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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087615/microbial-catabolism-of-sterols-focus-on-the-enzymes-that-transform-the-sterol-3%C3%AE-hydroxy-5-en-into-3-keto-4-en
#1
Joseph Kreit
An overview on the microbial sterol catabolism is described with a focus on the catabolic step of the 3β-hydroxy-5-en structure. Cholesterol oxidase transforms this structure into the corresponding 3-keto-4-en feature, and thus initiates the sterol molecule catabolism. The oxidase has been found in a large number of microorganisms, especially in actinobacteria as species of Rhodococcus and Streptomyces Other actinobacteria as species of Mycobacterium and Nocardia possess NAD(P)-dependent dehydrogenase for this catabolic step...
January 12, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087461/low-glucose-stress-decreases-cellular-nadh-and-mitochondrial-atp-in-colonic-epithelial-cancer-cells-influence-of-mitochondrial-substrates
#2
Magdalena L Circu, Ronald E Maloney, Tak Yee Aw
In this study, we investigated how colonic epithelial cells maintained pyridine nucleotide (NADH/NAD(+)) redox homeostasis upon acute metabolic variation imposed by glucose deprivation or supplementation with mitochondrial substrates, succinate and malate/glutamate (M/G). Our results showed that low glucose caused cellular NADH/NAD(+) redox imbalance that diminished lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity and resulted in lower lactate contents. The concurrent activation of malic enzyme (ME) suggested a role for malate in preserving cellular pyruvate that remained unchanged at low glucose...
January 10, 2017: Chemico-biological Interactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079958/an-s-oxygenated-nife-complex-modelling-sulfenate-intermediates-of-an-o2-tolerant-hydrogenase
#3
Nils J Lindenmaier, Stefan Wahlefeld, Eckhard Bill, Tibor Szilvási, Christopher Eberle, Shenglai Yao, Peter Hildebrandt, Marius Horch, Ingo Zebger, Matthias Driess
To understand the molecular details of O2 -tolerant hydrogen cycling by a soluble NAD(+) -reducing [NiFe] hydrogenase, we herein present the first bioinspired heterobimetallic S-oxygenated [NiFe] complex as a structural and vibrational spectroscopic model for the oxygen-inhibited [NiFe] active site. This compound and its non-S-oxygenated congener were fully characterized, and their electronic structures were elucidated in a combined experimental and theoretical study with emphasis on the bridging sulfenato moiety...
January 12, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079261/effect-of-parthanatos-on-ropivacaine-induced-damage-in-sh-sy5y-cells
#4
Ting Zheng, Chun-Ying Zheng, Xiao-Chun Zheng, Ruo-Guang Zhao, Yan-Qing Chen
Ropivacaine is one of the most common but toxic local anesthetics, and the mechanisms underlying its neurotoxicity are still largely unknown. This study was conducted to prepare a ropivacaine-induced neuronal injury model and research the effects of ropivacaine on PARP-1 activation and NAD(+) depletion. The cell death and apoptosis of ropivacaine-induced SH-SY5Y cells were detected with flow cytometry. The lactate dehydrogenase cycling reaction measured the NAD(+) level, and Western blots were used to analyze the expression levels of PARP-1 and AIF after ropivacaine treatments with different concentrations and durations...
January 12, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077334/the-neuroprotective-compound-p7c3-a20-promotes-neurogenesis-and-improves-cognitive-function-after-ischemic-stroke
#5
Zachary B Loris, Andrew A Pieper, W Dalton Dietrich
Ischemic stroke is a devastating condition with few therapeutic interventions available. The neuroprotective compound P7C3-A20 inhibits mature neuronal cell death while also increasing the net magnitude of postnatal neurogenesis in models of neurodegeneration and acute injury. P7C3 compounds enhance flux of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) in mammalian cells, a proposed therapeutic approach to treating cerebral ischemia. The effectiveness of P7C3-A20 treatment on chronic histopathological and behavioral outcomes and neurogenesis after ischemic stroke has not previously been established...
