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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719572/neuroimaging-correlates-of-post-stroke-aphasia-rehabilitation-in-a-pilot-randomized-trial-of-constraint-induced-aphasia-therapy
#1
Rodolphe Nenert, Jane B Allendorfer, Amber M Martin, Christi Banks, Angel Ball, Jennifer Vannest, Aimee R Dietz, Jerzy P Szaflarski
BACKGROUND Recovery from post-stroke aphasia is a long and complex process with an uncertain outcome. Various interventions have been proposed to augment the recovery, including constraint-induced aphasia therapy (CIAT). CIAT has been applied to patients suffering from post-stroke aphasia in several unblinded studies to show mild-to-moderate linguistic gains. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the neuroimaging correlates of CIAT in patients with chronic aphasia related to left middle cerebral artery stroke...
July 18, 2017: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716965/neural-tuning-to-low-level-features-of-speech-throughout-the-perisylvian-cortex
#2
Julia Berezutskaya, Zachary V Freudenburg, Umut Güçlü, Marcel A J van Gerven, Nick F Ramsey
Despite a large body of research, we continue to lack a detailed account of how auditory processing of continuous speech unfolds in the human brain. Previous research showed the propagation of low-level acoustic features of speech from posterior superior temporal gyrus towards anterior superior temporal gyrus in the human brain (Hullett et al., 2016). In this study we investigate what happens to these neural representations past the superior temporal gyrus, and how they engage higher-level language processing areas, such as inferior frontal gyrus...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716916/genomic-landscape-of-human-diversity-across-madagascar
#3
Denis Pierron, Margit Heiske, Harilanto Razafindrazaka, Ignace Rakoto, Nelly Rabetokotany, Bodo Ravololomanga, Lucien M-A Rakotozafy, Mireille Mialy Rakotomalala, Michel Razafiarivony, Bako Rasoarifetra, Miakabola Andriamampianina Raharijesy, Lolona Razafindralambo, Ramilisonina, Fulgence Fanony, Sendra Lejamble, Olivier Thomas, Ahmed Mohamed Abdallah, Christophe Rocher, Amal Arachiche, Laure Tonaso, Veronica Pereda-Loth, Stéphanie Schiavinato, Nicolas Brucato, Francois-Xavier Ricaut, Pradiptajati Kusuma, Herawati Sudoyo, Shengyu Ni, Anne Boland, Jean-Francois Deleuze, Philippe Beaujard, Philippe Grange, Sander Adelaar, Mark Stoneking, Jean-Aimé Rakotoarisoa, Chantal Radimilahy, Thierry Letellier
Although situated ∼400 km from the east coast of Africa, Madagascar exhibits cultural, linguistic, and genetic traits from both Southeast Asia and Eastern Africa. The settlement history remains contentious; we therefore used a grid-based approach to sample at high resolution the genomic diversity (including maternal lineages, paternal lineages, and genome-wide data) across 257 villages and 2,704 Malagasy individuals. We find a common Bantu and Austronesian descent for all Malagasy individuals with a limited paternal contribution from Europe and the Middle East...
July 17, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716385/protein-lipograms
#4
Jason Laurie, Amit K Chattopadhyay, Darren R Flower
Linguistic analysis of protein sequences is an underexploited technique. Here, we capitalize on the concept of the lipogram to characterize sequences at the proteome levels. A lipogram is a literary composition which omits one or more letters. A protein lipogram likewise omits one or more types of amino acid. In this article, we establish a usable terminology for the decomposition of a sequence collection in terms of the lipogram. Next, we characterize Uniref50 using a lipogram decomposition. At the global level, protein lipograms exhibit power-law properties...
July 14, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715718/when-speaker-identity-is-unavoidable-neural-processing-of-speaker-identity-cues-in-natural-speech
#5
Alba Tuninetti, Kateřina Chládková, Varghese Peter, Niels O Schiller, Paola Escudero
Speech sound acoustic properties vary largely across speakers and accents. When perceiving speech, adult listeners normally disregard non-linguistic variation caused by speaker or accent differences, in order to comprehend the linguistic message, e.g. to correctly identify a speech sound or a word. Here we tested whether the process of normalizing speaker and accent differences, facilitating the recognition of linguistic information, is found at the level of neural processing, and whether it is modulated by the listeners' native language...
