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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919756/molecular-identification-and-functional-delineation-of-a-glutathione-reductase-homologue-from-disk-abalone-haliotis-discus-discus-insights-as-a-potent-player-in-host-antioxidant-defense
#1
H M L P B Herath, P D S U Wickramasinghe, S D N K Bathige, R G P T Jayasooriya, Gi-Young Kim, Myoung Ae Park, Chul Kim, Jehee Lee
Glutathione reductase (GSR) is an enzyme that catalyzes the biochemical conversion of oxidized glutathione (GSSG) into the reduced form (GSH). Since the ratio between the two forms of glutathione (GSH/GSSG) is important for the optimal function of GSH to act as an antioxidant against H2O2, the contribution of GSR as an enzymatic regulatory agent to maintain the proper ratio is essential. Abalones are marine mollusks that frequently encounter environmental factors that can trigger the overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as H2O2...
December 2, 2016: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919686/structural-and-functional-study-of-chuy-from-escherichia-coli-strain-cft073
#2
Hun Kim, Akhilesh Kumar Chaurasia, Truc Kim, Jongkeun Choi, Sung Chul Ha, Doyoun Kim, Kyeong Kyu Kim
The uropathogenic Escherichia coli strain CFT073 contains multiple iron and heme transport systems, which facilitate infection of the host urinary tract. To elucidate the molecular and cellular function of ChuY, a hypothetical gene in the heme degradation/utilization pathway, we solved the crystal structure of ChuY at 2.4 Å resolution. ChuY has high structural homology with human biliverdin and flavin reductase. We confirmed that ChuY has flavin mononucleotide (FMN) reductase activity, using NAD(P)H as a cofactor, and shows porphyrin ring binding affinity...
December 2, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919636/adrenomedullin-and-angiotensin-ii-signaling-pathways-involved-in-the-effects-on-cerebellar-antioxidant-enzymes-activity
#3
Figueira Leticia, Israel Anita
Human adrenomedullin (AM) is a 52-amino acid peptide involved in cardiovascular control. AM has two specific receptors formed by the calcitonin-receptor-like receptor (CRLR) and receptor activity-modifying protein (RAMP) 2 or 3, known as AM1 and AM2 receptors, respectively. In addition, AM has appreciable affinity for the calcitonin gene-1 related peptide receptor (CGRP1), composed of CRLR/RAMP1. In brain, AM and their receptors are expressed in several localized areas, including the cerebellum. AM has been reported as an antioxidant...
December 2, 2016: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919007/challenges-in-assignment-of-allosteric-effects-in-cytochrome-p450-catalyzed-substrate-oxidations-to-structural-dynamics-in-the-hemoprotein-architecture
#4
Peter Hlavica
Cytochrome P450s (CYP) represent a superfamily of b-type hemoproteins catalyzing NAD(P)H-dependent oxidative biotransformation of a vast array of natural and xenobiotic compounds. Many eu- and prokaryotic members of this class of monooxygenases display complex non-Michaelis-Menten saturation kinetics, suggestive of homo-/heterotropic cooperativity arising from substrate-/effector-induced allosteric interactions. Here, the paradigm of multiple-ligand occupancy of the catalytic pocket in combination with enzyme oligomerization provides the most favored explanations for the atypical kinetic patterns...
November 25, 2016: Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917455/what-s-the-worry-with-social-anxiety-comparing-cognitive-processes-in-children-with-generalized-anxiety-disorder-and-social-anxiety-disorder
#5
Cate S Hearn, Caroline L Donovan, Susan H Spence, Sonja March, Monique C Holmes
Social anxiety disorder (SAD) in children is often comorbid with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). We investigated whether worry, intolerance of uncertainty, beliefs about worry, negative problem orientation and cognitive avoidance, that are typically associated with GAD, are present in children with SAD. Participants included 60 children (8-12 years), matched on age and gender. Groups included children: with primary GAD and without SAD (GAD); with primary SAD and without GAD (SAD); and without an anxiety disorder (NAD)...
