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Diagnostic instruments

Francois Maissan, Jan Pool, Eric Stutterheim, Harriet Wittink, Raymond Ostelo
BACKGROUND: Neck pain is the fourth major cause of disability worldwide but sufficient evidence regarding treatment is not available. This study is a first exploratory attempt to gain insight into and consensus on the clinical reasoning of experts in patients with non-specific neck pain. OBJECTIVE: First, we aimed to inventory expert opinions regarding the indication for physiotherapy when, other than neck pain, no positive signs and symptoms and no positive diagnostic tests are present...
June 2, 2018: Musculoskeletal Science & Practice
Maria Carolina Ferreira, Isabela Porto de Toledo, Kamile Leonardi Dutra, Fabiane Miron Stefani, André Luís Porporatti, Carlos Flores-Mir, Graziela De Luca Canto
Temporomandibular disorder (TMD) is an umbrella condition presenting several signs and symptoms including pain in the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) and masticatory muscles, articular noises, earache, headache, irregular or restricted jaw function, chewing difficulty, and limited mouth opening. Such TMD impairment may cause disorders during the chewing process. Therefore, the purpose of this systematic review was to assess chewing dysfunctions measured by sEMG, and their association with TMD. A combination and variation of the descriptors "temporomandibular joint disorders", "masticatory dysfunctions", and electromyography were used to perform the searches across databases...
June 16, 2018: Journal of Oral Rehabilitation
Michael Friedrich, Erik Nowe, Dirk Hofmeister, Susanne Kuhnt, Katja Leuteritz, Annekathrin Sender, Yve Stöbel-Richter, Kristina Geue
BACKGROUND: Young adult patients with cancer have to deal with their disease in an eventful phase of life. A common side effect of cancer and its treatment is cancer-related fatigue (CRF), a phenomenon which can thwart successful coping with developmental tasks. The aims of this study were to assess the psychometric properties of the EORTC QLQ-FA12, a new instrument for assessing physical, emotional and cognitive fatigue, in young adults with cancer, and to propose a cut-off value that indicates a need for further more specific diagnostics...
June 15, 2018: Health and Quality of Life Outcomes
Joshua Baracks, Douglas J Casa, Tracey Covassin, Ryan Sacko, Samantha E Scarneo, David Schnyer, Susan W Yeargin, Christopher Neville
CONTEXT:   Without a true criterion standard assessment, the sport-related concussion (SRC) diagnosis remains subjective. Inertial balance sensors have been proposed to improve acute SRC assessment, but few researchers have studied their clinical utility. OBJECTIVE:   To determine if group differences exist when using objective measures of balance in a sample of collegiate athletes with recent SRCs and participants serving as the control group and to calculate sensitivity and specificity to determine the diagnostic utility of the inertial balance sensor for acute SRC injuries...
June 13, 2018: Journal of Athletic Training
Edgar Galindo, Adelinda A Candeias, Heldemerina S Pires, Luísa Grácio, Marcus Stück
This paper postulates that psychology can make an important contribution at an individual level to help children with school failure problems in a context where too little applied research has been conducted on the instructional needs of these children. Some data are analyzed, revealing that, despite some progress, school failure is still a main educational problem in many countries. In this study, Behavioral Skills Training (BST) was applied in Portugal to train children with school failure difficulties. BST is a method based on Applied Behavior Analysis, a teaching package consisting of a combination of behavioral techniques: instructions, modeling, rehearsal, and feedback...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
R Graham Cooks, Xin Yan
Mass spectrometry is the science and technology of ions. As such, it is concerned with generating ions, measuring their properties, following their reactions, isolating them, and using them to build and transform materials. Instrumentation is an essential element of these activities, and analytical applications are one driving force. Work from the Aston Laboratories at Purdue University's Department of Chemistry is described here, with an emphasis on accelerated reactions of ions in solution and small-scale synthesis; ion/surface collision processes, including surface-induced dissociation (SID) and ion soft landing; and applications to tissue imaging...
June 12, 2018: Annual Review of Analytical Chemistry
Daipayan Guha, Victor X D Yang
Optical technologies may be applied to multiple facets of spinal surgery from diagnostics to intraoperative image guidance to therapeutics. In diagnostics, the current standard remains cross-sectional static imaging. Optical surface scanning tools may have an important role; however, significant work is required to clearly correlate surface metrics to radiographic and clinically relevant spinal anatomy and alignment. In the realm of intraoperative image guidance, optical tracking is widely developed as the current standard of instrument tracking, however remains compromised by line-of-sight issues and more globally cumbersome registration workflows...
