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Clinical diagnostics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813112/what-do-cochrane-systematic-reviews-say-about-the-clinical-effectiveness-of-screening-and-diagnostic-tests-for-cancer
#1
André Tito Pereira Bueno, Vladimir Lisboa Capelasso, Rafael Leite Pacheco, Carolina de Oliveira Cruz Latorraca, Tiago Biachi de Castria, Daniela Vianna Pachito, Rachel Riera
CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: The purpose of screening tests for cancer is to detect it at an early stage in order to increase the chances of treatment. However, their unrestrained use may lead to unnecessary examinations, overdiagnosis and higher costs. It is thus necessary to evaluate their clinical effects in terms of benefits and harm. DESIGN AND SETTING: Review of Cochrane systematic reviews, carried out in the Discipline of Evidence-Based Medicine, Escola Paulista de Medicina, Universidade Federal de São Paulo...
July 2017: São Paulo Medical Journal, Revista Paulista de Medicina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813090/brazilian-consensus-on-duchenne-muscular-dystrophy-part-1-diagnosis-steroid-therapy-and-perspectives
#2
Alexandra P Q C Araujo, Alzira A S de Carvalho, Eduardo B U Cavalcanti, Jonas Alex M Saute, Elmano Carvalho, Marcondes C França, Alberto R M Martinez, Monica de M M Navarro, Anamarli Nucci, Maria Bernadete D de Resende, Marcus Vinicius M Gonçalves, Juliana Gurgel-Giannetti, Rosana H Scola, Cláudia F da R Sobreira, Umbertina C Reed, Edmar Zanoteli
Significant advances in the understanding and management of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) took place since international guidelines were published in 2010. Our objective was to provide an evidence-based national consensus statement for multidisciplinary care of DMD in Brazil. A combination of the Delphi technique with a systematic review of studies from 2010 to 2016 was employed to classify evidence levels and grade of recommendations. Our recommendations were divided in two parts. We present Part 1 here, where we describe the guideline methodology and overall disease concepts, and also provide recommendations on diagnosis, steroid therapy and new drug treatment perspectives for DMD...
August 2017: Arquivos de Neuro-psiquiatria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813088/cognitive-dysfunction-in-corticobasal-degeneration
#3
Laís Machado de Oliveira, Igor Barcellos, Hélio A G Teive, Renato Puppi Munhoz
Corticobasal degeneration (CBD) was originally described as a distinct clinicopathological entity in 1967. Since then, different phenotypic presentations have emerged as possible manifestations of CBD histopathological findings. In addition, pathophysiological findings and the molecular basis have been delineated and several aspects of its cognitive manifestations have been clarified. Thus, not only the spectrum of what is currently designated as CBD has expanded, but overlap with other degenerative and even secondary disorders has made clinical diagnostic certainty even more challenging in the absence of specific and readily-available markers...
August 2017: Arquivos de Neuro-psiquiatria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812922/a-circulating-micro-rna-signature-serves-as-a-diagnostic-and-prognostic-indicator-in-sarcoidosis
#4
Christian Ascoli, Yue Huang, Cody Schott, Benjamin A Turturice, Ahmed Metwally, David L Perkins, Patricia W Finn
Micro-RNAs (miRNAs) act as post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression. In sarcoidosis, aberrant miRNA expression may enhance immune responses mounted against an unknown antigenic agent. We tested whether a distinct miRNA signature functions as a diagnostic biomarker and explored its role as an immune modulator in sarcoidosis. Expression of miRNAs from peripheral blood mononuclear cells from subjects that met clinical and histopathologic criteria for sarcoidosis were compared to those from matched controls in the ACCESS study...
