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History of science

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719268/the-cuba-united-states-thaw-building-bridges-through-science-and-global-health
#1
Daniel G Bausch, Vivian Kouri, Sonia Resik, Belsy Acosta, Gerardo Guillen, Karen Goraleski, Marcos Espinal, Maria G Guzman
AbstractBeginning in 2014, there has been significant progress in normalization of relations between Cuba and the United States. Herein, we discuss the history and recent progress in scientific collaboration between the two countries as well as the continued challenges. Science and global health diplomacy can be key tools in reestablishing a trusting and productive relationship of mutual and global benefit, bringing about better and healthier lives for people in both Cuba and the United States.
June 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718925/a-historical-review-of-the-key-bacterial-and-viral-pathogens-of-scottish-wild-fish
#2
REVIEW
I S Wallace, P McKay, A G Murray
Thousands of Scottish wild fish were screened for pathogens by Marine Scotland Science. A systematic review of published and unpublished data on six key pathogens (Renibacterium salmoninarum, Aeromonas salmonicida, IPNV, ISAV, SAV and VHSV) found in Scottish wild and farmed fish was undertaken. Despite many reported cases in farmed fish, there was a limited number of positive samples from Scottish wild fish, however, there was evidence for interactions between wild and farmed fish. A slightly elevated IPNV prevalence was reported in wild marine fish caught close to Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Fish Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716677/incidence-of-active-tuberculosis-in-individuals-with-latent-tuberculosis-infection-in-rural-china-follow-up-results-of-a-population-based-multicentre-prospective-cohort-study
#3
Lei Gao, Xiangwei Li, Jianmin Liu, Xinhua Wang, Wei Lu, Liqiong Bai, Henan Xin, Haoran Zhang, Hengjing Li, Zongde Zhang, Yu Ma, Mufei Li, Boxuan Feng, Jiang Du, Hongtao Sui, Rong Zhao, Haoxiang Su, Shouguo Pan, Ling Guan, Fei Shen, Jian He, Shumin Yang, Hongyan Si, Xu Cheng, Zuhui Xu, Yunhong Tan, Tianzhu Chen, Weiguo Xu, Hong Peng, Zhijian Wang, Tao Zhu, Xiaoyou Chen, Xinhua Zhou, Xueling Guan, Qi Jin
BACKGROUND: The management of latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection is a new priority action for the WHO End Tuberculosis (TB) Strategy. However, national guidelines on latent tuberculosis infection testing and treatment have not yet been developed in China. Here, we present the results from the 2-year follow-up of a study that aimed to track the development of active disease in individuals with latent tuberculosis infection, identify priority populations for latent infection management, and explore the most suitable latent infection diagnostic approach...
July 14, 2017: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714704/planes-of-phenomenological-experience-the-psychology-of-deafness-as-an-early-example-of-american-gestalt-psychology-1928-1940
#4
Marion A Schmidt
When, in 1928, the Clarke School for the Deaf in Northampton, Massachusetts, opened a psychological research division, it was nothing unusual in a time fascinated with the sciences of education. Yet with its longstanding ties to Northampton's Smith College, the school was able to secure the collaboration of eminent Gestalt psychologist Kurt Koffka, who, in turn, engaged 2 more German-speaking emigrants, Margarete Eberhardt and social psychologist Fritz Heider, and Heider's American wife Grace Moore Heider. This collaboration has seen little attention from historians, who have treated Koffka's and Heider's time in Northampton as a transitory phase...
July 17, 2017: History of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713764/assessing-prevalence-of-temporomandibular-disorders-among-university-students-a-questionnaire-study
#5
R Karthik, M I Fathima Hafila, C Saravanan, N Vivek, P Priyadarsini, B Ashwath
AIM: The aim of this study is to assess the prevalence of temporomandibular disorders (TMDs) among university students. OBJECTIVES: The etiology of TMD is of multifactorial, and our study is designed to assess the prevalence of TMD in an institution within a university. Various parameters including trauma, malocclusion, stress assessment - its correlation with the timing, the duration of TMD in meeting the deadlines, and examinations have been assessed. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A standard questionnaire-based study with modified Fonseca anamnestic index is used...