July 14, 2017: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714437/the-pragmatic-utility-of-watson-based-caring-measures
#6
Huda Atiyeh, Muayyad Ahmad, Eman Tariq Alslman, Manar Ali Bani Hani
PURPOSE: This study aims to clarify the caring concept with emphasis on the pragmatic utility of caring measures. METHOD: The Morse et al. (Morse, Hupcey, Mitcham, & Lenz, 1996; Morse, Mitcham, Hupcey, & Tasón, 1996) criteria for concept maturity were used as a framework. A literature review of Watson-based caring concept was undertaken to evaluate the logical, epistemological, linguistical, and pragmatic parameters. RESULTS: The concept of caring as conceptualized by Watson and operationalized through different measures appeared mature...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Nursing Measurement
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712988/the-spanish-adaptation-of-the-palliative-performance-scale-version-2-among-cancer-patients-at-the-end-of-life-psychometric-properties
#7
Eva Barallat, Maria Nabal, Jaume Canal, Javier Trujillano, Montse Gea-Sánchez, Philip J Larkin, Michael G Downing
BACKGROUND: Palliative Performance Scale (PPS) is a reliable tool to assess performance status in cancer patients receiving palliative care. Spanish validated and culturally adapted tools are needed. OBJECTIVES: To develop PPS translation and cross-cultural adaptation into Spanish. To assess its psychometric properties. DESIGN: Translation process with cross-cultural adaptation to produce Spanish Palliative Performance Scale (PPS-SPANISH)...
July 13, 2017: Journal of Pain and Symptom Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712469/subcortical-contributions-to-motor-speech-phylogenetic-developmental-clinical
#8
REVIEW
W Ziegler, H Ackermann
Vocal learning is an exclusively human trait among primates. However, songbirds demonstrate behavioral features resembling human speech learning. Two circuits have a preeminent role in this human behavior; namely, the corticostriatal and the cerebrocerebellar motor loops. While the striatal contribution can be traced back to the avian anterior forebrain pathway (AFP), the sensorimotor adaptation functions of the cerebellum appear to be human specific in acoustic communication. This review contributes to an ongoing discussion on how birdsong translates into human speech...
July 13, 2017: Trends in Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710697/the-basis-of-the-syllable-hierarchy-articulatory-pressures-or-universal-phonological-constraints
#9
Xu Zhao, Iris Berent
Across languages, certain syllable types are systematically preferred to others (e.g., [Formula: see text] lbif, where [Formula: see text] indicates a preference). Previous research has shown that these preferences are active in the brains of individual speakers, they are evident even when none of these syllable types exists in participants' language, and even when the stimuli are presented in print. These results suggest that the syllable hierarchy cannot be reduced to either lexical or auditory/phonetic pressures...
July 14, 2017: Journal of Psycholinguistic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708933/colorectal-cancer-screening-at-us-community-health-centers-examination-of-sociodemographic-disparities-and-association-with-patient-provider-communication
#10
Sue C Lin, Duane McKinley, Alek Sripipatana, Laura Makaroff
BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer (CRC) screening rates are low among underserved populations. High-quality patient-physician communication potentially influences patients' willingness to undergo CRC screening. Community health centers (HCs) provide comprehensive primary health care to underserved populations. This study's objectives were to ascertain national CRC screening rates and to explore the relations between sociodemographic characteristics and patient-provider communication on the receipt of CRC screening among HC patients...
July 14, 2017: Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707216/imageability-ratings-across-languages
#11
Adrià Rofes, Lilla Zakariás, Klaudia Ceder, Marianne Lind, Monica Blom Johansson, Vânia de Aguiar, Jovana Bjekić, Valantis Fyndanis, Anna Gavarró, Hanne Gram Simonsen, Carlos Hernández Sacristán, Maria Kambanaros, Jelena Kuvač Kraljević, Silvia Martínez-Ferreiro, İlknur Mavis, Carolina Méndez Orellana, Ingrid Sör, Ágnes Lukács, Müge Tunçer, Jasmina Vuksanović, Amaia Munarriz Ibarrola, Marie Pourquie, Spyridoula Varlokosta, David Howard
Imageability is a psycholinguistic variable that indicates how well a word gives rise to a mental image or sensory experience. Imageability ratings are used extensively in psycholinguistic, neuropsychological, and aphasiological studies. However, little formal knowledge exists about whether and how these ratings are associated between and within languages. Fifteen imageability databases were cross-correlated using nonparametric statistics. Some of these corresponded to unpublished data collected within a European research network-the Collaboration of Aphasia Trialists (COST IS1208)...
July 13, 2017: Behavior Research Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707195/the-power-of-print-reading-comics-in-the-classroom
#12
Sabine Gabaron
Evidence from neuroscience and psychological studies supporting benefits of print reading over digital reading has recently been discussed in these columns (Perbal 2017 J. Cell Commun. Signal. 11:1-4). In the present commentary, I would like to add my perspective as a Humanities educator, and build upon the idea that print reading results in better comprehension, learning and communication. The argumentation that is presented herein is based on a study performed in a French Comics language class aimed at broadening students' knowledge and experience of graphic novels, and providing them with a cultural representation in the foreign language...
