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Diagnostic instruments

Thomas R Vetter, Patrick Schober
Correlation and agreement are 2 concepts that are widely applied in the medical literature and clinical practice to assess for the presence and strength of an association. However, because correlation and agreement are conceptually distinct, they require the use of different statistics. Agreement is a concept that is closely related to but fundamentally different from and often confused with correlation. The idea of agreement refers to the notion of reproducibility of clinical evaluations or biomedical measurements...
April 17, 2018: Anesthesia and Analgesia
Viraj Bhise, Suja S Rajan, Dean F Sittig, Viralkumar Vaghani, Robert O Morgan, Arushi Khanna, Hardeep Singh
RATIONALE, AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: Diagnostic uncertainty is common in primary care. Because it is challenging to measure, there is inadequate scientific understanding of diagnostic decision-making during uncertainty. Our objective was to understand how diagnostic uncertainty was documented in the electronic health record (EHR) and explore a strategy to retrospectively identify it using clinician documentation. METHODS: We reviewed the literature to identify documentation language that could identify both direct expression and indirect inference of diagnostic uncertainty and designed an instrument to facilitate record review...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice
Xuan-Hung Pham, Eunil Hahm, Tae Han Kim, Hyung-Mo Kim, Sang Hun Lee, Yoon-Sik Lee, Dae Hong Jeong, Bong-Hyun Jun
We have developed a sensitive colorimetric immunoassay with broad dynamic range using enzyme-catalyzed Ag growth on gold nanoparticle (NP)-assembled silica (SiO2 @Au@Ag). To reduce Ag+ ion content and promote Ag growth on the assembled Au NPs, alkaline phosphatase (AP)-based enzymatic amplification was incorporated, which considerably increased the colorimetric read-out. As a model study, sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to quantify target IgG. The immune complexes capture the Ab-IgG-AP-labeled detection Ab and trigger the enzyme-catalyzed reaction to convert 2-phospho-L-ascorbic acid to ascorbic acid in the presence of the target IgG...
April 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
H Dewitz, B Yildirim, P Klein
Standardized clinical diagnostic procedures cannot assess the functionality of the anatomical structures in sport-specific movement. Biomechanical screening is able to detect deficits but is not sufficiently and objectively precise with the current clinical examination tools including conventional imaging techniques. The fields of use of functional testing methods are versatile and range from injury prevention analysis, screening during rehabilitation phases up to the return-to-play decision. Using simple musculoskeletal function analysis it is difficult to assess the risk of injuries...
April 18, 2018: Der Unfallchirurg
Carmen Bax, Gianluigi Taverna, Lidia Eusebio, Selena Sironi, Fabio Grizzi, Giorgio Guazzoni, Laura Capelli
Prostate cancer is the second most common cause of cancer death among men. It is an asymptomatic and slow growing tumour, which starts occurring in young men, but can be detected only around the age of 40–50. Although its long latency period and potential curability make prostate cancer a perfect candidate for screening programs, the current procedure lacks in specificity. Researchers are rising to the challenge of developing innovative tools able of detecting the disease during its early stage that is the most curable...
April 18, 2018: Cancers
Johanna König, Andrea Block, Mathias Becker, Kristin Fenske, Johannes Hertel, Sandra Van der Auwera, Kathleen Zymara, Henry Völzke, Harald Jürgen Freyberger, Hans Jörgen Grabe
BACKGROUND: Life events (LEs) are associated with future physical and mental health. They are crucial for understanding the pathways to mental disorders as well as the interactions with biological parameters. However, deeper insight is needed into the complex interplay between the type of LE, its subjective evaluation and accompanying factors such as social support. The "Stralsund Life Event List" (SEL) was developed to facilitate this research. METHODS: The SEL is a standardized interview that assesses the time of occurrence and frequency of 81 LEs, their subjective emotional valence, the perceived social support during the LE experience and the impact of past LEs on present life...
