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Diagnostic instruments

Hui Dong, Hao Sun, Jianping Zheng
With the development of large-scale biologic databases, precision medicine is becoming a frontier in biomedical research. As a main focus of precision medicine study, cancer has been widely accepted as a disease born out of inherited genetic variations or accumulating genomic damage. At the single-cell level, microfluidics or lab-on-a-chip technology for cancer study is an emerging tool for improving risk assessment, diagnostic categories and therapeutic strategies. This work presents a multi-layer microchip for single-cell gene expression profiling...
December 1, 2016: Talanta
Demet Dingoyan, Mike Mösko, Yadigar Imamoğlu, Alessa von Wolff, Jens Strehle, Hans-Ulrich Wittchen, Holger Schulz, Uwe Koch-Gromus, Andreas Heinz, Ulrike Kluge
The Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI), which has been widely applied in epidemiological research, is a standardized, clinically structured interview that enables the diagnosis of mental disorders based on DSM and ICD criteria. The computerized DIA-X CIDI Version 2.8 investigated in this study is an adaptation of the German DIA-X/Munich CIDI, which was translated in a multi-step process into Turkish and used to survey the prevalence of mental disorders in individuals with Turkish migration backgrounds in Germany (N = 662)...
October 21, 2016: International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research
Marisa Elena Domino, Mona Kilany, Rebecca Wells, Joseph P Morrissey
OBJECTIVE: To examine whether medical homes have heterogeneous effects in different subpopulations, leveraging the interpretations from a variety of statistical techniques. DATA SOURCES/STUDY SETTING: Secondary claims data from the NC Medicaid program for 2004-2007. The sample included all adults with diagnoses of schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, or major depression who were not dually enrolled in Medicare or in a nursing facility. STUDY DESIGN: We modeled a number of monthly service use, adherence, and expenditure outcomes using fixed effects, generalized estimating equation with and without inverse probability of treatment weights, and instrumental variables analyses...
October 21, 2016: Health Services Research
Yohannes W Woldeamanuel, Peter R Kamerman, Demetri G A Veliotes, Tudor J Phillips, David Asboe, Marta Boffito, Andrew S C Rice
HIV-associated sensory peripheral neuropathy (HIV-SN) afflicts approximately 50% of patients on antiretroviral therapy, and is associated with significant neuropathic pain. Simple accurate diagnostic instruments are required for clinical research and daily practice in both high- and low-resource setting. A 4-item clinical tool (CHANT: Clinical HIV-associated Neuropathy Tool) assessing symptoms (pain and numbness) and signs (ankle reflexes and vibration sense) was developed by selecting and combining the most accurate measurands from a deep phenotyping study of HIV positive people (Pain In Neuropathy Study-HIV-PINS)...
2016: PloS One
Markus Reinholz, Hannah Schwaiger, Julian Poetschke, Andreas Epple, Thomas Ruzicka, Tanja Von Braunmühl, Gerd G Gauglitz
BACKGROUND: Currently, different types of treatments for pathological scars are available, however, to date, there is no established method of measurement to objectively assess therapeutic outcome. Treatment success is usually evaluated clinically by the physician and patient. Non-invasive imaging techniques, such as HD-OCT (high-definition optical coherence tomography), may represent a valuable diagnostic tool to objectively measure therapeutic outcome. OBJECTIVES: To compare HD-OCT with ultrasound and subjective evaluation tools, such as questionnaires...
October 20, 2016: European Journal of Dermatology: EJD
Matthew E Young, Ziv E Bell, Mary A Fristad
Evidence-based assessment is important in the treatment of childhood psychopathology. While researchers and clinicians frequently use structured diagnostic interviews to ensure reliability, the most commonly used instrument, the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School Aged Children (K-SADS) is too long for most clinical applications. The Children's Interview for Psychiatric Syndromes (ChIPS/P-ChIPS) is a highly-structured brief diagnostic interview. The present study compared K-SADS and ChIPS/P-ChIPS diagnoses in an outpatient clinical sample of 50 parent-child pairs aged 7-14...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Clinical Psychology in Medical Settings
Svetlana A Dambinova, Joseph C Maroon, Alicia M Sufrinko, John David Mullins, Eugenia V Alexandrova, Alexander A Potapov
Concussion is a complex, heterogeneous process affecting the brain. Accurate assessment and diagnosis and appropriate management of concussion are essential to ensure that athletes do not prematurely return to play or others to work or active military duty, risking re-injury. To date, clinical diagnosis relies primarily on evaluating subjects for functional impairment using instruments that include neurocognitive testing, subjective symptom report, and neurobehavioral assessments, such as balance and vestibular-ocular reflex testing...