December 5, 2016: Child Psychiatry and Human Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916733/sirt1-regulates-lipopolysaccharide-induced-cd40-expression-in-renal-medullary-collecting-duct-cells-by-suppressing-the-tlr4-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling-pathway
#6
Qin-Qin Lin, Yuan-Wen Geng, Zhong-Wei Jiang, Zhen-Jun Tian
AIMS: Recent evidence indicates that sirtuin1 (SIRT1), a NAD(+)-dependent deacetylase, exerts a protective effect against inflammatory kidney injury by suppressing pro-inflammatory cytokines production. The co-stimulatory molecule, CD40, is expressed in a variety of inflammatory diseases in the kidney. Here, we aimed to investigate the potential effect of SIRT1 on CD40 expression induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and to disclose the underlying mechanisms in renal inner medullary collecting duct (IMCD) cells...
December 1, 2016: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915984/structure-function-and-evolution-of-clostridium-botulinum-c2-and-c3-toxins-insight-to-poultry-and-veterinary-vaccines
#7
P Chellapandi, A Prisilla
Clostridium botulinum group III strains are able to produce cytotoxins, C2 toxin and C3 exotoxin, along with botulinum neurotoxin types C and D. C2 toxin and C3 exotoxin produced from this organism are the most important members of bacterial ADP-ribosyltransferase superfamily. Both toxins have distinct pathophysiological functions in the avian and mammalian hosts. The members of this superfamily transfer an ADP-ribose moiety of NAD+ to specific eukaryotic target proteins. The present review describes the structure, function and evolution aspects of these toxins with a special emphasis to the development of veterinary vaccines...
December 1, 2016: Current Protein & Peptide Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913299/the-inhibitory-effect-of-beta-lapachone-on-rankl-induced-osteoclastogenesis
#8
Dong Ryun Gu, Joon No Lee, Gi-Su Oh, Hyung Jin Kim, Min Seuk Kim, Seoung Hoon Lee
β-lapachone (β-L) is a substrate of reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH): quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1). NQO1 reduces quinones to hydroquinones using NADH as an electron donor and consequently increases the intracellular NAD+/NADH ratio. The activation of NQO1 by β-L has beneficial effects on several metabolic syndromes, such as obesity, hypertension, and renal injury. However, the effect of β-L on bone metabolism remains unclear. Here, we show that β-L might be a potent inhibitor of receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclastogenesis...
November 30, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912883/miltirone-protects-human-ea-hy926-endothelial-cells-from-oxidized-low-density-lipoprotein-derived-oxidative-stress-via-a-heme-oxygenase-1-and-mapk-nrf2-dependent-pathway
#9
Liu Zhang, Hui Zhang, Xueyan Li, Bingjie Jia, Yuyu Yang, Ping Zhou, Ping Li, Jun Chen
BACKGROUND: Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) is an underlying cause of endothelial dysfunction, which is an early event in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. In our previous study, we established an ARE-driven luciferase reporter system and screened out several potential Nrf2 activators from Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge. PURPOSE: Since miltirone showed the most potent ARE-driven luciferase activity, the aim of this study was to test the protective role of miltirone against oxidative stress in endothelial cell and to investigate the underlying mechanistic signaling pathways...
December 15, 2016: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912065/phosphoribosylation-of-ubiquitin-promotes-serine-ubiquitination-and-impairs-conventional-ubiquitination
#10
Sagar Bhogaraju, Sissy Kalayil, Yaobin Liu, Florian Bonn, Thomas Colby, Ivan Matic, Ivan Dikic
Conventional ubiquitination involves the ATP-dependent formation of amide bonds between the ubiquitin C terminus and primary amines in substrate proteins. Recently, SdeA, an effector protein of pathogenic Legionella pneumophila, was shown to mediate NAD-dependent and ATP-independent ubiquitin transfer to host proteins. Here, we identify a phosphodiesterase domain in SdeA that efficiently catalyzes phosphoribosylation of ubiquitin on a specific arginine via an ADP-ribose-ubiquitin intermediate. SdeA also catalyzes a chemically and structurally distinct type of substrate ubiquitination by conjugating phosphoribosylated ubiquitin to serine residues of protein substrates via a phosphodiester bond...