April 18, 2018: BMC Psychiatry
Thandi van Heyningen, Simone Honikman, Mark Tomlinson, Sally Field, Landon Myer
BACKGROUND: Antenatal depression and anxiety disorders are highly prevalent in low and middle-income countries. Screening of pregnant women in primary care antenatal settings provides an opportunity for entry to care, but data are needed on the performance of different screening tools. We compared five widely-used questionnaires in a sample of pregnant women in urban South Africa. METHOD: Pregnant women attending a primary care antenatal clinic were administered five tools by trained research assistants: the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9), the Kessler Psychological Distress scale (K10) and a shortened 6-item version (K6), the Whooley questions and the two-item Generalised Anxiety Disorder scale (GAD-2)...
2018: PloS One
J Hofland, R A Feelders, T Brabander, G J H Franssen, W W de Herder
Well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumours (NETs) of the digestive tract are being increasingly detected, which is partly explained by the increased use of endoscopic and cross-sectional imaging as well as improved recognition at histopathological evaluation. After the discovery of this relatively indolent type of epithelial malignancy over 100 years ago, their sporadic occurrence and divergent biological behaviour at multiple primary sites have hampered dedicated studies into NET pathogenesis and testing of drug efficacy in well-designed clinical trials...
April 2018: Netherlands Journal of Medicine
Martin G Tolsgaard, Gihad E Chalouhi
Over the past decade, ultrasound simulators have been increasingly used as an adjunct to clinical training in Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Studies have shown that providing initial simulation-based ultrasound training leads to sustained improvements in clinical performances1 including improved diagnostic accuracy,2 reduced need for supervised practice, and decreased patient discomfort.3 .
April 17, 2018: Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology
Nicholas A Owens, Lars B Laurentius, Marc D Porter, Qun Li, Sean Wang, Delphi Chatterjee
Techniques for the detection of disease biomarkers are key components in the protection of human health. While work over the last few decades has redefined the low-level measurement of disease biomarkers, the translation of these capabilities from the formal clinical setting to point-of-need (PON) usage has been much more limited. This paper presents the results of experiments designed to examine the potential utility of a handheld Raman spectrometer as a PON electronic reader for a sandwich immunoassay based on surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS)...
January 1, 2018: Applied Spectroscopy
Xueyan Zhang, Huanzhang Shao, Xin Dong, Bingyu Qin
In recent years, more and more attention has been paid to the occurrence and harm of delirium, and intensive care unit (ICU) delirium has become a hot issue. The incidence of delirium in ICU patients is much higher than that of general wards, all kinds of complications caused by delirium and increased mortality should win enough attention of the clinicians. There is no uniform standard for the diagnosis and evaluation of ICU delirium, which is a major problem that affects clinicians in the early diagnosis and assessment of prognosis...
April 2018: Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
D Kyle Hogarth
The single pulmonary nodule evaluation is a complex problem. In particular, attempts to biopsy peripheral nodules with bronchoscopy have been hampered by difficulty navigating to the correct airway and then confirming the instruments' proximity to the nodule. Virtual systems in use do not provide real-time feedback of a live image of the nodule in question. Fluoroscopy has traditionally offered limited assistance as often the nodule is not visible and provides no information on airways/pathways to the nodule...
April 17, 2018: Future Oncology
Víctor Mayoral, Concepción Pérez-Hernández, Inmaculada Muro, Ana Leal, Jesús Villoria, Ana Esquivias
OBJECTIVE: Based on the clear neuroanatomical delineation of many neuropathic pain (NP) symptoms, a simple tool for performing a short structured clinical encounter based on the IASP diagnostic criteria was developed to identify NP. This study evaluated its accuracy and usefulness. METHODS: A case-control study was performed in 19 pain clinics within Spain. A pain clinician used the experimental screening tool (the index test, IT) to assign the descriptions of non-neuropathic (nNP), non-localized neuropathic (nLNP) and localized neuropathic (LNP) to the patients' pain conditions...
April 17, 2018: Current Medical Research and Opinion
Tony Hoang, Nicholas Moskwa, Ken Halvorsen
The centrifuge is among the oldest and most widely used pieces of laboratory equipment, with significant applications that include clinical diagnostics and biomedical research. A major limitation of laboratory centrifuges is their "black box" nature, limiting sample observation to before and after centrifugation. Thus, optimized protocols require significant trial and error, while unoptimized protocols waste time by centrifuging longer than necessary or material due to incomplete sedimentation. Here, we developed an instrumented centrifuge tube receptacle compatible with several commercial benchtop centrifuges that can provide real-time sample analysis during centrifugation...
