined interventions. We hypothesized that inquiry strategies, scaffolded learning through peer evaluation, and individualized tools that build writing communication skills would increase confidence...
2018: Journal of Microbiology & Biology Education: JMBE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29904435/making-sense-of-self-talk
#17
Bart Geurts
People talk not only to others but also to themselves. The self talk we engage in may be overt or covert, and is associated with a variety of higher mental functions, including reasoning, problem solving, planning and plan execution, attention, and motivation. When talking to herself, a speaker takes devices from her mother tongue, originally designed for interpersonal communication, and employs them to communicate with herself. But what could it even mean to communicate with oneself? To answer that question, we need a theory of communication that explains how the same linguistic devices may be used to communicate with others and oneself...
2018: Review of Philosophy and Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29904363/production-and-comprehension-of-prosodic-markers-in-sign-language-imperatives
#18
Diane Brentari, Joshua Falk, Anastasia Giannakidou, Annika Herrmann, Elisabeth Volk, Markus Steinbach
In signed and spoken language sentences, imperative mood and the corresponding speech acts such as for instance, command, permission or advice, can be distinguished by morphosyntactic structures, but also solely by prosodic cues, which are the focus of this paper. These cues can express paralinguistic mental states or grammatical meaning, and we show that in American Sign Language (ASL), they also exhibit the function, scope, and alignment of prosodic, linguistic elements of sign languages. The production and comprehension of prosodic facial expressions and temporal patterns therefore can shed light on how cues are grammaticalized in sign languages...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29903439/language-and-the-cerebellum
#19
Peter Mariën, Renato Borgatti
During the past decades neuroanatomic, neuroimaging, and clinical studies have substantially changed the long-standing view of the role of the cerebellum as a sole coordinator of sensorimotor function. Currently, the cerebellum is considered to be crucially implicated in a variety of cognitive, affective, social, and behavioral processes as well. In this chapter we aim to summarize a number of critical insights from different research areas (neuroanatomy, functional neuroimaging, clinical practice) that provide evidence for a role of the cerebellum in motor speech and nonmotor language processing in both adults and children...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29902271/the-archaeological-evidence-for-the-appearance-of-pastoralism-and-farming-in-southern-africa
#20
Faye Lander, Thembi Russell
This paper is a response to the growing reference to archaeological evidence by linguists and geneticists interested in the spread of early farmers and pastoralists in southern Africa. It presents two databases. The first contains the archaeological evidence for pastoralism and farming in southern Africa, for the period 550 BC to AD 1050. This is the first time that the seven different types of archaeological evidence that have traditionally been used to identify both spread events are presented together at this scale...
2018: PloS One
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