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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346878/how-appropriate-are-the-english-language-test-requirements-for-non-uk-trained-nurses-a-qualitative-study-of-spoken-communication-in-uk-hospitals
#1
Carole Sedgwick, Mark Garner
BACKGROUND: Non-native speakers of English who hold nursing qualifications from outside the UK are required to provide evidence of English language competence by achieving a minimum overall score of Band 7 on the International English Language Testing System (IELTS) academic test. OBJECTIVES: To describe the English language required to deal with the daily demands of nursing in the UK. To compare these abilities with the stipulated levels on the language test. DESIGN: A tracking study was conducted with 4 nurses, and focus groups with 11 further nurses...
March 6, 2017: International Journal of Nursing Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345401/the-prosody-of-topic-transition-in-interaction-pitch-register-variations
#2
Marine Riou
In conversation, speakers can mobilize a variety of prosodic cues to signal a switch in topics. This paper uses a mixed-methods approach combining Conversation Analysis and Instrumental Prosody to investigate the prosody of topic transition in American English, and analyzes the ways in which speakers can play on register level and on register span. A cluster of three prosodic parameters was found to be predictive of transitions: a higher maximum fundamental frequency (F0), a higher median F0 (key), and an expanded register span...
March 1, 2017: Language and Speech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344564/investigating-the-grammatical-and-pragmatic-origins-of-wh-questions-in-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorders
#3
Manya Jyotishi, Deborah Fein, Letitia Naigles
Compared to typically developing children, children with autism (ASD) show delayed production of wh-questions. It is currently controversial the degree to which such deficits derive from social-pragmatic requirements and/or because these are complex grammatical structures. The current study employed the intermodal preferential looking (IPL) paradigm, which reduces social-pragmatic demands. The IPL paradigm can help distinguish these proposals, as successful comprehension promotes the "pragmatics-origins" argument whereas comprehension difficulties would implicate a "grammatical-origins" argument...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343209/terminological-collocations-in-medical-latin-and-english-a-comparative-study
#4
Olena M Bieliaieva, Yuliia V Lysanets, Ivanna V Znamenska, Inesa V Rozhenko, Nataliia M Nikolaieva
INTRODUCTION: The present paper examines the linguistic status of terminological collocations in medical Latin and English, discusses the most productive term-formation models and ways of Latin-English translation. AIM: The authors aim to provide the comparative analysis of Latin and English terminological collocations and suggest their classification in terms of the idiomaticity level and semantic valency. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The research is based on the corpus of terminological collocations in Latin and English medical discourse using structural, etymological, typological, comparative methods, as well as the method of semantic analysis and conceptual metaphor theory...
2017: Wiadomości Lekarskie: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340356/acquiring-variation-in-an-artificial-language-children-and-adults-are-sensitive-to-socially-conditioned-linguistic-variation
#5
Anna Samara, Kenny Smith, Helen Brown, Elizabeth Wonnacott
Languages exhibit sociolinguistic variation, such that adult native speakers condition the usage of linguistic variants on social context, gender, and ethnicity, among other cues. While the existence of this kind of socially conditioned variation is well-established, less is known about how it is acquired. Studies of naturalistic language use by children provide various examples where children's production of sociolinguistic variants appears to be conditioned on similar factors to adults' production, but it is difficult to determine whether this reflects knowledge of sociolinguistic conditioning or systematic differences in the input to children from different social groups...
March 21, 2017: Cognitive Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337947/memory-demands-in-linguistic-compensation
#6
Srdan Medimorec, Chandeep Mander, Evan F Risko
Individuals often modify speech characteristics to accommodate their listeners. In the present study we investigate how speakers modify their speech in a dictation task and what this says about their beliefs with respect to the listener's information processing limitations. To do so, we asked participants to either read a set of numbers aloud, or dictate numbers so that another person could write them down. Our results suggest that speech modification in this task was not related to the speakers' differences in working memory capacity, and could represent speakers' attempt to minimize working memory demands of the listener...
March 24, 2017: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337647/revisiting-the-role-of-language-in-spatial-cognition-categorical-perception-of-spatial-relations-in-english-and-korean-speakers
#7
Kevin J Holmes, Kelsey Moty, Terry Regier
The spatial relation of support has been regarded as universally privileged in nonlinguistic cognition and immune to the influence of language. English, but not Korean, obligatorily distinguishes support from nonsupport via basic spatial terms. Despite this linguistic difference, previous research suggests that English and Korean speakers show comparable nonlinguistic sensitivity to the support/nonsupport distinction. Here, using a paradigm previously found to elicit cross-language differences in color discrimination, we provide evidence for a difference in sensitivity to support/nonsupport between native English speakers and native Korean speakers who were late English learners and tested in a context that privileged Korean...
