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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332417/-concise-history-of-toxicology-from-empiric-knowledge-to-science
#1
Anna Tompa, Péter Balázs
Toxicology is a science of poisonings by xenobiotics and endogenous physiological changes. Its empiric roots may be traced back to the emerging of the human race because the most important pledge of our predecessors' survival was the differentiation between eatable and poisonous plants and animals. In the course of social evolution, there were three main fields of using poisons: 1) hunting and warfare, 2) to settle social tensions by avoiding military conflicts through hiding strategy of eliminating enemies by toxic substances, 3) medicines applied first as anti-poisons and later by introducing strong substances to defeat diseases, but paradoxically active euthanasia is also a part of the whole story...
January 2018: Orvosi Hetilap
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332025/prolegomena-to-a-true-integrative-medical-paradigm
#2
Babak Daneshfard, Mohammad Reza Sanaye, Majid Nimrouzi
When a paradigm starts to show signs of failure to cope with significant questions in any basic/applied branch of human knowledge, there come on the scene those who have perused the related literature enough to either answer those major questions according to the established paradigm or proffer a (wholly) new way of looking at things. In the latter case, the history of science tells us, a paradigm shift takes place. Modern medicine cannot be proven to be totally disconnected from its traditional roots. Where traditional medicine came to give its place to present-day conventional medicine, a number of humanistic aspects of healing, in addition to some axioms of old wisdom, were actually lost...
January 15, 2018: Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331143/effects-of-system-size-and-cooling-rate-on-the-structure-and-properties-of-sodium-borosilicate-glasses-from-molecular-dynamics-simulations
#3
Lu Deng, Jincheng Du
Borosilicate glasses form an important glass forming system in both glass science and technologies. The structure and property changes of borosilicate glasses as a function of thermal history in terms of cooling rate during glass formation and simulation system sizes used in classical molecular dynamics (MD) simulation were investigated with recently developed composition dependent partial charge potentials. Short and medium range structural features such as boron coordination, Si and B Qn distributions, and ring size distributions were analyzed to elucidate the effects of cooling rate and simulation system size on these structure features and selected glass properties such as glass transition temperature, vibration density of states, and mechanical properties...
January 14, 2018: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324914/the-association-between-alzheimer-s-disease-and-cancer-systematic-review-meta-analysis
#4
Tilemachos Nektarios Papageorgakopoulos, Despina Moraitou, Maria Papanikolaou, Magda Tsolaki
The objective of the present study was the quantitative assessment of the previously documented inverse relationship between Alzheimer's Disease (AD) and cancer (CA) by conducting a meta-analysis and evaluating systematic differentiations of the aforementioned relationship based on cancer localization. For the purpose of the study all available empirical data of the last decade, which met specific criteria, were included in the analysis by querying PubMed, Web of Science and Cochrane Library databases. Seven studies were included in the analysis, with a total sample of 18,887 (10,859 AD patients, 8,028 non-demented controls) participants to calculate cancer risk among AD patients, and 11 studies, with a total of 5,607,076 (1,853,318 cancer patients, 3,753,758 healthy controls) participants, were assessed to evaluate AD risk among cancer patients...
September 2017: Hellenic Journal of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324560/contrast-media-extravasations-in-patients-undergoing-computerized-tomography-scanning-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-risk-factors-and-interventions
#5
Sandrine Ding, Nicole Richli Meystre, Cosmin Campeanu, Giuseppe Gullo
OBJECTIVE: To identify risk factors and interventions preventing or reducing contrast medium extravasation. INTRODUCTION: Computed tomography (CT) is a radiological examination essential for the diagnosis and monitoring of many diseases. It is often performed with the intravenous (IV) injection of contrast agents. Use of these products can result in a significant complication, extravasation, which is the accidental leakage of IV material into the surrounding tissue...
January 2018: JBI Database of Systematic Reviews and Implementation Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318939/the-m%C3%A3-thode-de-nomenclature-chimique-1787-a-document-of-transition
#6
Wolfgang Lefèvre
The Méthode de nomenclature chimique, published by the Académie Royale des Sciences in 1787, is rightly praised as a landmark in the history of early modern chemistry. It is also - though less rightly - considered to be a fruit of Lavoisier's Chemical Revolution. In fact, main features of the Méthode's nomenclatural and classificatory proposal rest on fundamental chemical conceptions that were shared by adherents of the phlogistic chemical system as well. After a short presentation of the Méthode's four authors (Berthollet, Fourcroy, Guyton de Morveau, and Lavoisier) and the circumstances of their collaboration, my paper will focus on those features of the Méthode that illuminate decisive achievements of the entire community of eighteenth-century chemists, as well as those features that reveal an unsettled state of many of its convictions...
