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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344933/precision-medicine-the-golden-gate-for-detection-treatment-and-prevention-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#1
H Hampel, S E O'Bryant, J I Castrillo, C Ritchie, K Rojkova, K Broich, N Benda, R Nisticò, R A Frank, B Dubois, V Escott-Price, S Lista
During this decade, breakthrough conceptual shifts have commenced to emerge in the field of Alzheimer's disease (AD) recognizing risk factors and the non-linear dynamic continuum of complex pathophysiologies amongst a wide dimensional spectrum of multi-factorial brain proteinopathies/neurodegenerative diseases. As is the case in most fields of medicine, substantial advancements in detecting, treating and preventing AD will likely evolve from the generation and implementation of a systematic precision medicine strategy...
December 2016: Journal of Prevention of Alzheimer's Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342450/scientific-feuds-polemics-and-ad-hominem-arguments-in-basic-and-special-interest-genetics
#2
Elof Axel Carlson
Scientific disputes are commonly presented and settled in journal publications. Most are resolved by a weighing of evidence and new findings. In some cases the arguments are personal and in the form of ad hominem attacks on the personality or integrity of an author of a journal article. Many famous scientists (e.g., Galileo, Newton, and Hooke) used ad hominem arguments in responding to their critics. William Bateson, W.F.R. Weldon, William Castle, and H.J. Muller used ad hominem arguments in their publications until the end of World War I, when editorial policy of journals changed...
January 2017: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342174/modeling-vision-computational-science-for-understanding-human-visual-perception
#3
EDITORIAL
Ralf Mrowka, Alexander Freytag, Stefanie Reuter
Human visual perception system is complex and involves a considerable portion of the brain's cortex. Hence, the wish to understand complex neuronal function is obvious, and the idea to model this by means of artificial neuronal networks might have been born at the time when first computational machines were constructed (Alan Turing, Intelligent machinery, 1948, h t t p: //www.npl.co.uk/about/history/notable-individuals/turing/intelligent-machinery) This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved...
March 25, 2017: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340885/immunosuppression-for-kidney-transplantation-where-are-we-now-and-where-are-we-going
#4
REVIEW
Mary Ann Lim, Jatinder Kohli, Roy D Bloom
Advances in immunosuppression have propelled kidney transplantation from a scientific curiosity to the optimal treatment for patients with end stage kidney disease. Declining rates of acute rejection have led to improvements in short term kidney transplant survival, culminating in incrementally better long term patient and allograft outcomes. Contextualized around established immune-suppressing drug targets, this review summarizes the history of the clinical science and highlights the pivotal trials that have led to present-day treatment standards at the level of both individual agents and multidrug regimens for kidney recipients...
January 2017: Transplantation Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340696/comments-on-the-history-of-medical-biological-studies-of-aging-the-birth-of-scientific-gerontology
#5
L Robert, J Labat-Robert
Recent books (Immunity. How Elie Metchnikoff changed the course of modern medicine and Expectations of Life) reviewed the important contribution of Metchnikoff to the emergence of gerontology as a new branch of biomedical sciences. Here, we insist on Metchnikoff's contribution and pivotal role in the emergence of nutrition as a science and its importance for health and longevity. The discovery of phagocytosis by Metchnikoff and of its evolutionary ancestry are at the origin of the emergence of cellular immunity as an independent science besides humoral immunity...
January 2017: Current Research in Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337491/meeting-report-unesco-merck-africa-research-summit-2015-accelerating-access-and-sustaining-innovation-from-africa-for-africa
#6
R W Omange, A O Ocholla, A O Kwallah, S N Kageha, J Mwangi, R K Cherutich, Odeny T A, T Nzomo, S Angwenyi, P Yonga, F Kariuki, M Kyalo, P C Mutai, F Nindo, E M Songok
BACKGROUND: The Ebola virus disease outbreak of 2014 was the largest, longest and most devastating in the history of the disease. It demonstrated the social and economic impact an emerging infectious disease can have in a globalized world. Health systems in affected countries were stretched to the point of near collapse, while social relations and traditional practices were negatively impacted. Heads of African research institutions, African government representatives, leaders of global pharmaceutical companies, global infectious disease experts and close to 100 young African researchers from 25 countries; Assembled in Geneva on 19 and 20th October 2015, for the inaugural UNESCO-Merck Africa Summit sponsored by the United Nations Educational, Science and Culture Organization and Merck KGA...