March 23, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337599/genetic-variation-of-17-autosomal-str-loci-in-the-dong-ethnic-minority-from-guangxi-zhuang-autonomous-region-south-china
#8
Fei Guo
A total of 17 autosomal short tandem repeat (STR) loci were amplified with the PowerPlex 18D System from 3244 unrelated healthy individuals of Dong ethnic minority living in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, South China. Moreover, genetic distances between Dong and 12 published populations were compared, and a neighbor-joining (NJ) phylogenetic tree was developed using averaged F ST matrix and visualized. Results are generally in accordance with the geographical and linguistic distribution of studied populations and their historical relationships with Guangxi Dong...
March 23, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336666/how-you-makes-meaning
#9
Ariana Orvell, Ethan Kross, Susan A Gelman
"You" is one of the most common words in the English language. Although it typically refers to the person addressed ("How are you?"), "you" is also used to make timeless statements about people in general ("You win some, you lose some."). Here, we demonstrate that this ubiquitous but understudied linguistic device, known as "generic-you," has important implications for how people derive meaning from experience. Across six experiments, we found that generic-you is used to express norms in both ordinary and emotional contexts and that producing generic-you when reflecting on negative experiences allows people to "normalize" their experience by extending it beyond the self...
March 24, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334252/individualized-prediction-of-reading-comprehension-ability-using-gray-matter-volume
#10
Zaixu Cui, Mengmeng Su, Liangjie Li, Hua Shu, Gaolang Gong
Reading comprehension is a crucial reading skill for learning and putatively contains 2 key components: reading decoding and linguistic comprehension. Current understanding of the neural mechanism underlying these reading comprehension components is lacking, and whether and how neuroanatomical features can be used to predict these 2 skills remain largely unexplored. In the present study, we analyzed a large sample from the Human Connectome Project (HCP) dataset and successfully built multivariate predictive models for these 2 skills using whole-brain gray matter volume features...
March 10, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330490/explaining-culturally-and-linguistically-diverse-cald-parents-access-of-healthcare-services-for-developmental-surveillance-and-anticipatory-guidance-qualitative-findings-from-the-watch-me-grow-study
#11
Pankaj Garg, My Trinh Ha, John Eastwood, Susan Harvey, Sue Woolfenden, Elisabeth Murphy, Cheryl Dissanayake, Bin Jalaludin, Katrina Williams, Anne McKenzie, Stewart Einfeld, Natalie Silove, Kate Short, Valsamma Eapen
BACKGROUND: Regular health visits for parents with young children provide an opportunity for developmental surveillance and anticipatory guidance regarding common childhood problems and help to achieve optimal developmental progress prior to school entry. However, there are few published reports from Australian culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) communities exploring parents' experiences for accessing child health surveillance programs. This paper aims to describe and explain parental experiences for accessing developmental surveillance and anticipatory guidance for children...
March 22, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329852/overcoming-elderspeak-a-qualitative-study-of-three-alternatives
#12
Anna I Corwin
Purpose: This study identifies genres of communication that avoid the features of elderspeak and successfully engage cognitively or physically affected older adults in rich communicative interaction. Design and Methods: The study examined 100 hr of audio- and video-recorded interaction between older Catholic nuns and their caregivers. The data were collected as part of a 7-year study on the linguistic and communicative factors that contribute to successful aging in a Catholic convent infirmary...
March 14, 2017: Gerontologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328964/the-acute-mania-of-king-george-iii-a-computational-linguistic-analysis
#13
Vassiliki Rentoumi, Timothy Peters, Jonathan Conlin, Peter Garrard
We used a computational linguistic approach, exploiting machine learning techniques, to examine the letters written by King George III during mentally healthy and apparently mentally ill periods of his life. The aims of the study were: first, to establish the existence of alterations in the King's written language at the onset of his first manic episode; and secondly to identify salient sources of variation contributing to the changes. Effects on language were sought in two control conditions (politically stressful vs...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328102/sound-symbolism-the-role-of-word-sound-in-meaning
#14
REVIEW
Jan-Olof Svantesson
The question whether there is a natural connection between sound and meaning or if they are related only by convention has been debated since antiquity. In linguistics, it is usually taken for granted that 'the linguistic sign is arbitrary,' and exceptions like onomatopoeia have been regarded as marginal phenomena. However, it is becoming more and more clear that motivated relations between sound and meaning are more common and important than has been thought. There is now a large and rapidly growing literature on subjects as ideophones (or expressives), words that describe how a speaker perceives a situation with the senses, and phonaesthemes, units like English gl-, which occur in many words that share a meaning component (in this case 'light': gleam, glitter, etc...
