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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931901/auditory-false-perception-in-schizophrenia-development-and-validation-of-auditory-signal-detection-task
#1
Harleen Chhabra, Selvaraj Sowmya, Vanteemar S Sreeraj, Sunil V Kalmady, Venkataram Shivakumar, Anekal C Amaresha, Janardhanan C Narayanaswamy, Ganesan Venkatasubramanian
Auditory hallucinations constitute an important symptom component in 70-80% of schizophrenia patients. These hallucinations are proposed to occur due to an imbalance between perceptual expectation and external input, resulting in attachment of meaning to abstract noises; signal detection theory has been proposed to explain these phenomena. In this study, we describe the development of an auditory signal detection task using a carefully chosen set of English words that could be tested successfully in schizophrenia patients coming from varying linguistic, cultural and social backgrounds...
December 2016: Asian Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931249/tailored-approach-to-sleep-health-education-tashe-study-protocol-for-a-web-based-randomized-controlled-trial
#2
Natasha J Williams, Rebecca Robbins, David Rapoport, John P Allegrante, Alwyn Cohall, Gbenga Ogedgebe, Girardin Jean-Louis
BACKGROUND: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a sleep disorder that disproportionately affects African Americans (hereafter referred to as blacks). Moreover, blacks may underutilize sleep services including overnight polysomnography. Thus, OSA among blacks may go undiagnosed and untreated, which has significant health consequences, including hypertension, diabetes, cognitive impairment, and daytime sleepiness. DESIGN AND METHODS: This two-arm randomized controlled trial will assign 200 participants to a culturally and linguistically tailored web-based sleep educational platform...
December 8, 2016: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930777/involvement-of-the-central-cognitive-mechanism-in-word-production-in-adults-who-stutter
#3
Pei-Tzu Tsai, Nan Bernstein Ratner
Purpose: The study examined whether semantic and phonological encoding processes were capacity demanding, involving the central cognitive mechanism, in adults who do and do not stutter (AWS and NS) to better understand the role of cognitive demand in linguistic processing and stuttering. We asked (a) whether the two linguistic processes in AWS are capacity demanding, which can temporally disrupt the processing of a concurrent nonlinguistic task, and (b) whether AWS and NS show similar patterns of temporal disruption in the two processes...
December 8, 2016: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928733/developing-approaches-to-competence-away-from-the-metaphor-of-competence-as-a-hidden-object
#4
Patrick Byers
Assessments of linguistic ability amongst inner city African American children in the 1960's and cross-cultural assessments of problem solving skills amongst participants without formal education in several contexts around the world have both demonstrated the need for investigators to distinguish the possible existence of some form of competency from the matter of whether evidence of that competency can be elicited with a particular assessment tool. In both of the previously mentioned cases, the evidence suggests that participants had the competencies in question and failed to demonstrate them (at least partially) as a result of the nature of the assessment context...
December 7, 2016: Integrative Psychological & Behavioral Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927685/influences-on-facial-emotion-recognition-in-deaf-children
#5
Francesc Sidera, Anna Amadó, Laura Martínez
This exploratory research is aimed at studying facial emotion recognition abilities in deaf children and how they relate to linguistic skills and the characteristics of deafness. A total of 166 participants (75 deaf) aged 3-8 years were administered the following tasks: facial emotion recognition, naming vocabulary and cognitive ability. The children's teachers or speech therapists also responded to two questionnaires, one on children's linguistic-communicative skills and the other providing personal information...
December 6, 2016: Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927662/development-of-a-model-of-dementia-support-and-pathway-for-culturally-and-linguistically-diverse-communities-using-co-creation-and-participatory-action-research
#6
Dianne Goeman, Jordan King, Susan Koch
OBJECTIVE: To develop an inclusive model of culturally sensitive support, using a specialist dementia nurse (SDN), to assist people with dementia from culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) communities and their carers to overcome barriers to accessing health and social care services. DESIGN: Co-creation and participatory action research, based on reflection, data collection, interaction and feedback from participants and stakeholders. SETTING: An SDN support model embedded within a home nursing service in Melbourne, Australia was implemented between October 2013 and October 2015...
December 7, 2016: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926819/a-plea-for-linguistic-accuracy-also-for-candidatus-taxa
#7
Aharon Oren
While all names of new taxa submitted to the International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology), either in direct submissions or in validation requests for names effectively published elsewhere, are subject to nomenclatural review to ensure that they are acceptable based on the rules of the International Code of Nomenclature of Prokaryotes, the names of Candidatus taxa have not been subjected to such a review. Formally, this was not necessary because the rank of Candidatus is not covered by the Code, and the names lack the priority afforded validly published names...