June 2017: Journal of International Society of Preventive & Community Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712062/genome-editing-and-genetic-engineering-in-livestock-for-advancing-agricultural-and-biomedical-applications
#6
Bhanu P Telugu, Ki-Eun Park, Chi-Hun Park
Genetic modification of livestock has a longstanding and successful history, starting with domestication several thousand years ago. Modern animal breeding strategies predominantly based on marker-assisted and genomic selection, artificial insemination, and embryo transfer have led to significant improvement in the performance of domestic animals, and are the basis for regular supply of high quality animal derived food. However, the current strategy of breeding animals over multiple generations to introduce novel traits is not realistic in responding to the unprecedented challenges such as changing climate, pandemic diseases, and feeding an anticipated 3 billion increase in global population in the next three decades...
July 15, 2017: Mammalian Genome: Official Journal of the International Mammalian Genome Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710884/lothar-jaenicke-1923-2015-zum-ged%C3%A3-chtnis
#7
Hans E Hummel, Simone S Langner
Among the post-war European biochemists, L. Jaenicke (1923-2015) stands out as a distinctive character with bright ideas and professional elegance, yet with personal modesty. His contributions to diverse fields such as C1 metabolic pathways, signal compounds (aquatic sex attractants) of brown algae and chemotaxis appear as distinctive features not covered by his peers. His rich scientific œuvre is documented in 291 journal articles, nine books, and a huge number of almost 570 book reviews, recensions, biographies and commentaries on the politics of science and the history of biochemistry...
July 26, 2017: Zeitschrift Für Naturforschung. C, A Journal of Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707869/science-eastern-orthodoxy-and-world-religions
#8
COMMENT
John Hedley Brooke, Ronald L Numbers
The history of Orthodoxy and science invites contrasts with other religious traditions. In contradistinction to the Latin West, for example, Eastern Orthodoxy throughout its history embraced the “pagan” scientific achievements of ancient Greece. Also unlike in the West, where ecclesiastical institutions often supported scientific activities, scholars in the East—in both the Byzantine and Ottoman periods— relied primarily on temporal sources to sustain their investigations of nature. Islam, with its strenuous resistance to any assimilation of the human to the divine, provides another contrasting example, as does the later Protestant justification for science grounded in the need to restore a fallen world through the application of experimental research...
September 2016: Isis; An International Review Devoted to the History of Science and its Cultural Influences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707856/science-and-orthodox-christianity-an-overview
#9
Efthymios Nicolaidis, Eudoxie Delli, Nikolaos Livanos, Kostas Tampakis, George Vlahakis
This essay offers an overview of the history of the relations between science and Eastern Christianity based on Greek-language sources. The civilizations concerned are the Byzantine Empire, the Christian Orthodox communities of the Ottoman Empire, and modern Greece, as a case study of a national state. Beginning with the Greek Church Fathers, the essay investigates the ideas of theologians and scholars on nature. Neoplatonism, the theological debates of Iconoclasm and Hesychasm, the proposed union of the Eastern and Western Churches, and the complex relations with the Hellenic past all had notable impacts on the conception of science held by the Byzantine Orthodox...
September 2016: Isis; An International Review Devoted to the History of Science and its Cultural Influences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707853/the-east-india-company-the-company%C3%A2-s-museum-and-the-political-economy-of-natural-history-in-the-early-nineteenth-century
#10
Jessica Ratcliff
At the turn of the nineteenth century, at its headquarters in the City of London, the Honourable East India Company established a new museum and library. By midcentury this museum would contain one of Europe’s most extensive collections of the natural history, arts, and sciences of Asia. This essay uses the early history of the company’s museum, focusing in particular on its natural history collections, to explore the material relationship between scientific practice and the imperial political economy. Much of the collections had been gathered in the wake of military campaigns, trade missions, or administrative surveys...