January 8, 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075062/specific-arabidopsis-thaliana-malic-enzyme-isoforms-can-provide-anaplerotic-pyruvate-carboxylation-function-in-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#6
Mariana Beatriz Badia, Robert Mans, Alicia V Lis, Marcos Ariel Tronconi, Cintia Lucía Arias, Verónica Graciela Maurino, Carlos Santiago Andreo, María Fabiana Drincovich, Antonius J A van Maris, Mariel Claudia Gerrard Wheeler
NAD(P)-malic enzyme (NAD(P)-ME) catalyzes the reversible oxidative decarboxylation of malate to pyruvate, CO2 and NAD(P)H and is present as a multigene family in Arabidopsis. The carboxylation reaction catalyzed by purified recombinant A. thaliana NADP-ME proteins is faster than those reported for other animal or plant isoforms. In contrast, no carboxylation activity could be detected in vitro for the NAD-dependent counterparts. In order to further investigate their putative carboxylating role in vivo, Arabidopsis NAD(P)-ME isoforms, as well as the NADP-ME2del2 (with a decreased ability to carboxylate pyruvate) and NADP-ME2R115A (lacking fumarate activation) versions, were functionally expressed in the cytosol of pyruvate carboxylase negative (Pyc(-) ) Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains...
January 11, 2017: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074060/s100a8-a9-and-s100a9-reduce-acute-lung-injury
#7
Yuka Hiroshima, Kenneth Hsu, Nicodemus Tedla, Sze Wing Wong, Sharron Chow, Naomi Kawaguchi, Carolyn L Geczy
S100A8 and S100A9 are myeloid cell-derived proteins that are elevated in several types of inflammatory lung disorders. Pro- and anti-inflammatory properties are reported and these proteins are proposed to activate TLR4. S100A8 and S100A9 can function separately, likely through distinct receptors but a systematic comparison of their effects in vivo are limited. Here we assess inflammation in murine lung following S100A9 and S100A8/A9 inhalation. Unlike S100A8, S100A9 promoted mild neutrophil and lymphocyte influx, possibly mediated in part, by increased mast cell degranulation and selective upregulation of some chemokine genes, particularly CXCL-10...
January 11, 2017: Immunology and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073696/spop-promotes-sirt2-degradation-and-suppresses-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-cell-growth
#8
Jie Luo, Yu-Chen Bao, Xian-Xiu Ji, Bin Chen, Qin-Fang Deng, Song-Wen Zhou
SIRT2 is a NAD-dependent deacetylase and inhibition of SIRT2 has a broad anticancer activity. Here we report that SPOP binds to SIRT2 and mediates its degradation by the 26S proteasome, which can be blocked by MG132 treatment. We also found that the levels of SPOP significantly decreased, while the levels of SIRT2 significantly increased in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines, compared to normal bronchial epithelial cell line and NSCLC specimens, compared to the paired non-tumor lung tissue. Furthermore, SPOP can suppress NSCLC cell growth...
January 7, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073422/-research-advances-in-the-association-between-deacetylase-sirtuin3-and-liver-diseases
#9
J Yu, C Chen, W X Wang
The deacetylase Sirtuin 3 (SIRT3) is a member of the Sirtuins mainly located in the mitochondrial matrix, and as a nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+))-dependent deacetylase, it can regulate cellular energy metabolism and oxidative stress-related pathways. The liver is the largest solid organ in the human body and plays a very important role in substance metabolism. Based on the features of SIRT3, it is closely associated with the development and progression of certain liver diseases. This article reviews the research advances in the role of SIRT3 in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, liver cancer, and hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury...
December 20, 2016: Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing za Zhi, Zhonghua Ganzangbing Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072529/correlation-between-the-structure-and-catalytic-activity-of-cp-rh-substituted-bipyridine-complexes-for-nadh-regeneration
#10
Vinothkumar Ganesan, Dharmalingam Sivanesan, Sungho Yoon
A series of water-soluble half-sandwich [Cp*Rh(III)(N^N)Cl](+) (Cp* = pentamethylcyclopentadiene, N^N-substituted 2,2'-bipyridine) complexes containing electron-donating substituents around the 2,2'-bipyridyl ligand were synthesized and fully characterized for the regioselective reduction of nicotinamide coenzyme (NAD(+)). The influence of the positional effect of the substituents on the structural, electrochemical, and catalytic properties of the catalyst was systematically studied in detail. The catalytic efficiency of the substituted bipyridine Cp*Rh(III) complexes are inversely correlated with their redox potentials...