June 2018: Journal of Biomedical Optics
Thekla F Vrolijk-Bosschaart, Eva Verlinden, Miranda W Langendam, Vivienne De Smet, Arianne H Teeuw, Sonja N Brilleslijper-Kater, Marc A Benninga, Ramón J L Lindauer
Children with alleged child sexual abuse (CSA) need to be assessed systematically. The use of validated instruments during the assessment, like the Child Sexual Behavior Inventory (CSBI), could add diagnostic value. We aim to assess the diagnostic utility of the CSBI to differentiate between sexually abused and non-abused children. We conducted a systematic review. We searched the electronic databases MEDLINE and PsychInfo for studies comparing CSBI scores in sexually abused children and non-abused children (2-12 years old)...
June 11, 2018: Journal of Child Sexual Abuse
Ahmad Hajebi, Abbas Motevalian, Masoumeh Amin-Esmaeili, Afarin Rahimi-Movaghar, Vandad Sharifi, Leila Hoseini, Behrang Shadloo, Ramin Mojtabai
OBJECTIVES: The aims of the study were to translate into Persian and culturally adapt the Kessler Psychological Distress Scales, K10 and K6, and to assess their reliability and validity. METHOD: The sample was recruited from primary health care (PHC) settings by quota nonprobability sampling, stratified by sex and age. Validity was assessed against the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (v2.1). The psychometric properties of K6 and K10 were also compared with the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12)...
June 11, 2018: International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research
Kelley M Paskov, Dennis P Wall
Autism Spectrum Disorder is a highly heterogeneous condition currently diagnosed using behavioral symptoms. A better understanding of the phenotypic subtypes of autism is a necessary component of the larger goal of mapping autism genotype to phenotype. However, as with most clinical records describing human disease, the phenotypic data available for autism contains varying levels of noise and incompleteness that complicate analysis. Here we analyze behavioral data from 16,291 subjects using 250 items from three gold standard diagnostic instruments...
2018: AMIA Summits on Translational Science Proceedings
Steven W Cotten, Zahra Shajani-Yi, Mark A Cervinski, Timothy Voorhees, Sascha A Tuchman, Nichole Korpi-Steiner
BACKGROUND: Serum free light chain (FLC) immunoglobulins are key biomarkers that aid in the diagnosis, prognosis and assessment of treatment response in patients with plasma cell disorders (PCD). Here we investigated the transference of manufacturer's reported κFLC, λFLC and κ to λ FLC reference intervals (RI) and established de novo FLC RI and diagnostic ranges on four instruments at three academic medical centers. In addition, we also compared the classification of patient FLC results using manufacturer's versus established RIs and diagnostic ranges...
June 6, 2018: Clinical Biochemistry
Matthias C Wurm, Tessa K Behrends, Wolfgang Wüst, Marco Wiesmüller, Andre Wilkerling, Friedrich W Neukam, Tilo Schlittenbauer
INTRODUCTION: Magnetic resonance imaging has been established as the gold standard for assessment of the temporomandibular joint. Apart from an excellent assessment of the soft tissues it has the advantage not to expose the patient to ionizing radiation. There is a lack of literature concerning the correlation between pain intensity and radiological findings of the temporomandibular joint. Moreover there is the question of whether a progressive degeneration of the cartilaginous components is accompanied by an increasing degeneration of the osseous parts of the mandibular joint and vice versa...
January 4, 2018: Journal of Cranio-maxillo-facial Surgery
Antonio Russo, Marcello Silvestro, Alessandro Tessitore, Gioacchino Tedeschi
In current migraine clinical practice, no specific diagnostic investigations are available and therefore the diagnosis is an eminently clinical process where instrumental examinations may have a part to exclude possible causes of secondary headaches. While migraine clinical phenotype has been widely characterized, migraine pathophysiology has still a gap that might be partly bridged by structural and functional neuroimaging investigations. Areas Covered: This article aims to review the recent advances in functional neuroimaging, the consequent progress in the knowledge of migraine pathophysiology and their putative application and impact in the clinical setting...