2018: PloS One
Wenhui Yang, Ge Xiong, Luis Eduardo Garrido, John X Zhang, Meng-Cheng Wang, Chong Wang
We systematically examined the factor structure and criterion validity across the full scale and 10 short forms of the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) with Chinese youth. Participants were 5,434 Chinese adolescents in Grades 7 to 12 who completed the full CES-D; 612 of them further completed a structured diagnostic interview with the major depressive disorder (MDD) module of the Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorder and Schizophrenia for School-age Children. Using a split-sample approach, a series of 4-, 3-, 2-, and 1-factor models were tested using exploratory structural equation modeling and cross-validated using confirmatory factor analysis; the dimensionality was also evaluated by parallel analysis in conjunction with the scree test and aided by factor mixture analysis...
April 16, 2018: Psychological Assessment
Natasha Gous, Debrah I Boeras, Ben Cheng, Jeff Takle, Brad Cunningham, Rosanna W Peeling
Simple, rapid tests that can be used at the point-of-care (POC) can improve access to diagnostic services and overall patient management in resource-limited settings where laboratory infrastructure is limited. Implementation of POC tests places tremendous strain on already fragile health systems as the demand for training, supply management and quality assurance are amplified. Digital health has a major role to play in ensuring effective delivery and management of POC testing services. Area covered: The ability to digitise laboratory and POC platforms, including lateral flow rapid diagnostic test results, can standardize the interpretation of results and allows data to be linked to proficiency testing to ensure testing quality, reducing interpretation and transcription errors...
April 2018: Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics
Simone Goebel, Elisabeth Steinmann, Bernd Leplow, H Maximilian Mehdorn
Aim of the study was the cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the German version of the Scale for Outcomes in Parkinson's disease-Sleep Scale (SCOPA-Sleep) for assessment of night-time sleep problems (NS) and daytime sleepiness (DS). Eighty-three patients with Parkinson's disease completed the SCOPA-Sleep and a multitude of measures for assessment of validity (e.g., PSQI, ESS). Twenty patients completed the SCOPA-Sleep twice within 2 months for assessment of retest reliability. Sixty-four healthy controls were also included for validity estimation...
April 14, 2018: Neurological Sciences
Eun-Jung Cho, Dae-Hyun Ko, Woochang Lee, Sail Chun, Hae Kyung Lee, Won-Ki Min
BACKGROUND: The manual microscopic examination (MME) of urine sediment is labor-intensive, time-consuming, and imprecise. Therefore, automated urinalysis systems based on flow cytometry or digital imaging techniques could replace MME. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the rate of MME using two automated urine sediment analyzers, alone and in combination. METHODS: This study was conducted using the freshly collected urine specimens of 1055 in-patients and 1119 out-patients...
April 12, 2018: Clinical Biochemistry
Hany Osman, Joseph Georges, Deena Elsahy, Eyas Hattab, Steven Yocom, Aaron A Cohen-Gadol
Intraoperative neurosurgical histopathologic diagnoses rely on evaluation of rapid tissue preparations such as frozen sections and smears with conventional light microscopy. Though useful, these techniques are time consuming and therefore unable to provide real-time intraoperative feedback. In vivo molecular imaging techniques are emerging as novel methods for generating real-time diagnostic histopathologic images of tumors and their surrounding tissues. These imaging techniques rely on contrast generated by exogenous fluorescent dyes, autofluorescence of endogenous molecules, fluorescence decay of excited molecules, or light scattering...
April 10, 2018: World Neurosurgery
Elena Véliz, Teresa Vergara, Mercedes Pearcy, Jeannette Dabanch
Introduction Dental care has become a challenge for healthcare associated infection prevention programs, since the environment, within other factors, plays an important role in the transmission chain. Materials and Methods An intervention program was designed for the Dental Unit of Hospital Militar de Santiago, between years 2014 and 2015. The program contemplated 3 stages: diagnostic, intervention and evaluation stage. Objective To improve the safety of critical surfaces involved in dental healthcare. Results During the diagnostic stage, the cleaning and disinfection process was found to be deficient...
2018: Revista Chilena de Infectología: órgano Oficial de la Sociedad Chilena de Infectología
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