2017: African Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336797/privacy-is-an-essentially-contested-concept-a-multi-dimensional-analytic-for-mapping-privacy
#7
Deirdre K Mulligan, Colin Koopman, Nick Doty
The meaning of privacy has been much disputed throughout its history in response to wave after wave of new technological capabilities and social configurations. The current round of disputes over privacy fuelled by data science has been a cause of despair for many commentators and a death knell for privacy itself for others. We argue that privacy's disputes are neither an accidental feature of the concept nor a lamentable condition of its applicability. Privacy is essentially contested. Because it is, privacy is transformable according to changing technological and social conditions...
December 28, 2016: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336791/faultless-responsibility-on-the-nature-and-allocation-of-moral-responsibility-for-distributed-moral-actions
#8
Luciano Floridi
The concept of distributed moral responsibility (DMR) has a long history. When it is understood as being entirely reducible to the sum of (some) human, individual and already morally loaded actions, then the allocation of DMR, and hence of praise and reward or blame and punishment, may be pragmatically difficult, but not conceptually problematic. However, in distributed environments, it is increasingly possible that a network of agents, some human, some artificial (e.g. a program) and some hybrid (e.g. a group of people working as a team thanks to a software platform), may cause distributed moral actions (DMAs)...
December 28, 2016: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334954/the-science-and-politics-of-naming-reforming-anatomical-nomenclature-ca-1886-1955
#9
Tatjana Buklijas
Anatomical nomenclature is medicine's official language. Early in their medical studies, students are expected to memorize not only the bodily geography but also the names for all the structures that, by consensus, constitute the anatomical body. The making and uses of visual maps of the body have received considerable historiographical attention, yet the history of production, communication, and reception of anatomical names-a history as long as the history of anatomy itself-has been studied far less. My essay examines the reforms of anatomical naming between the first modern nomenclature, the 1895 Basel Nomina Anatomica (BNA), and the 1955 Nomina Anatomica Parisiensia (NAP, also known as PNA), which is the basis for current anatomical terminology...
February 11, 2017: Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333243/polycystic-ovary-syndrome-is-associated-with-anogenital-distance-a-marker-of-prenatal-androgen-exposure
#10
Yingchen Wu, Guangzheng Zhong, Shengfu Chen, Chengyu Zheng, Dehua Liao, Meiqing Xie
STUDY QUESTION: Is the presence of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) associated with anogenital distance (AGD), a biomarker for the prenatal hormonal environment? SUMMARY ANSWER: The presence of PCOS is associated with longer AGD. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Although the aetiology of PCOS is unclear, emerging data suggest that the natural history of PCOS may originate from intrauterine life. Prenatal exposure to androgen hormones is considered an important factor of PCOS...
March 1, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333126/cheetahs-have-a-stronger-constitutive-innate-immunity-than-leopards
#11
Sonja K Heinrich, Heribert Hofer, Alexandre Courtiol, Jörg Melzheimer, Martin Dehnhard, Gábor Á Czirják, Bettina Wachter
As a textbook case for the importance of genetics in conservation, absence of genetic variability at the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is thought to endanger species viability, since it is considered crucial for pathogen resistance. An alternative view of the immune system inspired by life history theory posits that a strong response should evolve in other components of the immune system if there is little variation in the MHC. In contrast to the leopard (Panthera pardus), the cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) has a relatively low genetic variability at the MHC, yet free-ranging cheetahs are healthy...
March 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332062/diagnosis-and-treatment-of-metastases-to-the-thyroid-gland-a-meta-analysis
#12
REVIEW
Patrizia Straccia, Claudia Mosseri, Chiara Brunelli, Esther Diana Rossi, Celestino Pio Lombardi, Alfredo Pontecorvi, Guido Fadda
The thyroid is a rare site of clinically detectable tumor metastases; even though the gland is a highly vascularized structure, the frequency of metastases in the routine practice is less than 0.2% of all thyroid malignancies. The purpose of our meta-analysis is to evaluate the frequency of metastatic diffusion from other primary tumors to the thyroid gland and to suggest the best possible treatment through an evidence-based study. Relevant studies were identified by searching the following databases: PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science...
March 22, 2017: Endocrine Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329603/job-recruitment
#13
University Of California Davis School Of Medicine
The University of California Davis, School of Medicine, Department of Dermatology is recruiting for a full-time position at the Associate or Full Professor level in the Clinical X Series or Health Sciences Clinical Professor (HSCP) Series. The successful candidate is nominated to be the holder of the Frederick G. Novy, Jr. M.D Endowed Professorship. Appointees to the ClinX series are expected to conduct independent research. Both series require significant participation in teaching and University/public service...