June 8, 2018: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
Hsin-Yi Cheng, Bao-Liang Lin, Jen-Yu Tseng, Kazunori Ueno, Sakura Nakada
OBJECTIVE: Hysteroscopy has widely been used for diagnosis of the uterine cavity; however, target biopsy has often been difficult in part to the inherent limitations of ancillary instruments. Lin's biopsy grasper was specifically designed to work in conjunction with a flexible hysteroscope to obtain intrauterine biopsy under transabdominal sonography. Herein, we share our clinical experience in the management of endometrial abnormalities with the use of Lin's biopsy grasper during office-based hysteroscopy...
June 2018: Taiwanese Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology
Lena Rink, Cora Braun, Tom Bschor, Jonathan Henssler, Jeremy Franklin, Christopher Baethge
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of dose increase compared to dose continuation of the initially prescribed antidepressant in antidepressant treatment failure (ATF). DATA SOURCES: We searched CENTRAL, PubMed, Embase, and PsycINFO using generic terms for depression, dose increase, and randomized controlled trials (RCTs), without date or language restrictions. STUDY SELECTION: Of 1,780 studies screened, 9 studies reporting on 1,273 patients were included for meta-analysis (PROSPERO Registration: CRD42017058389)...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
Max T B Clabbers, Tim Gruene, James M Parkhurst, Jan Pieter Abrahams, David G Waterman
Electron diffraction is a relatively novel alternative to X-ray crystallography for the structure determination of macromolecules from three-dimensional nanometre-sized crystals. The continuous-rotation method of data collection has been adapted for the electron microscope. However, there are important differences in geometry that must be considered for successful data integration. The wavelength of electrons in a TEM is typically around 40 times shorter than that of X-rays, implying a nearly flat Ewald sphere, and consequently low diffraction angles and a high effective sample-to-detector distance...
June 1, 2018: Acta Crystallographica. Section D, Structural Biology
Mami Yoshitomi, Suguru Hasegawa, Ryo Takahashi, Koya Hida, Kenji Kawada, Yoshiharu Sakai
INTRODUCTION: Local excision (LE) is used in early rectal cancer and other pathologies for diagnostic purposes and curative treatment, as well as for palliative surgery in patients who are medically unfit for radical resection. Recently, transanal minimally invasive surgery (TAMIS) has been increasingly accepted as a means for performing LE. Here, we present a TAMIS technique for LE to which endoscopic submucosal dissection was applied. MATERIALS AND SURGICAL TECHNIQUE: We used conventional laparoscopic instruments, including a 10-mm 30° camera...
May 2018: Asian Journal of Endoscopic Surgery
Amy M Bender, Doug Lawson, Penny Werthner, Charles H Samuels
BACKGROUND: Previous research has established that general sleep screening questionnaires are not valid and reliable in an athlete population. The Athlete Sleep Screening Questionnaire (ASSQ) was developed to address this need. While the initial validation of the ASSQ has been established, the clinical validity of the ASSQ has yet to be determined. The main objective of the current study was to evaluate the clinical validity of the ASSQ. METHODS: Canadian National Team athletes (N = 199; mean age 24...
June 4, 2018: Sports Medicine—Open
Tamás Pardy, Toomas Rang, Indrek Tulp
Novel second-generation rapid diagnostics based on nucleic acid amplification tests (NAAT) offer performance metrics on par with clinical laboratories in detecting infectious diseases at the point of care. The diagnostic assay is typically performed within a Lab-on-a-Chip (LoC) component with integrated temperature regulation. However, constraints on device dimensions, cost and power supply inherent with the device format apply to temperature regulation as well. Thermal analysis on simplified thermal models for the device can help overcome these barriers by speeding up thermal optimization...
June 4, 2018: Sensors
Sarah Wood Pallas, Marissa Courey, Chhaily Hy, Wm Perry Killam, Dora Warren, Brittany Moore
BACKGROUND: The Xpert® MTB/RIF (Xpert) test has been shown to be effective and cost-effective for diagnosing tuberculosis (TB) under conditions with high HIV prevalence and HIV-TB co-infection but less is known about Xpert's cost in low HIV prevalence settings. Cambodia, a country with low HIV prevalence (0.7%), high TB burden, and low multidrug-resistant (MDR) TB burden (1.4% of new TB cases, 11% of retreatment cases) introduced Xpert into its TB diagnostic algorithms for people living with HIV (PLHIV) and people with presumptive MDR TB in 2012...
June 4, 2018: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy
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