September 2016: Isis; An International Review Devoted to the History of Science and its Cultural Influences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707850/the-virtues-of-scientific-practice-macintyre-virtue-ethics-and-the-historiography-of-science
#11
Daniel J Hicks, Thomas A Stapleford
“Practice” has become a ubiquitous term in the history of science, and yet historians have not always reflected on its philosophical import and in particular on its potential connections with ethics. This essay draws on the work of the virtue ethicist Alasdair MacIntyre to develop a theory of “communal practices” and explore how such an approach can inform the history of science, including allegations about the corruption of science by wealth or power, consideration of scientific ethics or “moral economies,” the role of values in science, the ethical distinctiveness (or not) of scientific vocations, and the relationship between history of science and the practice of science itself...
September 2016: Isis; An International Review Devoted to the History of Science and its Cultural Influences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705333/interdisciplinarity-in-norbert-wiener-a-mathematician-philosopher-of-our-time
#12
Leone Montagnini
The paper focuses on interdisciplinarity in Norbert Wiener looking at his scientific work from a unitary point of view. It begins with a bird's-eye view of the history of the term "interdisciplinarity", pointing out how the word was the result of a movement of ideas that took place in US science along the whole Twentieth century. This way, the Wiener's conceptions and practices concerning interdisciplinarity are compared with their historical context, showing analogies and peculiarities. For Wiener, interdisciplinary research by very small groups whose members have a very broad interdisciplinary basis is an essential prerequisite for new fundamental ideas for invention and discoveries...
June 28, 2017: Biophysical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705235/burden-and-associated-factors-of-anemia-among-pregnant-women-attending-antenatal-care-in-southern-ethiopia-cross-sectional-study
#13
Weinshet Getahun, Tefera Belachew, Amare Desalegn Wolide
BACKGROUND: Anemia is a condition in which the number of red blood cells or their oxygen-carrying capacity is insufficient to meet physiologic needs, which varies by age, sex, altitude, smoking, and pregnancy status. The study aim is to determine the prevalence and factors associated with anemia among pregnant women attending a hospital in southern Ethiopia using a structured interview administered questionnaire. METHODS: Facility-based cross-sectional study was conducted from March 01-April 30 2015 at Butajira General Hospital, Ethiopia...
July 14, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702964/stigmata-in-the-history-between-faith-mysticism-and-science
#14
S Gianfaldoni, J Lotti, M G Roccia, M Fioranelli, R Gianfaldoni, T Lotti
Stigmata are one of the most ancient and fascinating mysteries of the Christian religion. The word “stigmata” derives by the Greek “stigma”, that means sign, mark. Classically, stigmata are the sores inflicted on Jesus Christ during his passion and crucifixion. Today, the term stigmatized has been extended to designate several cases of individuals, who show skin sores similar to those of Christ. The Authors report a brief history of stigmata, trying to give an explanation to such a fascinating phenomenon...
July 13, 2017: Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702145/catheter-related-urinary-nosocomial-infections-in-intensive-care-units-an-epidemiologic-study-in-north-of-iran
#15
Mohammad Sadegh Rezai, Masoumeh Bagheri-Nesami, Attieh Nikkhah
BACKGROUND: Urinary tract infection (UTI) is one of the most common infections in developing countries. The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence of nosocomial catheter- associated UTI and its related factors in hospitalized patients in intensive care units of hospitals affiliated to Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, in 2014. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted on patients who were admitted in hospitals and urinary catheterization was performed for them...