July 13, 2017: Journal of Cell Communication and Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704629/enhanced-hazard-analysis-and-risk-assessment-for-human-in-the-loop-systems
#13
David Kaber, Maryam Zahabi
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to enhance the existing system hazard analysis (SHA) technique by introducing the concepts of human and automation reliability quantification as well as fuzzy classification of system risks. These enhancements led to formulation of a new overall system risk-reliability score. BACKGROUND: Many system safety analysis methods focus on individual physical component failure. Some human reliability analyses (HRA) consider human-automation interaction in determining system failure rates...
August 2017: Human Factors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704491/phyto-toponyms-of-arbutus-unedo-l-and-their-distribution-in-sardinia-italy
#14
Claudia Pinna, Luisa Carta, Vitale Deiana, Ignazio Camarda
The study shows the results of an inventory of place names connected to Arbutus unedo L., a Mediterranean species, widespread throughout Sardinia. The main aim was to compare the past distribution of place names, referring to the strawberry tree, to the current distribution of the species on the island. In addition, we investigated the meaning and the diversity of these local place names in the various communities. The result was a collection of 432 phyto-toponyms. 248 of them were used for an analysis of their distribution in the habitats, indicated on the Map of the Nature System in Sardinia, defined on the basis of the current vegetation typology...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704379/fractionating-nonword-repetition-the-contributions-of-short-term-memory-and-oromotor-praxis-are-different
#15
Saloni Krishnan, Katherine J Alcock, Daniel Carey, Lina Bergström, Annette Karmiloff-Smith, Frederic Dick
The ability to reproduce novel words is a sensitive marker of language impairment across a variety of developmental disorders. Nonword repetition tasks are thought to reflect phonological short-term memory skills. Yet, when children hear and then utter a word for the first time, they must transform a novel speech signal into a series of coordinated, precisely timed oral movements. Little is known about how children's oromotor speed, planning and co-ordination abilities might influence their ability to repeat novel nonwords, beyond the influence of higher-level cognitive and linguistic skills...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704068/breaking-down-barriers-in-pediatric-mental-health-consultations-understanding-patients-use-of-i-don-t-know
#16
Ashley M Hesson, Heike Pichler
Barriers to effective provider-patient communication take many forms that can be difficult to recognize and appropriately address. This paper offers probabilistic indicators for one such form, patient-produced "I don't know" (IDK), distinguishing its use as a cognitive claim and its use as a strategy for resisting discussion of sensitive topics. A total of 95 audio-recorded psychiatrist-child interactions are drawn from a US-wide corpus of physician-patient consultations. From these, 376 patient-produced IDKs are extracted and coded for linguistic/social factors, including form, function, prosody, age, gender, and primary diagnosis...
July 13, 2017: Health Communication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702955/mentors-competence-in-mentoring-culturally-and-linguistically-diverse-nursing-students-during-clinical-placement
#17
Ashlee Oikarainen, Kristina Mikkonen, Anna-Maria Tuomikoski, Salla Pitkänen, Satu Elo, Heidi Ruotsalainen, Maria Kääriäinen
AIMS: To describe mentors' competence in mentoring culturally and linguistically diverse nursing students during clinical placement and identify the factors that affect mentoring. BACKGROUND: Healthcare education is confronted by several challenges in a time characterized by globalization and increasing international migration. Nursing students from diverse backgrounds continue to experience difficulties during clinical placement. Students can overcome these difficulties and assume responsibility for their learning when mentored by supportive and competent mentors...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Advanced Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701854/is-linguistic-injustice-a-myth-a-response-to-hyland-2016
#18
Stephen Politzer-Ahles, Jeffrey J Holliday, Teresa Girolamo, Maria Spychalska, Kelly Harper Berkson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: J Second Lang Writ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701258/cultural-competence-in-the-community-health-context-we-don
#19
Mandy Truong, Lisa Gibbs, Yin Paradies, Naomi Priest, Maryanne Tadic
Health and social service agencies need to be responsive to the healthcare requirements of culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) groups in the community. This is a challenging proposition, particularly due to shifting demographics in developed Western countries such as Australia. Organisations that strive for cultural competence can potentially reduce the barriers associated with inequitable access to services by CALD groups. Community health services play a vital role in the provision of culturally competent health services to people from CALD groups...
July 13, 2017: Australian Journal of Primary Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700448/linguistic-context-versus-semantic-competition-in-word-recognition-by-younger-and-older-adults-with-cochlear-implants
#20
Nicole M Amichetti, Eriko Atagi, Ying-Yee Kong, Arthur Wingfield
OBJECTIVES: The increasing numbers of older adults now receiving cochlear implants raises the question of how the novel signal produced by cochlear implants may interact with cognitive aging in the recognition of words heard spoken within a linguistic context. The objective of this study was to pit the facilitative effects of a constraining linguistic context against a potential age-sensitive negative effect of response competition on effectiveness of word recognition. DESIGN: Younger (n = 8; mean age = 22...
July 11, 2017: Ear and Hearing
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