March 22, 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327371/longitudinal-changes-in-linguistic-complexity-among-professional-football-players
#15
Visar Berisha, Shuai Wang, Amy LaCross, Julie Liss, Pamela Garcia-Filion
Reductions in spoken language complexity have been associated with the onset of various neurological disorders. The objective of this study is to analyze whether similar trends are found in professional football players who are at risk for chronic traumatic encephalopathy. We compare changes in linguistic complexity (as indexed by the type-to-token ratio and lexical density) measured from the interview transcripts of players in the National Football League (NFL) to those measured from interview transcripts of coaches and/or front-office NFL executives who have never played professional football...
March 16, 2017: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327213/are-stereotypes-accurate-a-perspective-from-the-cognitive-science-of-concepts
#16
Lin Bian, Andrei Cimpian
In his 2012 book, Jussim suggests that people's beliefs about various groups (i.e., their stereotypes) are largely accurate. We unpack this claim using the distinction between generic and statistical beliefs - a distinction supported by extensive evidence in cognitive psychology, linguistics, and philosophy. Regardless of whether one understands stereotypes as generic or statistical beliefs about groups, skepticism remains about the rationality of social judgments.
January 2017: Behavioral and Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326995/multipic-a-standardized-set-of-750-drawings-with-norms-for-six-european-languages
#17
Jon Andoni Duñabeitia, Davide Crepaldi, Antje S Meyer, Boris New, Christos Pliatsikas, Eva Smolka, Marc Brysbaert
Numerous studies in psychology, cognitive neuroscience and psycholinguistics have used pictures of objects as stimulus materials. Currently, authors engaged in cross-linguistic work or wishing to run parallel studies at multiple sites where different languages are spoken must rely on rather small sets of black-and-white or colored line drawings. These sets are increasingly experienced as being too limited. Therefore, we constructed a new set of 750 colored pictures of concrete concepts. This set, MultiPic, constitutes a new valuable tool for cognitive scientists investigating language, visual perception, memory and/or attention in monolingual or multilingual populations...
March 22, 2017: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326994/effects-of-lexical-competition-and-dialect-exposure-on-phonological-priming
#18
Cynthia G Clopper, Abby Walker
A cross-modal lexical decision task was used to explore the effects of lexical competition and dialect exposure on phonological form priming. Relative to unrelated auditory primes, matching real word primes facilitated lexical decision for visual real word targets, whereas competing minimal pair primes inhibited lexical decision. These effects were robust across two English vowel pairs (mid-front and low-front) and for two listener groups (mono-dialectal and multi-dialectal). However, both the most robust facilitation and the most robust inhibition were observed for the mid-front vowel words with few phonological competitors for the mono-dialectal listener group...
March 2017: Language and Speech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326989/perception-of-nonnative-accented-sentences-by-5-to-8-year-olds-and-adults-the-role-of-phonological-processing-skills
#19
Tessa Bent, Eriko Atagi
To acquire language and successfully communicate in multicultural and multilingual societies, children must learn to understand speakers with various accents and dialects. This study investigated adults' and 5- to 8-year-old children's perception of native- and nonnative-accented English sentences in noise. Participants' phonological memory and phonological awareness were assessed to investigate factors associated with individual differences in word recognition. Although both adults and children performed less accurately with nonnative talkers than native talkers, children showed greater performance decrements...
March 2017: Language and Speech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326986/the-role-of-predictability-in-intonational-variability
#20
Rory Turnbull
Predictability is known to affect many properties of speech production. In particular, it has been observed that highly predictable elements (words, syllables) are produced with less phonetic prominence (shorter duration, less peripheral vowels) than less predictable elements. This tendency has been proposed to be a general property of language. This paper examines whether predictability is correlated with fundamental frequency (F0) production, through analysis of experimental corpora of American English. Predictability was variously defined as discourse mention, utterance probability, and semantic focus...
March 2017: Language and Speech
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