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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327811/undiagnosed-acute-hiv-infection-identified-through-rna-testing-of-pooled-serum-samples-obtained-during-a-dengue-outbreak-in-s%C3%A3-o-paulo-brazil
#1
Elaine Monteiro Matsuda, Daniela Rodrigues Colpas, Norberto Camilo Campos, Luana Portes Ozorio Coelho, Andreia Moreira Dos Santos Carmo, Luís Fernando de Macedo Brígido
INTRODUCTION: Improving HIV diagnostics and treatment is necessary to end the AIDS epidemic. Pooled plasma can be used to identify patients with acute HIV disease, even before serological tests. During dengue outbreaks, patients having symptoms common to other acute viral diseases might seek medical care. METHODS: We evaluated HIV RNA in pooled seronegative dengue samples. RESULTS: After excluding individuals with a known HIV diagnosis, an HIV-1 prevalence of 0...
January 2017: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327545/calibration-free-assays-on-standard-real-time-pcr-devices
#2
Pawel R Debski, Kamil Gewartowski, Seweryn Bajer, Piotr Garstecki
Quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction (qPCR) is one of central techniques in molecular biology and important tool in medical diagnostics. While being a golden standard qPCR techniques depend on reference measurements and are susceptible to large errors caused by even small changes of reaction efficiency or conditions that are typically not marked by decreased precision. Digital PCR (dPCR) technologies should alleviate the need for calibration by providing absolute quantitation using binary (yes/no) signals from partitions provided that the basic assumption of amplification a single target molecule into a positive signal is met...
March 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323445/neuropsychology-in-south-africa
#3
Sharon Truter, Menachem Mazabow, Alejandra Morlett Paredes, Diego Rivera, Juan Carlos Arango-Lasprilla
This survey forms part of an international research study conducted in 39 countries and is the first to describe the characteristics of individuals engaged in the practice of neuropsychology in South Africa (SA). The purpose was to analyze the characteristics of individuals working in the profession of neuropsychology in order to understand their background, professional training, current work situation, assessment and diagnostic procedures, rehabilitation techniques, teaching responsibilities, and research activities...
March 21, 2017: Applied Neuropsychology. Adult
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320691/microsoft-kinect-based-continuous-performance-test-an-objective-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-assessment
#4
David Delgado-Gomez, Inmaculada Peñuelas-Calvo, Antonio Eduardo Masó-Besga, Silvia Vallejo-Oñate, Itziar Baltasar Tello, Elsa Arrua Duarte, María Constanza Vera Varela, Juan Carballo, Enrique Baca-García
BACKGROUND: One of the major challenges in mental medical care is finding out new instruments for an accurate and objective evaluation of the attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Early ADHD identification, severity assessment, and prompt treatment are essential to avoid the negative effects associated with this mental condition. OBJECTIVE: The aim of our study was to develop a novel ADHD assessment instrument based on Microsoft Kinect, which identifies ADHD cardinal symptoms in order to provide a more accurate evaluation...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Medical Internet Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319898/immunodetection-of-salivary-biomarkers-by-an-optical-microfluidic-biosensor-with-polyethylenimine-modified-polythiophene-c70-organic-photodetectors
#5
Tao Dong, Nuno Miguel Matos Pires
This work reports a novel optical microfluidic biosensor with highly sensitive organic photodetectors (OPDs) for absorbance-based detection of salivary protein biomarkers at the point of care. The compact and miniaturized biosensor has comprised OPDs made of polythiophene-C70 bulk heterojunction for the photoactive layer; whilst a calcium-free cathode interfacial layer, made of linear polyethylenimine, was incorporated to the photodetectors to enhance the low cost. The OPDs realized onto a glass chip were aligned to antibody-functionalized chambers of a poly(methyl methacrylate) microfluidic chip, in where immunogold-silver assays were conducted...
March 6, 2017: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316585/is-elite-sport-really-bad-for-you-can-we-answer-the-question
#6
Florence Lebrun, Dave Collins
Elite athletes are not immune to mental health issues. Yet, quality research on mental health in elites has so far been limited. Thus, while research on mental health emphasises the prevalence and nature of disorders in the general population, its extent in elite performers remains unclear. Indeed, the prevalence of mental conditions cannot be accurately calculated in elite athletes due to a lack of diagnostic criteria and screening tools specifically adapted to this unique population. Researchers and practitioners are, therefore, confronted with biases reflecting the use of clinical norms and instruments initially developed for the general population...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316575/personality-factors-and-depressive-configurations-an-exploratory-study-in-an-italian-clinical-sample
#7
Francesca Straccamore, Simona Ruggi, Vittorio Lingiardi, Raffaella Zanardi, Sara Vecchi, Osmano Oasi
Introduction: This study focuses on the relationship between personality configurations and depressive experiences. More specifically, the aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between self-criticism and dependency and personality styles or disorders, exploring the association between personality features and depressive symptoms. The two-configurations model of personality developed by Blatt (2004, 2008) is adopted as a reference point in sharing a valid framework and in understanding the results...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306147/early-functional-limitations-in-cognitively-normal-older-adults-predict-diagnostic-conversion-to-mild-cognitive-impairment
#8
Sarah Tomaszewski Farias, Karen Lau, Danielle Harvey, Katherine G Denny, Cheyanne Barba, Anthony N Mefford
OBJECTIVES: To examine whether specific types of early functional limitations in cognitively normal older adults are associated with subsequent development of mild cognitive impairment (MCI), as well as the relative predictive value of self versus informant report in predicting diagnostic conversion to MCI. DESIGN: As a part of a longitudinal study design, participants underwent baseline and annual multidisciplinary clinical evaluations, including a physical and neurological examination, imaging, laboratory work, and neuropsychological testing...