January 10, 2017: Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070860/energetic-oxidative-and-ionic-exchange-in-rat-brain-and-liver-mitochondria-at-experimental-audiogenic-epilepsy-krushinsky-molodkina-model
#11
Natalya I Venediktova, Olga S Gorbacheva, Natalia V Belosludtseva, Irina B Fedotova, Natalia M Surina, Inga I Poletaeva, Oleg V Kolomytkin, Galina D Mironova
The role of brain and liver mitochondria at epileptic seizure was studied on Krushinsky-Molodkina (KM) rats which respond to sound with an intensive epileptic seizure (audiogenic epilepsy). We didn't find significant changes in respiration rats of brain and liver mitochondria of KM and control rats; however the efficiency of АТР synthesis in the KM rat mitochondria was 10% lower. In rats with audiogenic epilepsy the concentration of oxidative stress marker malondialdehyde in mitochondria of the brain (but not liver) was 2-fold higher than that in the control rats...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Bioenergetics and Biomembranes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070721/enhanced-xylose-fermentation-by-engineered-yeast-expressing-nadh-oxidase-through-high-cell-density-inoculums
#12
Guo-Chang Zhang, Timothy L Turner, Yong-Su Jin
Accumulation of reduced byproducts such as glycerol and xylitol during xylose fermentation by engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae hampers the economic production of biofuels and chemicals from cellulosic hydrolysates. In particular, engineered S. cerevisiae expressing NADPH-linked xylose reductase (XR) and NAD(+)-linked xylitol dehydrogenase (XDH) produces substantial amounts of the reduced byproducts under anaerobic conditions due to the cofactor difference of XR and XDH. While the additional expression of a water-forming NADH oxidase (NoxE) from Lactococcus lactis in engineered S...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Industrial Microbiology & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069943/acetylation-promotes-tyrrs-nuclear-translocation-to-prevent-oxidative-damage
#13
Xuanye Cao, Chaoqun Li, Siyu Xiao, Yunlan Tang, Jing Huang, Shuan Zhao, Xueyu Li, Jixi Li, Ruilin Zhang, Wei Yu
Tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase (TyrRS) is well known for its essential aminoacylation function in protein synthesis. Recently, TyrRS has been shown to translocate to the nucleus and protect against DNA damage due to oxidative stress. However, the mechanism of TyrRS nuclear localization has not yet been determined. Herein, we report that TyrRS becomes highly acetylated in response to oxidative stress, which promotes nuclear translocation. Moreover, p300/CBP-associated factor (PCAF), an acetyltransferase, and sirtuin 1 (SIRT1), a NAD(+)-dependent deacetylase, regulate the nuclear localization of TyrRS in an acetylation-dependent manner...
January 9, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069826/endostatin-inhibits-androgen-independent-prostate-cancer-growth-by-suppressing-nuclear-receptor-mediated-oxidative-stress
#14
Joo Hyoung Lee, Minsung Kang, Hong Wang, Gurudatta Naik, James A Mobley, Guru Sonpavde, W Timothy Garvey, Victor M Darley-Usmar, Selvarangan Ponnazhagan
Androgen-deprivation therapy has been identified to induce oxidative stress in prostate cancer (PCa), leading to reactivation of androgen receptor (AR) signaling in a hormone-refractory manner. Thus, antioxidant therapies have gained attention as adjuvants for castration-resistant PCa. Here, we report for the first time that human endostatin (ES) prevents androgen-independent growth phenotype in PCa cells through its molecular targeting of AR and glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and downstream pro-oxidant signaling...
January 9, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068222/long-term-administration-of-nicotinamide-mononucleotide-mitigates-age-associated-physiological-decline-in-mice
#15
Kathryn F Mills, Shohei Yoshida, Liana R Stein, Alessia Grozio, Shunsuke Kubota, Yo Sasaki, Philip Redpath, Marie E Migaud, Rajendra S Apte, Koji Uchida, Jun Yoshino, Shin-Ichiro Imai
NAD(+) availability decreases with age and in certain disease conditions. Nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN), a key NAD(+) intermediate, has been shown to enhance NAD(+) biosynthesis and ameliorate various pathologies in mouse disease models. In this study, we conducted a 12-month-long NMN administration to regular chow-fed wild-type C57BL/6N mice during their normal aging. Orally administered NMN was quickly utilized to synthesize NAD(+) in tissues. Remarkably, NMN effectively mitigates age-associated physiological decline in mice...
