keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

linguistics

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088701/testing-the-causal-theory-of-reference
#1
Filippo Domaneschi, Massimiliano Vignolo, Simona Di Paola
Theories of reference are a crucial research topic in analytic philosophy. Since the publication of Kripke's Naming and Necessity, most philosophers have endorsed the causal/historical theory of reference. The goal of this paper is twofold: (i) to discuss a method for testing experimentally the causal theory of reference for proper names by investigating linguistic usage and (ii) to present the results from two experiments conducted with that method. Data collected in our experiments confirm the causal theory of reference for people proper names and for geographical proper names...
January 12, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088506/linguistic-indicators-of-pain-catastrophizing-in-patients-with-chronic-musculoskeletal-pain
#2
Doerte U Junghaenel, Stefan Schneider, Joan E Broderick
: The present study examined markers of pain catastrophizing in the word use of patients with chronic pain. Patients (n = 71) completed the Pain Catastrophizing Scale and wrote about their life with pain. Quantitative word count analysis examined whether the essays contained linguistic indicators of catastrophizing. Bivariate correlations showed that catastrophizing was associated with greater use of first person singular pronouns, such as "I" (r = .27, p≤ .05) and pronouns referencing other people (r = 28, p≤ ...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Pain: Official Journal of the American Pain Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088191/predicting-probable-alzheimer-s-disease-using-linguistic-deficits-and-biomarkers
#3
Sylvester O Orimaye, Jojo S-M Wong, Karen J Golden, Chee P Wong, Ireneous N Soyiri
BACKGROUND: The manual diagnosis of neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) and related Dementias has been a challenge. Currently, these disorders are diagnosed using specific clinical diagnostic criteria and neuropsychological examinations. The use of several Machine Learning algorithms to build automated diagnostic models using low-level linguistic features resulting from verbal utterances could aid diagnosis of patients with probable AD from a large population...
January 14, 2017: BMC Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088127/cerebral-laterality-for-language-is-related-to-adult-salivary-testosterone-levels-but-not-digit-ratio-2d-4d-in-men-a-functional-transcranial-doppler-ultrasound-study
#4
Marietta Papadatou-Pastou, Maryanne Martin
The adequacy of three competing theories of hormonal effects on cerebral laterality are compared using functional transcranial Doppler sonography (fTCD). Thirty-three adult males participated in the study (21 left-handers). Cerebral lateralization was measured by fTCD using an extensively validated word generation task. Adult salivary testosterone (T) and cortisol (C) concentrations were measured by luminescence immunoassay and prenatal T exposure was indirectly estimated by the somatic marker of 2nd to 4th digit length ratio (2D:4D)...
January 11, 2017: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088040/listen-up-developmental-differences-in-the-impact-of-ids-on-speech-segmentation
#5
Melanie S Schreiner, Nivedita Mani
While American English infants typically segment words from fluent speech by 7.5-months, studies of infants from other language backgrounds have difficulty replicating this finding. One possible explanation for this cross-linguistic difference is that the input infants from different language backgrounds receive is not as infant-directed as American English infant-directed speech (Floccia et al., 2016). Against this background, the current study investigates whether German 7.5- and 9-month-old infants segment words from fluent speech when the input is prosodically similar to American English IDS...
January 11, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086861/managing-shades-of-grey-a-focus-group-study-exploring-community-dwellers-views-on-advance-care-planning-in-older-people
#6
Natasha Michael, Clare O'Callaghan, Emma Sayers
BACKGROUND: Community-dwelling consumers of healthcare are increasing, many aging with life-limiting conditions and deteriorating cognition. However, few have had advance care planning discussions or completed documentation to ensure future care preferences are acted upon. This study examines the awareness, attitudes, and experiences of advance care planning amongst older people and unrelated offspring/caregivers of older people residing in the community. METHODS: Qualitative descriptive research, which included focus groups with older people (55+ years) and older people's offspring/caregivers living in an Australian city and surrounding rural region...