August 16, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812906/recent-advances-in-ct-imaging-in-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#5
Sandeep Bodduluri, Joseph M Reinhardt, Eric A Hoffman, John D Newell, Surya P Bhatt
Lung imaging is increasingly being used to diagnose, quantify and phenotype chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Although spirometry is the gold standard for the diagnosis of COPD and for severity staging, the role of computed tomography (CT) imaging has expanded in both clinical practice and research. COPD is a heterogeneous disease with considerable variability in clinical features, radiographic disease, progression and outcomes. Recent studies have examined the utility of CT imaging in enhancing diagnostic certainty, improving phenotyping, predicting disease progression and prognostication, patient selection for intervention, and also in furthering our understanding of the complex pathophysiology of this disease...
August 16, 2017: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812405/simple-screening-tools-predict-death-and-cardiovascular-events-in-patients-with-rheumatic-disease
#6
M Breunig, S Kleinert, S Lehmann, C Kneitz, M Feuchtenberger, H-P Tony, C E Angermann, G Ertl, S Störk
OBJECTIVES: Patients with rheumatic disease (RD) have an increased mortality risk compared with the general population, mainly due to cardiovascular disease (CVD). We aimed to identify patients at high risk of CVD and mortality by comparing three screening tools suitable for clinical practice. METHOD: In this prospective, single-centre study, consecutive patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), systemic autoimmune disease (SAI), or spondyloarthritides (SpA) including psoriatic arthritis underwent a comprehensive cardiovascular risk assessment...
August 16, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812274/oxytocin-and-anxiety-disorders
#7
Michael G Gottschalk, Katharina Domschke
In the present chapter, we review the literature focusing on oxytocin (OT)-centered research in anxiety spectrum conditions, comprising separation anxiety disorder, specific phobias, social anxiety disorder (SAD), panic disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, and anxiety-related endophenotypes (e.g., trust behavior, behavioral inhibition, neuroticism, and state/trait anxiety). OT receptor gene (OXTR) polymorphisms have been implicated in gene-environment interactions with attachment style and childhood maltreatment and to influence clinical outcomes, including SAD intensity and limbic responsiveness...
August 16, 2017: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812247/towards-robot-assisted-echocardiographic-monitoring-in-catheterization-laboratories-usability-centered-manipulator-for-transesophageal-echocardiography
#8
Christina Pahl, Henning Ebelt, Mostafa Sayahkaraji, Eko Supriyanto, Amiliana Soesanto
This paper proposes a robotic Transesophageal Echocardiography (TOE) system concept for Catheterization Laboratories. Cardiovascular disease causes one third of all global mortality. TOE is utilized to assess cardiovascular structures and monitor cardiac function during diagnostic procedures and catheter-based structural interventions. However, the operation of TOE underlies various conditions that may cause a negative impact on performance, the health of the cardiac sonographer and patient safety. These factors have been conflated and evince the potential of robot-assisted TOE...
August 15, 2017: Journal of Medical Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812151/high-clinical-impact-and-diagnostic-accuracy-of-eus-guided-biopsy-sampling-of-subepithelial-lesions-a-prospective-comparative-study
#9
Per Hedenström, Hanns-Ulrich Marschall, Bengt Nilsson, Akif Demir, Björn Lindkvist, Ola Nilsson, Riadh Sadik
BACKGROUND: In a tertiary center setting we aimed to study the diagnostic accuracy and clinical impact of EUS-guided biopsy sampling (EUS-FNB) with a reverse bevel needle compared with that of fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) in the work-up of subepithelial lesions (SEL). METHODS: All patients presenting with SELs referred for EUS-guided sampling were prospectively included in 2012-2015. After randomization of the first pass modality, dual sampling with both EUS-FNB and EUS-FNA was performed in each lesion...