December 7, 2016: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920733/chinese-writing-of-deaf-or-hard-of-hearing-students-and-normal-hearing-peers-from-complex-network-approach
#8
Huiyuan Jin, Haitao Liu
Deaf or hard-of-hearing individuals usually face a greater challenge to learn to write than their normal-hearing counterparts. Due to the limitations of traditional research methods focusing on microscopic linguistic features, a holistic characterization of the writing linguistic features of these language users is lacking. This study attempts to fill this gap by adopting the methodology of linguistic complex networks. Two syntactic dependency networks are built in order to compare the macroscopic linguistic features of deaf or hard-of-hearing students and those of their normal-hearing peers...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920615/spinal-health-the-backbone-of-chiropractic-s-identity
#9
Richard A Brown
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this commentary is to explore the concepts underpinning professional identity, assess their relevance to chiropractic, and propose a model by which a strong identity for the chiropractic profession may be achieved. DISCUSSION: The professional identity of chiropractic has been a constant source of controversy throughout its history. Attempts to establish a professional identity have been met with resistance from internal factions divided over linguistics, philosophy, technique, and chiropractic's place in the health care framework...
December 2016: Journal of Chiropractic Humanities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919696/the-role-of-anxiety-in-stuttering-evidence-from-functional-connectivity
#10
Yang Yang, Fanlu Jia, Wai Ting Siok, Li Hai Tan
Persistent developmental stuttering is a neurologically based speech disorder associated with cognitive-linguistic, motor and emotional abnormalities. Previous studies investigating the relationship between anxiety and stuttering have yielded mixed results, but it has not yet been examined whether anxiety influences brain activity underlying stuttering. Here, by using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we investigated the functional connectivity associated with state anxiety in a syllable repetition task, and trait anxiety during rest in adults who stutter (N=19) and fluent controls (N=19)...
December 2, 2016: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918180/tweeting-negative-emotion-an-investigation-of-twitter-data-in-the-aftermath-of-violence-on-college-campuses
#11
Nickolas M Jones, Sean P Wojcik, Josiah Sweeting, Roxane Cohen Silver
Studying communities impacted by traumatic events is often costly, requires swift action to enter the field when disaster strikes, and may be invasive for some traumatized respondents. Typically, individuals are studied after the traumatic event with no baseline data against which to compare their postdisaster responses. Given these challenges, we used longitudinal Twitter data across 3 case studies to examine the impact of violence near or on college campuses in the communities of Isla Vista, CA, Flagstaff, AZ, and Roseburg, OR, compared with control communities, between 2014 and 2015...
December 2016: Psychological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918172/an-experimental-test-of-the-bridges-to-high-school-intervention-on-harsh-parenting-and-early-age-intercourse-among-mexican-american-adolescents
#12
Miguelina Germán, Nancy A Gonzales, Stephen G West, Lorey A Wheeler
OBJECTIVE: Can an intervention that contained no content on sex or contraception reduce rates of early-age intercourse among Mexican American adolescents? The current study examined whether the Bridges to High School intervention designed, in part, to decrease harsh parenting, had a longitudinal effect on decreasing rates of early-age intercourse in the treatment versus control groups, as well as the moderating role of gender and linguistic acculturation. METHOD: The sample consisted of 516 Mexican American adolescents (Mage = 12...
December 5, 2016: Cultural Diversity & Ethnic Minority Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918063/long-lasting-musical-training-modifies-language-processing-a-dichotic-fused-word-test-study
#13
L Sebastiani, E Castellani
Musical training modifies neural areas associated with both music and language and enhances speech perception and discrimination by engaging the right hemisphere regions classically associated with music processing. On these bases we hypothesized that participants with extended musical training could have reduced left-hemisphere dominance for speech. In order to verify this hypothesis, two groups of right-handed individuals, one with long-term musical training and one with no musical training, participated to a Dichotic Fused Word Test consisting in the simultaneous presentation of different pairs of rhyming words and pseudo-words, one to the left ear and one to the right one...
