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History of science

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640419/to-regulate-or-not-to-regulate-the-devious-history-of-cerebral-blood-flow-control
#1
Michael M Tymko, Philip N Ainslie
Huxley (1825-1895) demonstrated his scientific perspective through his extensive experience in science communication, and his numerous thought-provoking, eloquent quotes. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
June 22, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639244/veterinary-public-health-in-italy-from-healthy-animals-to-healthy-food-contribution-to-improve-economy-in-developing-countries
#2
Margherita Cacaci, Rossella Colomba Lelli
The role of the veterinarian as a public health officer is intrinsic to the history and the culture of veterinary organization in Italy. The Veterinary service being part of the Health administration since the birth of the Italian State in the XIX Century. In the second half of the last century the birth of the Italian National Health Service confirmed that the function of the Italian veterinary service was to analyze and reduce the risks for the human population connected to the relationship man-animal-environment, animal health, food safety and security...
June 22, 2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632897/delving-within-the-new-science-of-the-unconscious
#3
Steve Paulson, Heather A Berlin, Efrat Ginot, George Makari
What exactly is the relationship between conscious awareness and the unconscious mind? How, for example, does the brain classify and sort its different functions into conscious or unconscious processes? How has the history of human conceptualizations about the unconscious influenced current theories? Steve Paulson, executive producer of To the Best of Our Knowledge, moderated a discussion among neuroscientist Heather Berlin, psychologist Efrat Ginot, and psychiatrist George Makari to shed light on the history of the mind and the latest insights into the still emerging science of the unconscious...
June 20, 2017: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631805/drug-therapy-for-chronic-idiopathic-axonal-polyneuropathy
#4
REVIEW
Janna Warendorf, Alexander Fje Vrancken, Ivo N van Schaik, Richard Ac Hughes, Nicolette C Notermans
BACKGROUND: Chronic idiopathic axonal polyneuropathy (CIAP) is an insidiously progressive sensory or sensorimotor polyneuropathy that affects elderly people. Although severe disability or handicap does not occur, CIAP reduces quality of life. CIAP is diagnosed in 10% to 25% of people referred for evaluation of polyneuropathy. There is a need to gather and review emerging evidence on treatments, as the number of people affected is likely to increase in ageing populations. This is an update of a review first published in 2004 and previously updated in 2006, 2008, 2011 and 2013...
June 20, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631746/prevalence-of-androgen-deficiency-in-chronic-spinal-cord-injury-patients-suffering-from-erectile-dysfunction
#5
M Behnaz, Z Majd, M Radfar, H Ajami, M Qorbani, A Kokab
STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective cross-sectional study. OBJECTIVES: To estimate the prevalence of biochemical androgen deficiency in Iranian spinal cord injured men suffering from erectile dysfunction (ED) and to determine factors related to this problem. SETTING: An andrology clinic of a teaching hospital in Tehran. METHODS: Men, 18 years of age and older, with chronic (>2 years) spinal cord injury (SCI) suffering from ED were recruited...
June 20, 2017: Spinal Cord
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629652/the-history-of-science-as-the-progress-of-the-human-spirit-the-historiography-of-astronomy-in-the-eighteenth-century
#6
Daniel Špelda
In the eighteenth century, the historiography of astronomy was part of a wider discussion concerning the history of the human spirit. The concept of the human spirit was very popular among Enlightenment authors because it gave the history of human knowledge continuity, unity and meaning. Using this concept, scientists and historians of science such as Montucla, Lalande, Bailly and Laplace could present the history of astronomy in terms of a progress towards contemporary science that was slow and could be interrupted at times, but was still constant, regular, and necessary...
June 2017: Studies in History and Philosophy of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628590/the-past-present-and-future-of-neurorehabilitation-from-nustep-through-iv-step-and-beyond
#7
Susan R Harris, Carolee J Winstein
PURPOSES: To present the history and aims of the STEP conferences; describe the interdependence of prevention, prediction, plasticity, and participation; reflect on where we stand today regarding those 4 Ps; and discuss how future neurorehabilitation should look for individuals with movement disorders. KEY POINTS: Physical therapists have focused primarily on tertiary prevention, emphasizing primary/secondary prevention far less. Predicting optimal response to intervention is essential for primary prevention...