October 15, 2016: Dermatology Online Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328293/history-of-knowledge-and-evolution-of-occupational-health-and-regulatory-aspects-of-asbestos-exposure-science-1900-1975
#14
Christy A Barlow, Jennifer Sahmel, Dennis J Paustenbach, John L Henshaw
The understanding by industrial hygienists of the hazards of asbestos and appropriate ways to characterize and control exposure has evolved over the years. Here, a detailed analysis of the evolution of industrial hygiene practices regarding asbestos and its health risks, from the early 1900s until the advent of the national occupational health and safety regulatory structure currently in place in the US (early-to-mid 1970s) is presented. While industrial hygienists recognized in the early 1900s that chronic and high-level exposures to airborne concentrations of asbestos could pose a serious health hazard, it was not until the mid-1950s that the carcinogenic nature of asbestos began to be characterized and widespread concern followed...
March 22, 2017: Critical Reviews in Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326228/innovations-from-the-ivory-tower-wilhelm-barthlott-and-the-paradigm-shift-in-surface-science
#15
Christoph Neinhuis
This article is mainly about borders that have tremendous influence on our daily life, although many of them exist and act mostly unrecognized. In this article the first objective will be to address more generally the relation between university and society or industry, borders within universities, borders in thinking and the huge amount of misunderstandings and losses resulting from these obvious or hidden borders. In the second part and in more detail, the article will highlight the impact of the research conducted by Wilhelm Barthlott throughout his scientific career during which not only one border was removed, shifted or became more penetrable...
2017: Beilstein Journal of Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319657/risk-of-autism-spectrum-disorders-in-children-born-to-mothers-with-rheumatoid-arthritis-a-systematic-literature-review
#16
Sophie Wojcik, Sasha Bernatsky, Robert W Platt, Christian A Pineau, Ann E Clarke, Éric Fombonne, Anick Bérard, Évelyne Vinet
OBJECTIVE: Recent evidence suggests in utero exposure to maternal antibodies and cytokines as important risk factors for autism spectrum disorders (ASD). We aimed to systematically review the risk of ASD in children born to mothers with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) compared to children born to mothers without RA. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review of original articles using electronic databases: PubMed, EMBase, and Web of Science. RESULTS: Our literature search identified a total of 70 articles...
March 20, 2017: Arthritis Care & Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318596/determining-nuclear-fingerprints-glove-boxes-radiation-protection-and-the-international-atomic-energy-agency
#17
Maria Rentetzi
In a nuclear laboratory, a glove box is a windowed, sealed container equipped with two flexible gloves that allow the user to manipulate nuclear materials from the outside in an ostensibly safe environment. As a routine laboratory device, it invites neglect from historians and storytellers of science. Yet, since especially the Gulf War, glove boxes have put the interdependence of science, diplomacy, and politics into clear relief. Standing at the intersection of history of science and international history, technological materials and devices such as the glove box can provide penetrating insight into the role of international diplomatic organizations to the global circulation and control of scientific knowledge...
March 15, 2017: Endeavour
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317495/editor-s-corner-does-alcohol-industry-funding-corrupt-alcohol-science-a-startling-revelation-about-the-early-history-of-jsad
#18
Thomas F Babor
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2017: Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317212/binge-drinking-and-family-history-of-alcoholism-are-associated-with-an-altered-developmental-trajectory-of-impulsive-choice-across-adolescence
#19
Scott A Jones, Joel S Steele, Bonnie J Nagel
AIMS: To test whether binge drinking, the density of familial alcoholism (FHD), and their interaction are associated with an altered developmental trajectory of impulsive choice across adolescence, and whether more lifetime drinks is associated with a greater change in impulsive choice across age. DESIGN: Alcohol-naïve adolescents, with varying degrees of FHD, were recruited as part of an ongoing longitudinal study on adolescent development, and were grouped based on whether they remained non-drinkers (n = 83) or initiated binge drinking (n = 33) during follow-up...
March 20, 2017: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317146/immunization-of-looked-after-children-and-young-people-a-review-of-the-literature
#20
REVIEW
S Walton, H Bedford
BACKGROUND: Numbers of looked-after children and young people (LACYP) in the UK have risen over the last seven years. Looked-after children and young people should receive regular health assessments, including establishing immunization status and, if needed, developing a health plan to achieve full immunization. The Department for Education publish data on immunizations among LACYP to monitor both how well they are immunized and service performance. METHODS: A literature review was conducted using four databases (PubMed, Embase, Scopus and Web of Science) on immunization status of LACYP, factors affecting uptake and challenges to immunization, and interventions to improve immunization rates...
March 19, 2017: Child: Care, Health and Development
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