August 15, 2017: Surgical Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812148/local-recurrence-of-squamous-cell-carcinoma-of-the-head-and-neck-after-radio-chemo-therapy-diagnostic-performance-of-fdg-pet-mri-with-diffusion-weighted-sequences
#10
Minerva Becker, Arthur D Varoquaux, Christophe Combescure, Olivier Rager, Marc Pusztaszeri, Karim Burkhardt, Bénédicte M A Delattre, Pavel Dulguerov, Nicolas Dulguerov, Eirini Katirtzidou, Francesca Caparrotti, Osman Ratib, Habib Zaidi, Christoph D Becker
PURPOSE: To determine the diagnostic performance of FDG-PET/MRI with diffusion-weighted imaging (FDG-PET/DWIMRI) for detection and local staging of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) after radio(chemo)therapy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a prospective study that included 74 consecutive patients with previous radio(chemo)therapy for HNSCC and in whom tumour recurrence or radiation-induced complications were suspected clinically. The patients underwent hybrid PET/MRI examinations with morphological MRI, DWI and FDG-PET...
August 15, 2017: European Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812139/groin-hernia-diagnostics-dynamic-inguinal-ultrasound-dius
#11
Henning Niebuhr, Anita König, Maciej Pawlak, Marco Sailer, Ferdinand Köckerling, Wolfgang Reinpold
PURPOSE: Although clinical examination is the gold standard for the diagnosis of groin hernia, imaging procedures can improve the detection of femoral hernias, incipient hernias, and less-common types of hernias (e.g., an obturator hernia). The aim of this study is to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of dynamic inguinal ultrasound (DIUS). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between July 2010 and June 2015, 4951 clinical and ultrasound examinations of the groin area were conducted at the Hanse-Hernienzentrum in Hamburg, Germany...
August 15, 2017: Langenbeck's Archives of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812121/-teaching-in-orthopaedic-and-trauma-surgery
#12
T Renkawitz, A Benditz, M Rüsseler, U Obertacke, J Grifka, M Weber
The scramble for available places to study medicine in Germany continues. One of the core points within the "Master Plan 2020", which has been recently adopted, is the reform of teaching concepts at German medical faculties. In the future, students of human medicine are to be trained primarily based upon competence-oriented, integrated curricula. The present paper is intended to present modern teaching concepts and methods, as well as current examination formats, which play a special role in student training in orthopaedics and traumatology...
August 15, 2017: Der Orthopäde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812000/diagnostic-imaging-features-of-necrotizing-enterocolitis-a-narrative-review
#13
REVIEW
Francesco Esposito, Rosanna Mamone, Marco Di Serafino, Carmela Mercogliano, Valerio Vitale, Gianfranco Vallone, Patrizia Oresta
Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is an inflammatory process, characterized by intestinal necrosis of variable extension, leading to perforation, generalized peritonitis and death. The classical pathogenetic theory focuses on mucosal damage related to a stress induced intestinal ischemia leading to mucosal injury and bacterial colonization of the wall. A more recent hypothesis emphasizes the role of immaturity of gastrointestinal and immune system, particularly of the premature, responsible of bowel wall vulnerability and suffering...
June 2017: Quantitative Imaging in Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811998/paracoccidioidomycosis-level-of-pulmonary-sequelae-in-high-resolution-computed-tomography-images-from-patients-of-two-endemic-regions-of-brazil
#14
Diana Rodrigues de Pina, Matheus Alvarez, Guilherme Giacomini, Ana Luiza Menegatti Pavan, Carlos Ivan Andrade Guedes, Ricardo de Souza Cavalcante, Rinaldo Poncio Mendes, Anamaria Mello Miranda Paniago
BACKGROUND: The purpose of the present study was to evaluate differences in lung damage in patients with paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) in two endemic regions of Brazil (Botucatu, SP, in the southeastern region and Campo Grande, MS, in the west central region). METHODS: The study sought to objectively quantify fibrosis and emphysema treated patients using high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) that was performed according to an established and validated computational method...
June 2017: Quantitative Imaging in Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811849/meniere-s-disease-and-vestibular-migraine-updates-and-review-of-the-literature
#15
REVIEW
Paul Tabet, Issam Saliba
The diagnosis of Meniere's disease (MD) and vestibular migraine (VM) is primarily based on clinical criteria and their differentiation is often difficult. Currently, there are no known definitive diagnostic tests that can reliably distinguish the two conditions. Patients with MD and patients with VM are treated differently, therefore improving the diagnosis of these two pathologies should avoid errors in management. A systematic review was conducted according to PRISMA guidelines. Medline-Ovid and Embase databases were used to conduct a thorough search of English-language publications dating from 1948 to March 2016...