December 13, 2016: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067697/national-administrative-databases-in-adult-spinal-deformity-surgery-a-cautionary-tale
#16
Aaron J Buckland, Gregory Poorman, Robert Freitag, Cyrus Jalai, Eric O Klineberg, Michael Kelly, Peter G Passias
STUDY DESIGN: Comparison between national administrative databases and a prospective multicenter physician managed database. OBJECTIVES: This study aims to assess the applicability of National Administrative Databases (NADs) in Adult Spinal Deformity (ASD). Our hypothesis is that NADs do not include comparable patients as in a physician-managed database (PMD) for surgical outcomes in adult spinal deformity. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: NADs such as National Inpatient Sample (NIS) and National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP) provide large numbers of publications owing to ease of data access and lack of IRB approval requirement...
January 6, 2017: Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067587/the-seven-faces-of-sirt7
#17
Maximilian F Blank, Ingrid Grummt
SIRT7, a member of the sirtuin family of NAD(+)-dependent protein deacetylases, is a key mediator of many cellular activities. SIRT7 expression is linked to cell proliferation and oncogenic activity, connecting SIRT7-dependent regulation of ribosome biogenesis with checkpoints controlling cell cycle progression, metabolic homeostasis, stress resistance, ageing and tumorigenesis. Despite this important functional link, the enzymatic activity, the molecular targets and physiological functions of SIRT7 are poorly defined...
January 9, 2017: Transcription
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065651/nitrate-reductase-regulates-plant-nitric-oxide-homeostasis
#18
REVIEW
Alejandro Chamizo-Ampudia, Emanuel Sanz-Luque, Angel Llamas, Aurora Galvan, Emilio Fernandez
Nitrate reductase (NR) is a key enzyme for nitrogen acquisition by plants, algae, yeasts, and fungi. Nitrate, its main substrate, is required for signaling and is widely distributed in diverse tissues in plants. In addition, NR has been proposed as an important enzymatic source of nitric oxide (NO). Recently, NR has been shown to play a role in NO homeostasis by supplying electrons from NAD(P)H through its diaphorase/dehydrogenase domain both to a truncated hemoglobin THB1, which scavenges NO by its dioxygenase activity, and to the molybdoenzyme NO-forming nitrite reductase (NOFNiR) that is responsible for NO synthesis from nitrite...
January 5, 2017: Trends in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064376/docking-and-molecular-dynamics-studies-on-triclosan-derivatives-binding-to-fabi
#19
Xuyun Yang, Junrui Lu, Ming Ying, Jiangbei Mu, Peichun Li, Yue Liu
FabI, enoyl-ACP reductase (ENR), is the rate-limiting enzyme in the last step for fatty acids biosynthesis in many bacteria. Triclosan (TCL) is a commercial bactericide, and as a FabI inhibitor, it can depress the substrate (trans-2-enoyl-ACP) binding with FabI to hinder the fatty acid synthesis. The structure-activity relationship between TCL derivatives and FabI protein has already been acknowledged, however, their combination at the molecular level has never been investigated. This paper uses the computer-aided approaches, such as molecular docking, molecular dynamics simulation, and binding free energy calculation based on the molecular mechanics/Poisson-Bolzmann surface area (MM/PBSA) method to illustrate the interaction rules of TCL derivatives with FabI and guide the development of new derivatives...
January 2017: Journal of Molecular Modeling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064165/nutritional-control-of-chronological-aging-and-heterochromatin-in-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#20
David F McCleary, Jasper Rine
Calorie restriction extends lifespan in organisms as diverse as yeast and mammals through incompletely understood mechanism(s). The role of NAD(+)-dependent deacetylases, known as Sirtuins, in this process, particularly in the yeast S. cerevisiae is controversial. We measured chronological lifespan of wild-type and sir2Δ strains over a higher glucose range than typically used for studying yeast calorie restriction. sir2Δ extended lifespan in high-glucose complete minimal medium, and had little effect in low glucose medium, revealing a partial role for Sir2 in the calorie restriction response under these conditions...
January 6, 2017: Genetics
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