March 17, 2017: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303912/new-technologies-for-the-assessment-of-neuropathies
#9
REVIEW
Roberto Gasparotti, Luca Padua, Chiara Briani, Giuseppe Lauria
Technical advances are rapidly changing the clinical and instrumental approach to peripheral nerve diseases. Magnetic resonance neurography, diffusion tensor imaging and nerve ultrasonography are increasingly entering the diagnostic workup of peripheral neuropathies as tools that complement neurophysiology and enable investigation of proximal structures, such as plexuses and roots. Progress in the design of magnetic resonance scanners and sequences, and the development of high-frequency ultrasound probes mean that high-resolution peripheral nerve imaging is possible, enabling detailed examination of nerve size, morphology and internal fascicular structure that can integrate nerve conduction studies into clinical practice...
March 17, 2017: Nature Reviews. Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303071/the-regulation-of-iron-absorption-and-homeostasis
#10
REVIEW
Daniel F Wallace
Iron is an essential element in biology, required for numerous cellular processes. Either too much or too little iron can be detrimental, and organisms have developed mechanisms for balancing iron within safe limits. In mammals there are no controlled mechanisms for the excretion of excess iron, hence body iron homeostasis is regulated at the sites of absorption, utilisation and recycling. This review will discuss the discoveries that have been made in the past 20 years into advancing our understanding of iron homeostasis and its regulation...
May 2016: Clinical Biochemist. Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301754/bioanalytical-measurements-enabled-by-surface-enhanced-raman-scattering-sers-probes
#11
Lauren E Jamieson, Steven M Asiala, Kirsten Gracie, Karen Faulds, Duncan Graham
Since its discovery in 1974, surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) has gained momentum as an important tool in analytical chemistry. SERS is used widely for analysis of biological samples, ranging from in vitro cell culture models, ex vivo tissue and blood samples, and direct in vivo application. New insights have been gained into biochemistry, with an emphasis on biomolecule detection, from small molecules such as glucose and amino acids to larger biomolecules such as DNA, proteins, and lipids. These measurements have increased our understanding of biological systems, and significantly, they have improved diagnostic capabilities...
February 23, 2017: Annual Review of Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301748/single-molecule-arrays-for-protein-and-nucleic-acid-analysis
#12
Limor Cohen, David R Walt
The last few years have seen breakthroughs that will transform our ability to measure important analytes. Miniaturization of reaction volumes and confinement of analytes of interest into ultrasmall containers have greatly enhanced the sensitivity and throughput of many detection methods. Fabrication of microwell arrays and implementation of bead-based assays have been instrumental in the development of methods for measuring relevant biomolecules, with applications to both diagnostics and fundamental biological studies...
March 15, 2017: Annual Review of Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299777/recurrent-vulvovaginal-candidiasis-a-review-of-guideline-recommendations
#13
REVIEW
Alexia Matheson, Danielle Mazza
BACKGROUND: Recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) is a difficult-to-manage condition that affects 5-8% of women of reproductive age. Current treatment regimes have high relapse rates, resulting in poor quality of life for the women affected. AIM: To compare the quality and content of current guidelines concerned with recurrent VVC and to develop a summary of recommendations to assist in the management of women with this condition. METHODS: Relevant clinical guidelines were identified through a search of several databases (MEDLINE, SCOPUS and The Cochrane Library) and relevant websites...
March 15, 2017: Australian & New Zealand Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297020/cross-sectional-comparison-of-the-epidemiology-of-dsm-5-generalized-anxiety-disorder-across-the-globe
#14
Ayelet Meron Ruscio, Lauren S Hallion, Carmen C W Lim, Sergio Aguilar-Gaxiola, Ali Al-Hamzawi, Jordi Alonso, Laura Helena Andrade, Guilherme Borges, Evelyn J Bromet, Brendan Bunting, José Miguel Caldas de Almeida, Koen Demyttenaere, Silvia Florescu, Giovanni de Girolamo, Oye Gureje, Josep Maria Haro, Yanling He, Hristo Hinkov, Chiyi Hu, Peter de Jonge, Elie G Karam, Sing Lee, Jean-Pierre Lepine, Daphna Levinson, Zeina Mneimneh, Fernando Navarro-Mateu, José Posada-Villa, Tim Slade, Dan J Stein, Yolanda Torres, Hidenori Uda, Bogdan Wojtyniak, Ronald C Kessler, Somnath Chatterji, Kate M Scott
Importance: Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is poorly understood compared with other anxiety disorders, and debates persist about the seriousness of this disorder. Few data exist on GAD outside a small number of affluent, industrialized nations. No population-based data exist on GAD as it is currently defined in DSM-5. Objective: To provide the first epidemiologic data on DSM-5 GAD and explore cross-national differences in its prevalence, course, correlates, and impact...