July 2017: Journal of Neurologic Physical Therapy: JNPT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627248/methodological-challenges-involved-in-compiling-the-nahua-pharmacopeia
#8
Paula De Vos
Recent work in the history of science has questioned the Eurocentric nature of the field and sought to include a more global approach that would serve to displace center-periphery models in favor of approaches that take seriously local knowledge production. Historians of Iberian colonial science have taken up this approach, which involves reliance on indigenous knowledge traditions of the Americas. These traditions present a number of challenges to modern researchers, including availability and reliability of source material, issues of translation and identification, and lack of systematization...
June 1, 2017: History of Science; An Annual Review of Literature, Research and Teaching
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626271/long-acting-injectable-paliperidone-palmitate-a-review-of-efficacy-and-safety
#9
Matthew T Morris, Sandip P Tarpada
OBJECTIVE: Summarize and synthesize the current literature regarding long-acting injectable paliperidone palmitate for the treatment of schizophrenia. METHODS: A literature search of PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science was conducted in February 2016, using the following search terms in varying permutations: schizophrenia; antipsychotic medication; long-acting injectable; paliperidone palmitate; 3-monthly injectable. RESULTS: Once-monthly injectable paliperidone palmitate (PDP) has demonstrated comparable efficacy as 1st-generation long-acting injectable antipsychotics (LAIAs) in reducing disease severity and re-hospitalizations in schizophrenic patients...
May 15, 2017: Psychopharmacology Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621412/the-not-so-long-history-of-zebrafish-research-in-israel
#10
Janna Blechman, Gil Levkowitz, Yoav Gothilf
The zebrafish has become a model of choice in fundamental and applied life sciences and is widely used in various fields of biomedical research as a human disease model for cancer, metabolic and neurodegenerative diseases, and regenerative medicine. The transparency of the zebrafish embryo allows real-time visualization of the development and morphogenesis of practically all of its tissues and organs. Zebrafish are amenable to genetic manipulation, for which innovative genetic and molecular techniques are constantly being introduced...
2017: International Journal of Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621408/a-brief-history-of-developmental-biology-in-israel
#11
Dalit Sela-Donenfeld, Dale Frank
While the history of developmental biology in Israel is relatively short, its impact is far-reaching, so we wanted to present a concise perspective on the Israeli developmental biology community, past-present-future. This community has undergone a wonderful, nearly exponential growth over the last three decades. How exactly did this happen? There are approximately fifty research groups that focus on developmental biology questions in Israel today that are members of the Israel Society of Developmental Biology (IsSDB; http://issdb...
2017: International Journal of Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616665/psychoneurocutaneous-medicine-past-present-and-future
#12
Katlein França, David E Castillo, Maria Grazia Roccia, Torello Lotti, Uwe Wollina, Massimo Fioranelli
Psychoneurocutaneous medicine is an important and rapidly growing field. It is an integrative science created to address the interaction between the mind, nervous system and skin. Four major fields are involved: psychiatry, psychology, neurology and dermatology. The history of psychoneurocutaneous medicine is old and fascinating. Even though it is a young science only established in the last century, allusions to the nervous system and diseases of the skin can be traced back thousands of years in the literature...
June 14, 2017: Wiener Medizinische Wochenschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611885/american-association-for-emergency-psychiatry-task-force-on-medical-clearance-of-adult-psychiatric-patients-part-ii-controversies-over-medical-assessment-and-consensus-recommendations
#13
REVIEW
Michael P Wilson, Kimberly Nordstrom, Eric L Anderson, Anthony T Ng, Leslie S Zun, Jennifer M Peltzer-Jones, Michael H Allen
INTRODUCTION: The emergency medical evaluation of psychiatric patients presenting to United States emergency departments (ED), usually termed "medical clearance," often varies between EDs. A task force of the American Association for Emergency Psychiatry (AAEP), consisting of physicians from emergency medicine, physicians from psychiatry and a psychologist, was convened to form consensus recommendations for the medical evaluation of psychiatric patients presenting to U.S.EDs. METHODS: The task force reviewed existing literature on the topic of medical evaluation of psychiatric patients in the ED and then combined this with expert consensus...
June 2017: Western Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611076/learning-a-comorbidity-driven-taxonomy-of-pediatric-pulmonary-hypertension
#14
Mei-Sing Ong, Mary P Mullen, Eric D Austin, Peter Szolovits, Marc Natter, Alon Geva, Tianxi Cai, Sek Won Kong, Kenneth D Mandl
Rationale: Pediatric pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a heterogeneous condition with varying natural history and therapeutic response. Precise classification of PH subtypes is therefore crucial for individualizing care. However, gaps remain in our understanding of the spectrum of PH in children. Objective: We seek to study the manifestations of PH in children, and to assess the feasibility of applying a network-based approach to discern disease subtypes from comorbidity data recorded in longitudinal datasets...