January 10, 2018: Ambix
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317912/knowledge-perceptions-and-practices-of-healthcare-workers-regarding-the-use-of-respiratory-protection-equipment-at-iran-hospitals
#7
Marzieh Honarbakhsh, Mehdi Jahangiri, Haleh Ghaem
Background: Using appropriate respiratory protection equipment (RPE) is very important to protect healthcare workers (HCWs) against respiratory hazards. The aim of this study was to identify the level of knowledge, perceptions and practices of HCWs on using RPE. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted with 284 employees of educational hospitals affiliated to Shiraz University of Medical Sciences. The study's instrument was a self-made questionnaire that comprised four components: demographic inquiries and questions designed to assess the knowledge, perceptions and practice of HCWs regarding RPE...
January 2018: Journal of Infection Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317314/phi-in-physiology-psychology-and-biomechanics-the-golden-ratio-between-myth-and-science
#8
REVIEW
Marco Iosa, Giovanni Morone, Stefano Paolucci
In recent years, there has been a renewed interest in the use of the so-called golden ratio (Phi, ϕ), an irrational number with fractal properties, used in artworks since V century BC. and now for modelling complex biological structures and functions. This number, in fact, recursively pops-up in human history, from Ancient Greeks to Renaissance, and to contemporary scientific studies. Nevertheless, recent scientific results often fall between two extremes: those of a priori sceptic researchers accusing the artificial emergence of ϕ in many studies, and those of researchers that find a mystic meaning in the presence of ϕ in human physiology...
January 6, 2018: Bio Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313802/augmenting-cognitive-training-in-older-adults-the-act-study-design-and-methods-of-a-phase-iii-tdcs-and-cognitive-training-trial
#9
Adam J Woods, Ronald Cohen, Michael Marsiske, Gene E Alexander, Sara J Czaja, Samuel Wu
BACKGROUND: Adults over age 65 represent the fastest growing population in the US. Decline in cognitive abilities is a hallmark of advanced age and is associated with loss of independence and dementia risk. There is a pressing need to develop effective interventions for slowing or reversing the cognitive aging process. While certain forms of cognitive training have shown promise in this area, effects only sometimes transfer to neuropsychological tests within or outside the trained domain...
December 4, 2017: Contemporary Clinical Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29312742/clinical-characteristics-and-outcomes-of-lung-cancer-patients-with-combined-pulmonary-fibrosis-and-emphysema-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-13-studies
#10
Chuan Li, Wenwen Wu, Nan Chen, Huizi Song, Tianjian Lu, Zhenyu Yang, Zihuai Wang, Jian Zhou, Lunxu Liu
Background: The characteristic and outcomes of lung cancer patients with combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema (CPFE) have long been assessed, but results were controversial. Therefore, we performed a meta-analysis to assess the clinical features and prognosis of lung cancer patients with CPFE. Methods: The databases PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science (updated to October 1, 2017) were searched for eligible studies. Pooled odds ratios (ORs), weighted mean differences (WMD) or hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were used to evaluate the clinicopathological characteristics, the short-term outcome after operation and long-term survival of lung cancer patients with CPFE compared with lung cancer patients without CPFE (fibrosis, emphysema, and normal)...
December 2017: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310546/the-oxford-illustrated-history-of-science
#11
David Knight
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 8, 2018: Ambix
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310544/what-history-tells-us-about-the-distinct-nature-of-chemistry
#12
Hasok Chang
Attention to the history of chemistry can help us recognise the characteristics of chemistry that have helped to maintain it as a separate scientific discipline with a unique identity. Three such features are highlighted in this paper. First, chemistry has maintained a distinct type of theoretical thinking, independent from that of physics even in the era of quantum chemistry. Second, chemical research has always been shaped by its ineliminable practical relevance and usefulness. Third, the lived experience of chemistry, spanning the laboratory, the classroom and everyday life, is distinctive in its multidimensional sensuousness...
January 8, 2018: Ambix
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310539/a-chemical-reaction-to-the-historiography-of-biology
#13
Angela N H Creager
This article examines the often-overlooked role of chemical ideas and practices in the history of modern biology. The first section analyses how the conventional histories of the life sciences have, through the twentieth century, come to focus nearly exclusively on evolutionary theory and genetics, and why this storyline is inadequate. The second section elaborates on what the restricted neo-Darwinian history of biology misses, noting a variety of episodes in the history of biology that relied on developments in - or tools from - chemistry, including an example from the author's own work...