January 1, 2016: Archives Italiennes de Biologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916014/a-neurophysiological-study-of-semantic-processing-in-parkinson-s-disease
#14
Anthony J Angwin, Nadeeka N W Dissanayaka, Alison Moorcroft, Katie L McMahon, Peter A Silburn, David A Copland
OBJECTIVES: Cognitive-linguistic impairments in Parkinson's disease (PD) have been well documented; however, few studies have explored the neurophysiological underpinnings of semantic deficits in PD. This study investigated semantic function in PD using event-related potentials. METHODS: Eighteen people with PD and 18 healthy controls performed a semantic judgement task on written word pairs that were either congruent or incongruent. RESULTS: The mean amplitude of the N400 for new incongruent word pairs was similar for both groups, however the onset latency was delayed in the PD group...
December 5, 2016: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914402/stimulus-directed-attention-attenuates-lexically-guided-perceptual-learning
#15
Michael McAuliffe, Molly Babel
Studies on perceptual learning are motivated by phonetic variation that listeners encounter across speakers, items, and context. In this study, the authors investigate what control the listener has over the perceptual learning of ambiguous /s/ pronunciations through inducing changes in their attentional set. Listeners' attention is manipulated during a lexical decision exposure task such that their attention is directed at the word-level for comprehension-oriented listening or toward the signal for perception-oriented listening...
September 2016: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914381/modulation-masking-and-glimpsing-of-natural-and-vocoded-speech-during-single-talker-modulated-noise-effect-of-the-modulation-spectrum
#16
Daniel Fogerty, Jiaqian Xu, Bobby E Gibbs
Compared to notionally steady-state noise, modulated maskers provide a perceptual benefit for speech recognition, in part due to preserved speech information during the amplitude dips of the masker. However, overlap in the modulation spectrum between the target speech and the competing modulated masker may potentially result in modulation masking, and thereby offset the release from energetic masking. The current study investigated masking release provided by single-talker modulated noise. The overlap in the modulation spectra of the target speech and the modulated noise masker was varied through time compression or expansion of the competing masker...
September 2016: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914374/the-effects-of-exposure-and-training-on-the-perception-of-time-compressed-speech-in-native-versus-nonnative-listeners
#17
Karen Banai, Yizhar Lavner
The present study investigated the effects of language experience on the perceptual learning induced by either brief exposure to or more intensive training with time-compressed speech. Native (n = 30) and nonnative (n = 30) listeners were each divided to three groups with different experiences with time-compressed speech: A trained group who trained on the semantic verification of time-compressed sentences for three sessions, an exposure group briefly exposed to 20 time-compressed sentences, and a group of naive listeners...
September 2016: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912107/limits-to-tdcs-effects-in-language-failures-to-modulate-word-production-in-healthy-participants-with-frontal-or-temporal-tdcs
#18
Samuel J Westwood, Andrew Olson, R Chris Miall, Raffaele Nappo, Cristina Romani
Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a method of non-invasive brain stimulation widely used to modulate cognitive functions. Recent studies, however, suggests that effects are unreliable, small and often non-significant at least when stimulation is applied in a single session to healthy individuals. We examined the effects of frontal and temporal lobe anodal tDCS on naming and reading tasks and considered possible interactions with linguistic activation and selection mechanisms as well as possible interactions with item difficulty and participant individual variability...
November 3, 2016: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910128/predictors-of-developmental-surveillance-completion-at-six-months-of-age-in-south-western-sydney
#19
B J Overs, S Woolfenden, K Williams, B Jalaludin, E L Axelsson, C Dissanayake, J Descallar, S Harvey, D Beasley, E Murphy, V Eapen
BACKGROUND: While developmental surveillance programs promote early identification of child developmental problems, evidence has indicated suboptimal uptake. This study aimed to identify predictors of developmental surveillance completion at 6 months postpartum. METHODS: Questionnaires were administered to the parents of 510 infants who were born in south western Sydney, Australia over a 22-month period. Attendance for developmental screening and completion of the Parents' Evaluation of Developmental Status (PEDS) at 6 months postpartum were modelled separately using multivariable logistic regression...
December 1, 2016: Child: Care, Health and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908062/linguistically-guided-adaptation-to-foreign-accented-speech
#20
Angela Cooper, Ann R Bradlow
Adaptation to foreign-accented sentences can be guided by knowledge of the lexical content of those sentences, which, being an exact match for the target, provides feedback on all linguistic levels. The extent to which this feedback needs to match the accented sentence was examined by manipulating the degree of match on different linguistic dimensions, including sub-lexical, lexical, and syntactic levels. Conditions where target-feedback sentence pairs matched and mismatched generated greater transcription improvement over non-English speech feedback, indicating listeners can draw upon sources of linguistic information beyond matching lexical items, such as sub- and supra-lexical information, during adaptation...
November 2016: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
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