January 13, 2017: BMC Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081136/task-irrelevant-external-cues-can-influence-language-selection-in-voluntary-object-naming-evidence-from-hindi-english-bilinguals
#7
Divya Bhatia, Seema Gorur Prasad, Kaushik Sake, Ramesh Kumar Mishra
We examined if external cues such as other agents' actions can influence the choice of language during voluntary and cued object naming in bilinguals in three experiments. Hindi-English bilinguals first saw a cartoon waving at a color patch. They were then asked to either name a picture in the language of their choice (voluntary block) or to name in the instructed language (cued block). The colors waved at by the cartoon were also the colors used as language cues (Hindi or English). We compared the influence of the cartoon's choice of color on naming when speakers had to indicate their choice explicitly before naming (Experiment 1) as opposed to when they named directly on seeing the pictures (Experiment 2 and 3)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081135/rumor-detection-over-varying-time-windows
#8
Sejeong Kwon, Meeyoung Cha, Kyomin Jung
This study determines the major difference between rumors and non-rumors and explores rumor classification performance levels over varying time windows-from the first three days to nearly two months. A comprehensive set of user, structural, linguistic, and temporal features was examined and their relative strength was compared from near-complete date of Twitter. Our contribution is at providing deep insight into the cumulative spreading patterns of rumors over time as well as at tracking the precise changes in predictive powers across rumor features...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080261/performance-of-hispanics-and-non-hispanic-whites-on-the-nih-toolbox-cognition-battery-the-roles-of-ethnicity-and-language-backgrounds
#9
Ilse Flores, Kaitlin B Casaletto, Maria J Marquine, Anya Umlauf, David J Moore, Dan Mungas, Richard C Gershon, Jennifer L Beaumont, Robert K Heaton
OBJECTIVE: This study examined the influence of Hispanic ethnicity and language/cultural background on performance on the NIH Toolbox Cognition Battery (NIHTB-CB). METHOD: Participants included healthy, primarily English-speaking Hispanic (n = 93; Hispanic-English), primarily Spanish-speaking Hispanic (n = 93; Hispanic-Spanish), and English speaking Non-Hispanic white (n = 93; NH white) adults matched on age, sex, and education levels. All participants were in the NIH Toolbox national norming project and completed the Fluid and Crystallized components of the NIHTB-CB...
January 12, 2017: Clinical Neuropsychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080152/ideological-consumerism-in-colombian-elections-2015-links-between-political-ideology-twitter-activity-and-electoral-results
#10
Juan C Correa, Jorge E Camargo
Propagation of political ideologies in social networks has shown a substantial impact on voting behavior. Both the contents of the messages (the ideology) and the politicians' influence on their online audiences (their followers) have been associated with such an impact. In this study we evaluate which of these factors exerted a major role in deciding electoral results of the 2015 Colombian regional elections by evaluating the linguistic similarity of political ideologies and their influence on the Twitter sphere...
January 2017: Cyberpsychology, Behavior and Social Networking
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080114/oculomotor-and-linguistic-processing-effects-in-reading-dynamic-horizontally-scrolling-text
#11
Hannah Harvey, Hayward J Godwin, Gemma Fitzsimmons, Simon P Liversedge, Robin Walker
Two experiments are reported investigating oculomotor behavior and linguistic processing when reading dynamic horizontally scrolling text (compared to reading normal static text). Three factors known to modulate processing time in normal reading were investigated: Word length and word frequency were examined in Experiment 1, and target word predictability in Experiment 2. An analysis of global oculomotor behavior across the 2 experiments showed that participants made fewer and longer fixations when reading scrolling text, with shorter progressive and regressive saccades between these fixations...
January 12, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080105/cross-cultural-feigning-assessment-a-systematic-review-of-feigning-instruments-used-with-linguistically-ethnically-and-culturally-diverse-samples
#12
Alicia Nijdam-Jones, Barry Rosenfeld
The cross-cultural validity of feigning instruments and cut-scores is a critical concern for forensic mental health clinicians. This systematic review evaluated feigning classification accuracy and effect sizes across instruments and languages by summarizing 45 published peer-reviewed articles and unpublished doctoral dissertations conducted in Europe, Asia, and North America using linguistically, ethnically, and culturally diverse samples. The most common psychiatric symptom measures used with linguistically, ethnically, and culturally diverse samples included the Structured Inventory of Malingered Symptomatology, the Miller Forensic Assessment of Symptoms Test, and the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI)...
January 12, 2017: Psychological Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078978/preschoolers-flexibly-adapt-to-linguistic-input-in-a-noisy-channel
#13
Daniel Yurovsky, Sarah Case, Michael C Frank
Because linguistic communication is inherently noisy and uncertain, adult language comprehenders integrate bottom-up cues from speech perception with top-down expectations about what speakers are likely to say. Further, in line with the predictions of ideal-observer models, past results have shown that adult comprehenders flexibly adapt how much they rely on these two kinds of cues in proportion to their changing reliability. Do children also show evidence of flexible, expectation-based language comprehension? We presented preschoolers with ambiguous utterances that could be interpreted in two different ways, depending on whether the children privileged perceptual input or top-down expectations...