January 8, 2018: Ambix
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29309168/-scientific-conference-rijeka-and-its-citizens-in-medical-history-2000-2016
#14
Robert Doričić, Igor Eterović
This paper presents the form and content of the sixteen scientific conferences "Rijeka and its Citizens in Medical History" ("Rijeka i Riječani u medicinskoj povjesnici") which were held in the period between 2000 and 2016 according to the archive data of the conference organizer Croatian Scientific Society for the History of Health Culture. It presents data about the beginning of science convention, some its organisational features and the number of participants. A total of 315 presentations, whose abstracts were published in individual conference's abstract books, were given at the sixteen conventions by 463 participants from Croatia and abroad...
December 2017: Acta Medico-historica Adriatica: AMHA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29309167/-on-the-occasion-of-the-fiftieth-anniversary-of-the-croatian-scientific-society-for-the-history-of-health-culture
#15
Ante Škrobonja, Igor Salopek
A group of intellectuals, predominantly lecturers from the Faculty of Medicine, founded in Rijeka on May 29, 1966 the branch of the Yugoslav Scientific Society for the History of Health Culture, which after the independence of Croatia in 1991 continues its work under the name Croatian Scientific Society for the History of Health Culture. Over the past 50 years, within activities of the Society more than 250 professional and scientific conferences have been held in Rijeka and other Croatian cities. In addition, a dozen of professional-scientific trips to neighbouring countries were organized...
December 2017: Acta Medico-historica Adriatica: AMHA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304923/potentially-modifiable-risk-factors-for-long-term-cognitive-impairment-after-critical-illness-a-systematic-review
#16
REVIEW
Amra Sakusic, John C O'Horo, Mikhail Dziadzko, Dziadzko Volha, Rashid Ali, Tarun D Singh, Rahul Kashyap, Ann M Farrell, John D Fryer, Ronald Petersen, Ognjen Gajic, Alejandro A Rabinstein
Long-term cognitive impairment is common in survivors of critical illness. Little is known about the etiology of this serious complication. We sought to summarize current scientific knowledge about potentially modifiable risk factors during intensive care unit (ICU) treatment that may play a substantial role in the development of long-term cognitive impairment. All searches were run on October 1, 2017. The search strategy included Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid Embase, Ovid CDR, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effect, Scopus, and Web of Science, and included MeSH headings and keywords related to intensive care, critical care, and cognitive disorders...
January 2018: Mayo Clinic Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304313/the-doctor-of-delayed-publications-the-remarkable-life-of-george-streisinger-1927-1984
#17
Máté Varga
The history of science offers multiple examples of how the perseverance of a single visionary person could open the floodgates for a whole new area of research. Zebrafish research is one of these fields with an exciting founding story, as it was the dogged persistence of one man, George Streisinger, that ultimately lifted this little fish out of the obscurity of pet shops into the pantheon of genetic model organisms. The Hungarian born Streisinger was one of the most gifted geneticists of his era and his network of mentors and friends really reads like a who-is-who of 20th century genetics...
January 5, 2018: Zebrafish
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299692/steeves-demazeux-and-patrick-singy-eds-the-dsm-5-in-perspective-philosophical-reflections-on-the-psychiatric-babel-dordrecht-heidelberg-new-york-london-springer-2015-series-history-philosophy-and-theory-of-the-life-sciences-vol-10-238%C3%A2-pp-%C3%A2-90
#18
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299391/the-auditory-comprehension-changes-over-time-after-sport-related-concussion-can-indicate-multisensory-processing-dysfunctions
#19
Anita Białuńska, Anthony P Salvatore
Background: Although science findings and treatment approaches of a concussion have changed in recent years, there continue to be challenges in understanding the nature of the post-concussion behavior. There is growing a body of evidence that some deficits can be related to an impaired auditory processing. Purpose: To assess auditory comprehension changes over time following sport-related concussion (SRC) in young athletes. Methods: A prospective, repeated measures mixed-design was used...
December 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298100/radio-frequency-applications-for-food-processing-and-safety
#20
Yang Jiao, Juming Tang, Yifen Wang, Tony L Koral
Radio-frequency (RF) heating, as a thermal-processing technology, has been extending its applications in the food industry. Although RF has shown some unique advantages against conventional methods in industrial drying and frozen food thawing, more research is needed to make it applicable for food safety applications because of its complex heating mechanism. This review provides comprehensive information regarding RF-heating history, mechanism, fundamentals, and applications that have already been fully developed or are still under research...
January 3, 2018: Annual Review of Food Science and Technology
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