December 1, 2016: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911769/reductive-carboxylation-is-a-major-metabolic-pathway-in-the-retinal-pigment-epithelium
#11
Jianhai Du, Aya Yanagida, Kaitlen Knight, Abbi L Engel, Anh Huan Vo, Connor Jankowski, Martin Sadilek, Van Thi Bao Tran, Megan A Manson, Aravind Ramakrishnan, James B Hurley, Jennifer R Chao
The retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) is a monolayer of pigmented cells that requires an active metabolism to maintain outer retinal homeostasis and compensate for oxidative stress. Using (13)C metabolic flux analysis in human RPE cells, we found that RPE has an exceptionally high capacity for reductive carboxylation, a metabolic pathway that has recently garnered significant interest because of its role in cancer cell survival. The capacity for reductive carboxylation in RPE exceeds that of all other cells tested, including retina, neural tissue, glial cells, and a cancer cell line...
December 1, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911441/sirt1-protects-the-heart-from-er-stress-induced-cell-death-through-eif2%C3%AE-deacetylation
#12
Alexandre Prola, Julie Pires Da Silva, Arnaud Guilbert, Lola Lecru, Jérôme Piquereau, Maxance Ribeiro, Philippe Mateo, Mélanie Gressette, Dominique Fortin, Céline Boursier, Cindy Gallerne, Anaïs Caillard, Jane-Lise Samuel, Hélène François, David A Sinclair, Pierre Eid, Renée Ventura-Clapier, Anne Garnier, Christophe Lemaire
Over the past decade, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress has emerged as an important mechanism involved in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases including heart failure. Cardiac therapy based on ER stress modulation is viewed as a promising avenue toward effective therapies for the diseased heart. Here, we tested whether sirtuin-1 (SIRT1), a NAD(+)-dependent deacetylase, participates in modulating ER stress response in the heart. Using cardiomyocytes and adult-inducible SIRT1 knockout mice, we demonstrate that SIRT1 inhibition or deficiency increases ER stress-induced cardiac injury, whereas activation of SIRT1 by the SIRT1-activating compound STAC-3 is protective...
December 2, 2016: Cell Death and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909649/in-silico-profiling-of-cell-growth-and-succinate-production-in-escherichia-coli-nzn111
#13
Xingxing Jian, Ningchuan Li, Cheng Zhang, Qiang Hua
BACKGROUND: Succinic acid is a valuable product due to its wide-ranging utilities. To improve succinate production and reduce by-products formation, Escherichia coli NZN111 was constructed by insertional inactivation of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and pyruvate formate lyase (PFL) encoded by the genes ldhA and pflB, respectively. However, this double-deletion mutant is incapable of anaerobically growing on glucose in rich or minimal medium even with acetate supplementation. A widespread hold view is that the inactivation of NADH-dependent LDH limits the regeneration of NAD(+) and consequently disables proper growth under anaerobic conditions...