2017: Caspian Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701816/brief-history-of-agricultural-systems-modeling
#16
James W Jones, John M Antle, Bruno Basso, Kenneth J Boote, Richard T Conant, Ian Foster, H Charles J Godfray, Mario Herrero, Richard E Howitt, Sander Janssen, Brian A Keating, Rafael Munoz-Carpena, Cheryl H Porter, Cynthia Rosenzweig, Tim R Wheeler
Agricultural systems science generates knowledge that allows researchers to consider complex problems or take informed agricultural decisions. The rich history of this science exemplifies the diversity of systems and scales over which they operate and have been studied. Modeling, an essential tool in agricultural systems science, has been accomplished by scientists from a wide range of disciplines, who have contributed concepts and tools over more than six decades. As agricultural scientists now consider the "next generation" models, data, and knowledge products needed to meet the increasingly complex systems problems faced by society, it is important to take stock of this history and its lessons to ensure that we avoid re-invention and strive to consider all dimensions of associated challenges...
July 2017: Agricultural Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701570/adipose-derived-fatty-acid-binding-proteins-plasma-concentrations-are-increased-in-breast-cancer-patients
#17
Sandra Guaita-Esteruelas, Paula Saavedra-García, Alba Bosquet, Joan Borràs, Josefa Girona, Kepa Amiliano, Marta Rodríguez-Balada, Mercedes Heras, Luís Masana, Josep Gumà
BACKGROUND: Adipose tissue is an endocrine organ that could play a role in tumor progression via its secreted adipokines. The role of adipose-derived fatty acid-binding protein (FABP) 4 and FABP5 in breast cancer is presently under study, but their circulating levels in this pathology are poorly known. We analyzed the blood concentrations of FABP4 and FABP5 in breast cancer patients to determine whether there is an association between them and breast cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We studied 294 women in the oncology department with a family history of breast cancer; 198 of the women had breast cancer, and 96 were healthy controls...
July 12, 2017: Oncologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700044/prevalence-of-and-risk-factors-for-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis-in-iran-and-its-neighboring-countries-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#18
Worku Jimma, Marjan Ghazisaeedi, Leila Shahmoradi, Ahmed Abdulahi Abdurahman, Sharareh Rostam Niakan Kalhori, Mahshid Nasehi, Sharifi Yazdi, Reza Safdari
Tuberculosis, in particular drug-resistant tuberculosis, is of global concern due to the high mortality and morbidity associated with it annually. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of and the risk factors for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in Iran and its neighboring countries. Four databases (PubMed, BioMed Central, EMBASE, and Web of Science) were searched using key terms. Nineteen eligible articles were identified, of which 12 and seven were used for quantitative and qualitative analysis, respectively...
May 2017: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698544/dynamics-and-extreme-plasticity-of-metallic-microparticles-in-supersonic-collisions
#19
Wanting Xie, Arash Alizadeh-Dehkharghani, Qiyong Chen, Victor K Champagne, Xuemei Wang, Aaron T Nardi, Steven Kooi, Sinan Müftü, Jae-Hwang Lee
Metallic microparticles can acquire remarkable nanoscale morphologies after experiencing high velocity collisions, but materials science regarding the extreme events has been limited due to a lack of controlled experiments. In this work, collision dynamics and nonlinear material characteristics of aluminum microparticles are investigated through precise single particle collisions with two distinctive substrates, sapphire and aluminum, across a broad range of collision velocities, from 50 to 1,100 m/s. An empirical constitutive model is calibrated based on the experimental results, and is used to investigate the mechanics of particle deformation history...
July 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697264/early-adversity-toxic-stress-and-resilience-pediatrics-for-today
#20
M Denise Dowd
Never before in the history of science have we had better insight into the factors that determine the health and well-being of a person from infancy to adulthood. An expanding body of knowledge is converging from numerous disciplines including neuroscience, education, behavioral science, public health, the social sciences, and medicine. Awareness of the impact of early childhood adversity and toxic stress is growing rapidly among both professionals and the lay public. This calls for a reevaluation of how and what we, as child health care providers, should deliver to maximize our impact on individual health and well-being across the lifespan...
July 1, 2017: Pediatric Annals
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