2016: Frontiers in Neurology
David A Selck, Rustem F Ismagilov
Nucleic acid amplification tests that are coupled with a digital readout enable the absolute quantification of single molecules, even at ultralow concentrations. Digital methods are robust, versatile and compatible with many amplification chemistries including isothermal amplification, making them particularly invaluable to assays that require sensitive detection, such as the quantification of viral load in occult infections or detection of sparse amounts of DNA from forensic samples. A number of microfluidic platforms are being developed for carrying out digital amplification...
2016: PloS One
Thomas Beez, Jennifer Brown
BACKGROUND: Atlanto-occipital dislocation (AOD) is a rare but severe sequela of high energy trauma. Children are at increased risk, due to their immature spine and biomechanical characteristics. LITERATURE REVIEW: The prevailing mechanism of injury is motor vehicle collision as passenger. AOD commonly presents with cardiorespiratory arrest, spinal cord injury or cranial nerve deficits. Concomitant injuries, such as traumatic brain injury, are frequently encountered...
October 18, 2016: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
Kim T Mueser, Min Kim, Jean Addington, Susan R McGurk, Sarah I Pratt, Donald E Addington
The Quality of Life Scale (QLS) is a frequently used semistructured interview for the assessment of functional outcomes in schizophrenia. Despite the use of the QLS for over 30years, the original 4-factor structure of the instrument (Interpersonal Relations, Instrumental Role, Intrapsychic Foundations, and Common Objects and Activities) has not been rigorously examined. Exploratory factor analyses (EFAs) and confirmatory factor analyses (CFAs) were used to evaluate the factor structure of the QLS in two independent datasets, including a mixed diagnostic sample of multi-episode participants (N=247), and a sample of individuals with a first episode of psychosis (N=337)...
October 15, 2016: Schizophrenia Research
Miha Vodičar, Robert Košak, Rok Vengust
PURPOSE: Presentation of a case series (10 patients) with surgical treatment of symptomatic anterior cervical osteophytes, a review of the latest literature and discussion of surgical methods. OBJECTIVE: To present our results of the surgical treatment and compare them with the existing literature. On the basis of the gathered data, we aim to propose an optimal choice of surgical treatment. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Anterior cervical osteophytes rarely cause symptoms that require surgical treatment, which disables bigger cohort analysis...
November 2016: Clinical Spine Surgery
Alexander Wolf, Katharina Beller, Sebastian Groemminger, Wera Hofmann, Matthias Sachse, Jana Fassunke
Increasing sample numbers for screening and diagnostics using circulating cell-free DNA (ccfDNA) as analyte demands an automated solution for ccfDNA extraction. The efficiency of a new, automated, large volume ccfDNA extraction method was evaluated against a manual reference method. The new kit for automated ccfDNA extraction on the QIAsymphony showed a comparable yield of total ccfDNA from healthy donors as well as a comparable recovery of circulating cancer and fetal DNA. In conclusion, a new kit for automated ccfDNA extraction was established successfully...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Jordan Elliott-King, Sarah Shaw, Stephan Bandelow, Rajal Devshi, Shelina Kassam, Eef Hogervorst
INTRODUCTION: Currently, there is no consensus on dementia diagnostics in adults with intellectual disabilities (ID). There are three types of assessments available: direct cognitive tests, test batteries, and informant reports. METHODS: A systematic literature search was conducted in four databases yielding 9840 records. Relevant studies were identified and selected using predefined inclusion and exclusion criteria and then coded and classified according to assessment type...
2016: Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring
Jack R Staunton, Wilfred Vieira, King Leung Fung, Ross Lake, Alexus Devine, Kandice Tanner
One of the hallmarks of the malignant transformation of epithelial tissue is the modulation of stromal components of the microenvironment. In particular, aberrant extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling and stiffening enhances tumor growth and survival and promotes metastasis. Type I collagen is one of the major ECM components. It serves as a scaffold protein in the stroma contributing to the tissue's mechanical properties, imparting tensile strength and rigidity to tissues such as those of the skin, tendons, and lungs...