January 2017: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078598/an-interaction-between-the-effects-of-bilingualism-and-cross-linguistic-similarity-in-balanced-and-unbalanced-bilingual-adults-l2-mandarin-word-reading-production
#14
Hsiu-Ling Hsu
We conducted three experiments investigating in more detail the interaction between the two effects of bilingualism and L1-L2 similarity in the speech performance of balanced and unbalanced bilinguals. In Experiment 1, L1 Mandarin monolinguals and two groups of Hakka and Minnan balanced bilinguals (Hakka: more similar to Mandarin) performed a non-contextual single-character reading task in Mandarin, which required more inhibitory control. The two bilingual groups outperformed the monolinguals, regardless of their L1 background...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Psycholinguistic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078554/syntax-response-space-biases-for-hands-not-feet
#15
Timothy W Boiteau, Cameron Smith, Amit Almor
A number of studies have shown a relationship between comprehending transitive sentences and spatial processing (e.g., Chatterjee, Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 5(2), 55-61, 2001), in which there is an advantage for responding to images that depict the agent of an action to the left of the patient. Boiteau and Almor (Cognitive Science, 2016) demonstrated that a similar effect is found for pure linguistic information, such that after reading a sentence, identifying a word that had appeared earlier as the agent is faster on the left than on the right, but only for left-hand responses...
January 11, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077662/stability-and-plasticity-in-neural-encoding-of-linguistically-relevant-pitch-patterns
#16
Zilong Xie, Rachel Denise Reetzke, Bharath Chandrasekaran
While life-long language experience modulates subcortical encoding of pitch patterns, there is emerging evidence that short-term training introduced in adulthood also shapes subcortical pitch encoding. Here, we use a cross-language design to examine the stability of language experience-dependent subcortical plasticity over multiple days. We then examine the extent to which behavioral relevance induced by speech sound-to-category training leads to plastic changes in subcortical pitch encoding in adulthood relative to adolescence, a period of ongoing maturation of subcortical and cortical auditory processing...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077311/cortical-thickness-increases-after-simultaneous-interpretation-training
#17
Alexis Hervais-Adelman, Barbara Moser-Mercer, Micah M Murray, Narly Golestani
Simultaneous interpretation is a complex cognitive task that not only demands multilingual language processing, but also requires application of extreme levels of domain-general cognitive control. We used MRI to longitudinally measure cortical thickness in simultaneous interpretation trainees before and after a Master's program in conference interpreting. We compared them to multilingual control participants scanned at the same interval of time. Increases in cortical thickness were specific to trainee interpreters...
January 9, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077259/the-growth-of-language-universal-grammar-experience-and-principles-of-computation
#18
REVIEW
Charles Yang, Stephen Crain, Robert C Berwick, Noam Chomsky, Johan J Bolhuis
YANG, C., S. Crain, R.C. Berwick, N. Chomsky and J.J. Bolhuis. The growth of language. NEUROSCI BIOBEHAV REV VOL (ISSUE) XXX-XXX, 2016. Human infants develop language remarkably rapidly and without overt instruction. We argue that the distinctive ontogenesis of child language arises from the interplay of three factors: domain-specific principles of language (Universal Grammar), external experience, and properties of non-linguistic domains of cognition including general learning mechanisms and principles of efficient computation...
January 7, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077170/prosodic-processing-post-traumatic-brain-injury-a-systematic-review
#19
Gabriela Ilie, Michael D Cusimano, Wenshan Li
BACKGROUND: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) survivors often report difficulties with understanding and producing paralinguistic cues, as well as understanding and producing basic communication tasks. However, a large range of communicative deficits in this population cannot be adequately explained by linguistic impairment. The review examines prosodic processing performance post-TBI, its relationship with injury severity, brain injury localization, recovery and co-occurring psychiatric or mental health issues post-TBI METHODS: A systematic review using several databases including MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane, LLBA (Linguistics and Language Behaviour Abstract) and Web of Science (January 1980 to May 2015), as well as a manual search of the cited references of the selected articles and the search cited features of PubMed was performed...
January 4, 2017: Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076440/application-of-a-cloud-model-set-pair-analysis-in-hazard-assessment-for-biomass-gasification-stations
#20
Fang Yan, Kaili Xu
Because a biomass gasification station includes various hazard factors, hazard assessment is needed and significant. In this article, the cloud model (CM) is employed to improve set pair analysis (SPA), and a novel hazard assessment method for a biomass gasification station is proposed based on the cloud model-set pair analysis (CM-SPA). In this method, cloud weight is proposed to be the weight of index. In contrast to the index weight of other methods, cloud weight is shown by cloud descriptors; hence, the randomness and fuzziness of cloud weight will make it effective to reflect the linguistic variables of experts...
2017: PloS One
keyword
keyword
13749
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"