June 13, 2017: Circulation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610311/the-wild-shot-photography-for-more-biology-in-natural-history-collections-not-for-replacing-vouchers
#15
Romain Garrouste
Recently a correspondence in Zootaxa (Ceríaco et al., 2016) with more than 450 signatories including taxonomists, curators and other taxonomy users from all continents has received wide attention and has stimulated extensive discussion (a true buzz) around the possible interpretations of the Code (ICZN) about photography in taxonomy (Researchgate website link). This short note was necessary to recall the necessity of preserved specimens as vouchers for taxonomy, in response to photography-based taxonomy (PBT) as defended by Pape et al...
May 24, 2017: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609429/reciprocal-evolution-of-opiate-science-from-medical-and-cultural-perspectives
#16
George B Stefano, Nastazja Pilonis, Radek Ptacek, Richard M Kream
Over the course of human history, it has been common to use plants for medicinal purposes, such as for providing relief from particular maladies and self-medication. Opium represents one longstanding remedy that has been used to address a range of medical conditions, alleviating discomfort often in ways that have proven pleasurable. Opium is a combination of compounds obtained from the mature fruit of opium poppy, papaver somniferum. Morphine and its biosynthetic precursors thebaine and codeine constitute the main bioactive opiate alkaloids contained in opium...
June 13, 2017: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606437/the-effect-of-price-on-surgeons-choice-of-implants-a%C3%A2-randomized-controlled-survey
#17
Amy S Wasterlain, Eitan Melamed, Ricardo Bello, Raj Karia, John T Capo
PURPOSE: Surgical costs are under scrutiny and surgeons are being held increasingly responsible for cost containment. In some instances, implants are the largest component of total procedure cost, yet previous studies reveal that surgeons' knowledge of implant prices is poor. Our study aims to (1) understand drivers behind implant selection and (2) assess whether educating surgeons about implant costs affects implant selection. METHODS: We surveyed 226 orthopedic surgeons across 6 continents...
June 9, 2017: Journal of Hand Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602765/epidemiological-characteristics-of-human-brucellosis-in-hamadan-province-during-2009-2015-results-from-the-national-notifiable-diseases-surveillance-system
#18
Shahrzad Nematollahi, Erfan Ayubi, Manoochehr Karami, Salman Khazaei, Masoud Shojaeian, Reza Zamani, Kamyar Mansouri, Behzad Gholamaliee
BACKGROUND: Human brucellosis and recurrent brucellosis is an ever-increasing public health concern, especially in endemic areas like Iran. Nevertheless, little is known regarding the epidemiology and determinants of recurrent brucellosis. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate epidemiological patterns and potential determinants of recurrent brucellosis in Hamadan Province during the years 2009-2015. METHODS: Data on reported cases of new and recurrent brucellosis from 2009 to 2015 were obtained from the provincial Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System at Hamadan University of Medical Sciences...
June 7, 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594590/the-past-present-and-future-of-nutrition-and-cancer-part-1-was-a-nutritional-association-acknowledged-a-century-ago
#19
T Colin Campbell
Professional interest in the association of diet and nutrition with cancer first appeared in the early 1800s, if not before. Yet, progress in understanding this association over the past two centuries has been exceedingly slow and confusing. Without addressing this confusion, progress in using diet and nutrition information to prevent and even to treat cancer, will remain uncertain. To better understand this issue, the present paper is the first of two to explore the history of the diet and cancer relationship prior to a 1982 National Academy of Sciences (NAS) report on Diet, Nutrition and Cancer...
June 8, 2017: Nutrition and Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592921/malignant-peripheral-nerve-sheath-tumors-state-of-the-science-leveraging-clinical-and-biological-insights-into-effective-therapies
#20
REVIEW
AeRang Kim, Douglas R Stewart, Karlyne M Reilly, David Viskochil, Markku M Miettinen, Brigitte C Widemann
Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (MPNST) is the leading cause of mortality in patients with neurofibromatosis type 1. In 2002, an MPNST consensus statement reviewed the current knowledge and provided guidance for the diagnosis and management of MPNST. Although the improvement in clinical outcome has not changed, substantial progress has been made in understanding the natural history and biology of MPNST through imaging and genomic advances since 2002. Genetically engineered mouse models that develop MPNST spontaneously have greatly facilitated preclinical evaluation of novel drugs for translation into clinical trials led by consortia efforts...
2017: Sarcoma
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