September 2016: Cellular and Molecular Bioengineering
Yiru Wang, Zhengpeng Qin, David R Boulware, Bobbi S Pritt, Lynne M Sloan, Iveth J González, David Bell, Roxanne R Rees-Channer, Peter Chiodini, Warren C W Chan, John C Bischof
There is an increasing need for highly sensitive and quantitative diagnostics at the point-of-care. The lateral flow immunoassay (LFA) is one of the most widely used point-of-care diagnostic tests; however, LFAs generally suffers from low sensitivity and lack of quantification. To overcome these limitations, thermal contrast amplification (TCA) is a new method that is based on the laser excitation of gold nanoparticles (GNP), the most commonly used visual signature, to evoke a thermal signature. To facilitate the clinical translation of the TCA technology, we present the development of a TCA reader, a platform technology that significantly improves the limit of detection and provides quantification of disease antigens in LFAs...
October 17, 2016: Analytical Chemistry
Bianca Hemmingsen, David Peick Sonne, Maria-Inti Metzendorf, Bernd Richter
BACKGROUND: The projected rise in the incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) could develop into a substantial health problem worldwide. Whether insulin secretagogues (sulphonylureas and meglitinide analogues) are able to prevent or delay T2DM and its associated complications in people at risk for the development of T2DM is unknown. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of insulin secretagogues on the prevention or delay of T2DM and its associated complications in people with impaired glucose tolerance, impaired fasting blood glucose, moderately elevated glycosylated haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) or any combination of these...
October 17, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Margaret H Sibley, John T Mitchell, Stephen P Becker
Several studies have questioned the stability of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) from childhood to adulthood. This systematic review illustrates how variability in diagnostic methods influences adult ADHD persistence estimates. Systematic database searches identified studies reporting adult ADHD persistence rates that were published in English between Jan 1, 1992, and May 31, 2016. Study inclusion criteria were systematic childhood diagnosis of attention-deficit disorder, ADHD, or a research diagnostic protocol that matched DSM-III, DSM-III-R, or DSM-IV standards; mean childhood age of younger than 12·0 years with no participants older than 18·0 years; and mean adult age of 18·0 years or older with no participants younger than 17·0 years...
October 10, 2016: Lancet Psychiatry
Gustavo A Constaín, María de Los Ángeles Rodríguez-Gázquez, Guillermo Andrés Ramírez Jiménez, Gloria María Gómez Vásquez, Laura Mejía Cardona, Jonathan Cardona Vélez
OBJECTIVE: To establish the diagnostic validity and usefulness of Eating Attitudes Test-26 (EAT-26) for the risk assessment of eating disorders in a male population. DESCRIPTION: Observational validation study questionnaire. SETTING: Performed in Medellin city at a community care level of mixed (public and private) psychiatric clinics. SUBJECTS: The study included 21 male subjects aged ≥14 with DSM-IV-TR diagnostic criteria for anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and Eating Disorder Not Otherwise Specified (EDNOS), and 93 controls without ED...
October 10, 2016: Atencion Primaria
Steve Kisely, Karolina Katarzyna Alichniewicz, Emma B Black, Dan Siskind, Geoffrey Spurling, Maree Toombs
Indigenous populations are considered at higher risk of psychiatric disorder but many studies do not include direct comparisons with similar non-Indigenous controls. We undertook a meta-analysis of studies that compared the prevalence of depression and anxiety disorders in Indigenous populations in the Americas with those of non-Indigenous groups with similar socio-demographic features (Registration number: CRD42015025854). A systematic search of PubMed, Medline, PsycInfo, PsycArticles, ScienceDirect, EMBASE, and article bibliographies was performed...
October 1, 2016: Journal of Psychiatric Research
Catherine Newsom, Henk Schut, Margaret S Stroebe, Stewart Wilson, John Birrell
OBJECTIVE: This study assessed the validity of the Indicator of Bereavement Adaptation Cruse Scotland (IBACS). Designed for use in clinical and non-clinical settings, the IBACS measures severity of grief symptoms and risk of developing complications. METHOD: N = 196 (44 male, 152 female) help-seeking, bereaved Scottish adults participated at two timepoints: T1 (baseline) and T2 (after 18 months). Four validated assessment instruments were administered: CORE-R, ICG-R, IES-R, SCL-90-R...
2016: PloS One
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