2016: Bioresources and Bioprocessing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907199/identification-heterologous-expression-and-functional-characterization-of-bacillus-subtilis-yutf-a-had-superfamily-5-nucleotidase-with-broad-substrate-specificity
#14
Natalia P Zakataeva, Dmitriy V Romanenkov, Yuliya R Yusupova, Victoria S Skripnikova, Takayuki Asahara, Sergey V Gronskiy
5'-nucleotidases (EC 3.1.3.5) catalyze the hydrolytic dephosphorylation of 5'-ribonucleotides and 5'-deoxyribonucleotides as well as complex nucleotides, such as uridine 5'-diphosphoglucose (UDP-glucose), nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide and flavin adenine dinucleotide, to their corresponding nucleosides plus phosphate. These enzymes have been found in diverse species in intracellular and membrane-bound, surface-localized forms. Soluble forms of 5'-nucleotidases belong to the ubiquitous haloacid dehalogenase superfamily (HADSF) and have been shown to be involved in the regulation of nucleotide, nucleoside and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) pools...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907091/real-time-fluorescence-measurements-of-ros-and-ca2-in-ischemic-reperfused-rat-hearts-detectable-increases-occur-only-after-mitochondrial-pore-opening-and-are-attenuated-by-ischemic-preconditioning
#15
Tatyana Andrienko, Philippe Pasdois, Andreas Rossbach, Andrew P Halestrap
Mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) opening is critical for ischemia / reperfusion (I/R) injury and is associated with increased [Ca2+] and reactive oxygen species (ROS). Here we employ surface fluorescence to establish the temporal sequence of these events in beating perfused hearts subject to global I/R. A bespoke fluorimeter was used to synchronously monitor surface fluorescence and reflectance of Langendorff-perfused rat hearts at multiple wavelengths, with simultaneous measurements of hemodynamic function...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907064/nad-is-a-food-component-that-promotes-exit-from-dauer-diapause-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#16
Mykola Mylenko, Sebastian Boland, Sider Penkov, Julio L Sampaio, Benoit Lombardot, Daniela Vorkel, Jean-Marc Verbavatz, Teymuras V Kurzchalia
The free-living soil nematode Caenorhabditis elegans adapts its development to the availability of food. When food is scarce and population density is high, worms enter a developmentally arrested non-feeding diapause stage specialized for long-term survival called the dauer larva. When food becomes available, they exit from the dauer stage, resume growth and reproduction. It has been postulated that compound(s) present in food, referred to as the "food signal", promote exit from the dauer stage. In this study, we have identified NAD+ as a component of bacterial extract that promotes dauer exit...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906624/influence-of-4-pyridone-3-carboxamide-1%C3%AE-d-ribonucleoside-4pyr-on-activities-of-extracellular-enzymes-in-endothelial-human-cells
#17
I Pelikant-Małecka, A Sielicka, E Kaniewska, R T Smoleński, E M Słomińska
Previous studies demonstrated that human endothelial cells were capable to phosphorylate 4-pyridone-3-carboxamide-1β-D-ribonucleoside (4PYR) to monophosphate (4PYMP) and formed another metabolite-an analog of NAD (4PYRAD). Elevated levels of 4PYMP and 4PYRAD had an adverse effect on energy balance-depressed adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) concentration in human endothelial cells. Ecto-enzymes such as ecto-nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase (eNTPD); ecto-5'-nucleotidase (e5'NT); and ecto-adenosine deaminase (eADA) are involved in controlling of inflammation and platelet aggregation...
December 2016: Nucleosides, Nucleotides & Nucleic Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906558/erratum-nad-p-h-quinone-oxidoreductase-1-is-essential-for-ozone-induced-oxidative-stress-in-mice-and-humans
#18
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905813/family-violence-prevention-and-services-programs-final-rule
#19
(no author information available yet)
This rule will better prevent and protect survivors of family violence, domestic violence, and dating violence, by clarifying that all survivors must have access to services and programs funded under the Family Violence Prevention and Services Act. More specifically, the rule enhances accessibility and non-discrimination provisions, clarifies confidentiality rules, promotes coordination among community-based organizations, State Domestic Violence Coalitions, States, and Tribes, as well as incorporates new discretionary grant programs...
November 2, 2016: Federal Register
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904663/t-type-calcium-channel-blocker-attenuates-unilateral-ureteral-obstruction-induced-renal-interstitial-fibrosis-by-activating-the-nrf2-antioxidant-pathway
#20
Sungjin Chung, Soojeong Kim, Minyoung Kim, Eun Sil Koh, Hye Eun Yoon, Ho-Shik Kim, Cheol Whee Park, Yoon Sik Chang, Seok Joon Shin
Besides its effect on high blood pressure, T-type calcium channel blocker is renoprotective in experimental models of renal fibrosis. However, the exact mechanism of T-type calcium channel blocker on tubulointerstitial fibrosis is unclear. We investigated whether the renoprotective effect of T-type calcium channel blocker is associated with modulation of the signaling of oxidative stress-induced renal fibrosis. Treatment with a non-hypotensive dose of efonidipine, a T-type calcium channel blocker, or nifedipine, an L-type channel blocker, was initiated one day before unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) in C57BL6/J mice, and was continued until 3 and 7 days after UUO...
2016: American Journal of Translational Research
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