September 2017: Journal of Clinical Medicine Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811770/clinical-and-laboratory-profile-of-children-with-cystic-fibrosis-experience-of-a-tertiary-care-center-in-pakistan
#16
Danish Abdul Aziz, Abdul Gaffar Billoo, Ahad Qureshi, Misha Khalid, Salman Kirmani
OBJECTIVE: To determine the clinical presentation, diagnostic investigations and laboratory workup done in admitted children with cystic fibrosis at Aga Khan University Hospital Karachi, Pakistan. METHODS: This is athree years retrospective study from January 2013 to December 2015 conducted at The Aga Khan University Hospital Karachi Pakistan, enrolling admitted patient from birth to 15 years of either gender, diagnosed with CF on the basis of clinical features and positive sweat chloride test...
May 2017: Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811699/cystinuria-crystals-that-make-a-baby-cry
#17
Dhiraj J Trivedi, Vijayetha P Patil, Pramod S Kamble
Cystinuria is a common aminoaciduria due to a COAL transporter defect in renal tubular epithelium. Increased level of cystine in urine with occasional cystine crystal can be diagnostic. With reference to clinical examinations, symptoms and laboratory reports we present a case of primary cystinuria. Prevention of complication in cystinuric relies on detection at early stage and targeting treatment towards maintaining low level of urinary cystine level.
July 2017: Indian Journal of Clinical Biochemistry: IJCB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811553/cascaded-multi-view-canonical-correlation-camcco-for-early-diagnosis-of-alzheimer-s-disease-via-fusion-of-clinical-imaging-and-omic-features
#18
Asha Singanamalli, Haibo Wang, Anant Madabhushi
The introduction of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) as a diagnostic category adds to the challenges of diagnosing Alzheimer's Disease (AD). No single marker has been proven to accurately categorize patients into their respective diagnostic groups. Thus, previous studies have attempted to develop fused predictors of AD and MCI. These studies have two main limitations. Most do not simultaneously consider all diagnostic categories and provide suboptimal fused representations using the same set of modalities for prediction of all classes...
August 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811549/diagnosing-peri-implant-disease-using-the-tongue-as-a-24-7-detector
#19
J Ritzer, T Lühmann, C Rode, M Pein-Hackelbusch, I Immohr, U Schedler, T Thiele, S Stübinger, B V Rechenberg, J Waser-Althaus, F Schlottig, M Merli, H Dawe, M Karpíšek, R Wyrwa, M Schnabelrauch, L Meinel
Our ability of screening broad communities for clinically asymptomatic diseases critically drives population health. Sensory chewing gums are presented targeting the tongue as 24/7 detector allowing diagnosis by "anyone, anywhere, anytime". The chewing gum contains peptide sensors consisting of a protease cleavable linker in between a bitter substance and a microparticle. Matrix metalloproteinases in the oral cavity, as upregulated in peri-implant disease, specifically target the protease cleavable linker while chewing the gum, thereby generating bitterness for detection by the tongue...
August 15, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811246/microbial-metagenomics-mock-scenario-based-sample-simulation-m3s3
#20
Yair Motro, Jacob Moran-Gilad
OBJECTIVES: Shotgun sequencing in increasingly applied in clinical microbiology for unbiased culture-independent diagnosis. While software solutions for metagenomics proliferate, integration of metagenomics in clinical care, requires method standardisation and validation. Virtual metagenomics samples could underpin validation by substituting real samples and thus we sought to develop a novel solution for simulation of metagenomics samples based on user-defined clinical scenarios. METHODS: We designed the Microbial Metagenomics Mock Scenario-based Sample Simulation (M3S3) workflow, which allows users to generate virtual samples from raw reads or assemblies...
August 12, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
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