March 15, 2017: JAMA Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293285/body-image-drawings-dissociate-ethnic-differences-and-anorexia-in-adolescent-girls
#15
Galit Goldzak-Kunik, Micah Leshem
OBJECTIVES: To distinguish between ethnic differences among segregated schoolgirls and restrictive anorexia nervosa using a simple culture-fair test of body image (BI) figure drawings. METHODS: Several responses to BI figure drawings by 178 adolescent schoolgirls from three ethnically distinct and segregated schools and communities in Israel, Jewish secular (JS), Jewish Haredi (H), and Christian Arab (C), and a group of 14 severely restricting anorexic girls (AN)...
2017: Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291974/comorbid-depression-and-suicide-ideation-in-patients-with-combat-related-ptsd-the-role-of-temperament-character-and-trait-impulsivity
#16
Nenad Jakšić, Branka Aukst Margetić, Darko Marčinko
BACKGROUND: War veterans with PTSD have a high chance of developing major depressive disorder (MDD) at some point, while they can also exhibit increased suicidal tendencies. The primary goal of this research was to investigate whether personality dimensions, including temperament, character, and trait impulsivity, were associated with comorbid MDD, as well as with suicidal ideation in psychiatric patients suffering from combat-related PTSD. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The sample consisted of 148 Croatian male war veterans (mean age 49...
March 2017: Psychiatria Danubina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291801/early-diagnosis-of-mild-cognitive-impairment-and-mild-dementia-through-basic-and-instrumental-activities-of-daily-living-development-of-a-new-evaluation-tool
#17
Elise Cornelis, Ellen Gorus, Ingo Beyer, Ivan Bautmans, Patricia De Vriendt
BACKGROUND: Assessment of activities of daily living (ADL) is paramount to determine impairment in everyday functioning and to ensure accurate early diagnosis of neurocognitive disorders. Unfortunately, most common ADL tools are limited in their use in a diagnostic process. This study developed a new evaluation by adopting the items of the Katz Index (basic [b-] ADL) and Lawton Scale (instrumental [i-] ADL), defining them with the terminology of the International Classification of Human Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF), adding the scoring system of the ICF, and adding the possibility to identify underlying causes of limitations in ADL...
March 2017: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291460/validation-of-laboratory-animal-and-surrogate-human-models-in-primary-blast-injury-studies
#18
Namas Chandra, Aravind Sundaramurthy, Raj K Gupta
Blast-induced neurotrauma has affected more than 300,000 service members. It is important to understand the effect of single and repeated shock-blast wave exposures on the neuropsychological behavior of soldiers, to offer them better protection, diagnostics, and treatment. Preclinical animal models and helmet design studies on human surrogate models have relied on the use of compression gas-driven shock tubes. Traditional shock tubes are so simple that if not carefully designed and operated, the test results can easily introduce detrimental artifacts clouding the conclusions...
March 2017: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289798/-helpful-instrumental-examinations-in-idiopathic-parkinson-s-disease
#19
U Walter, H Zach, I Liepelt-Scarfone, W Maetzler
BACKGROUND: The clinical diagnosis of idiopathic Parkinson's disease (iPD) can be challenging. In these cases, additional diagnostic methods are available that can help to improve diagnostic accuracy. OBJECTIVES, MATERIAL AND METHODS: This article provides an overview of currently available and promising novel ancillary methods for the early and differential diagnosis of iPD. RESULTS: Imaging tools, such as 1.5 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) are mainly used for the differentiation between iPD and symptomatic parkinsonian syndromes (PS)...
March 13, 2017: Der Nervenarzt
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286815/potential-child-abuse-screening-in-emergency-department-a-diagnostic-accuracy-study
#20
Hossein Dinpanah, Abazar Akbarzadeh Pasha
INTRODUCTION: Designing a tool that can differentiate those at risk of child abuse with great diagnostic accuracy is of great interest. The present study was designed to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of Escape instrument in triage of at risk cases of child abuse presenting to emergency department (ED). METHOD: The present diagnostic accuracy study performed on 6120 of the children under 16 years old presented to ED during 3 years, using convenience sampling. Confirmation by the child abuse team (pediatrician, a social worker, and a forensic physician) was considered as the gold standard...
2017: Emergency (Tehran, Iran)
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