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Athletic performance

Robert W Salatto, Jose A Arevalo, Lee E Brown, Lenny D Wiersma, Jared W Coburn
Salatto, RW, Arevalo, JA, Brown, LE, Wiersma, LD, and Coburn, JW. Caffeine's effects on an upper-body resistance exercise workout. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2018-The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of caffeine on an upper-body resistance exercise workout. Fifteen men (mean ± SD: age, 23.1 ± 1.9 years; body mass, 89.1 ± 13.9 kg; height, 175 ± 6.1 cm) volunteered to come to the laboratory 3 times. During visit 1, 1-repetition maximum (RM) values were determined for the barbell bench press, incline barbell bench press, and dumbbell bench press exercises...
June 21, 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Danielle Lovett-Carter, Amritpal S Jawanda, Ailish Hannigan
OBJECTIVES: Femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) poses a threat to athletes' capacity to compete. This review aims to estimate the rate of return to sport after hip arthroscopy for treatment of FAI as well as identify factors that may affect athletes' outcomes. DESIGN: Meta-analysis. METHODS: Four databases (EMBASE, PubMed, Web of Science, and Cochrane) were searched in July 2015 by 2 reviewers. Studies were required to include athletes who were treated with hip arthroscopy for symptomatic FAI and also report return to sport as an outcome...
June 21, 2018: Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine: Official Journal of the Canadian Academy of Sport Medicine
David M Siebert, Ashwin L Rao
CONTEXT: Recombinant human growth hormone (rHGH) has become a target of abuse in the sporting world. Conversely, sports medicine clinicians may encounter athletes using rHGH to achieve normalcy in the context of growth hormone (GH) deficiency. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: Medline and PubMed databases were queried using the following keywords: GH, GH physiology, GH deficiency, acromegaly, GH athlete, GH sports, GH athletic performance, and GH deficiency concussion. Articles focusing on GH physiology, deficiency, excess, and its effects in both deficient and healthy patients were included...
June 1, 2018: Sports Health
Gareth Turner, Barry W Fudge, Jamie S M Pringle, Neil S Maxwell, Alan J Richardson
This study sought to establish perceptions of elite endurance athletes on the role and worth of altitude training. Elite British endurance runners were surveyed to identify the altitude and hypoxic training methods utilised, along with reasons for use, and any situational, cultural and behaviour factors influencing these. Prior to the 2012 Olympics Games, 39 athletes and 20 support staff (coaches/practitioners) completed an internet-based survey to establish differences between current practices and the accepted "best-practice"...
June 22, 2018: Journal of Sports Sciences
Akihiro Sakamoto, Akihiro Kuroda, Peter James Sinclair, Hisashi Naito, Kazuhiko Sakuma
PURPOSE: Maximum force exertion against various resistance levels (heavy-light) is commonly implemented to improve both strength- and speed-oriented components of power. Medium-light resistances allow rapid accelerations, yet incur significant decelerations in the later concentric phase to bring the bar to a halt, which may limit the concentric effort and, therefore, the effectiveness of training. Accordingly, ballistic actions have been recommended. This study evaluated the effectiveness of power bench press training, with the bar thrown on a Smith machine (BPthrow ) or without throwing (BPnon-throw ), for developing strength and shot put distance...
June 21, 2018: European Journal of Applied Physiology
Umile Giuseppe Longo, Laura Risi Ambrogioni, Mauro Ciuffreda, Nicola Maffulli, Vincenzo Denaro
Introduction: Sudden cardiac death (SCD) of young athletes during competition or training is a tragic event. The long QT syndrome (LQTS) is an arrythmogenic disorder characterized by prolonged ventricular repolarization leading to torsade de pointes evident at electrocardiogram (ECG). Implantable cardioverter defibrillator is an option to revert ventricular fibrillation to sinus rhythm, although the implantation may result in denial of sports participations to the athlete. The authors reviewed the current literature on LQTS in young athletes, to clarify the role of different screening technologies to prevent SCD...
June 20, 2018: British Medical Bulletin
Marta Castañer, Juan Andueza, Raúl Hileno, Silvia Puigarnau, Queralt Prat, Oleguer Camerino
Laterality is a key aspect of the analysis of basic and specific motor skills. It is relevant to sports because it involves motor laterality profiles beyond left-right preference and spatial orientation of the body. The aim of this study was to obtain the laterality profiles of young athletes, taking into account the synergies between the support and precision functions of limbs and body parts in the performance of complex motor skills. We applied two instruments: (a) MOTORLAT, a motor laterality inventory comprising 30 items of basic, specific, and combined motor skills, and (b) the Precision and Agility Tapping over Hoops (PATHoops) task, in which participants had to perform a path by stepping in each of 14 hoops arranged on the floor, allowing the observation of their feet, left-right preference and spatial orientation...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Amber E Rowell, Robert J Aughey, William G Hopkins, Alizera Esmaeili, Brendan H Lazarus, Stuart J Cormack
Introduction: Training load and other measures potentially related to match performance are routinely monitored in team-sport athletes. The aim of this research was to examine the effect of training load on such measures and on match performance during a season of professional football. Materials and Methods: Training load was measured daily as session duration times perceived exertion in 23 A-League football players. Measures of exponentially weighted cumulative training load were calculated using decay factors representing time constants of 3-28 days...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
T Q Chen, B Dong, W J Zhang, D S Gao, Y H Dong, J Ma, Y H Ma
OBJECTIVE: To analyze the association between sleep duration and athletic performance, and provide scientific basis to improve the 50 m and endurance performance in children and adolescents. METHODS: All the 119 462 subjects aged 9-15 years in both genders were sampled from 2014 National Physical Fitness and Health Surveillance by using stratified random cluster sampling method, to measure the height, weight, 50 meters and endurance performance and investigate sleep duration with questionnaire...
June 18, 2018: Beijing da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Peking University. Health Sciences
Michael J Puchowicz, Eliran Mizelman, Assaf Yogev, Michael S Koehle, Nathan E Townsend, David C Clarke
Existing doping detection strategies rely on direct and indirect biochemical measurement methods focused on detecting banned substances, their metabolites, or biomarkers related to their use. However, the goal of doping is to improve performance, and yet evidence from performance data is not considered by these strategies. The emergence of portable sensors for measuring exercise intensities and of player tracking technologies may enable the widespread collection of performance data. How these data should be used for doping detection is an open question...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Ricardo Brandt, Guilherme G Bevilacqua, Danilo R Coimbra, Luiz C Pombo, Bianca Miarka, Andrew M Lane
Brandt, R, Bevilacqua, GG, Coimbra, DR, Pombo, LC, Miarka, B, and Lane, AM. Body weight and mood state modifications in mixed martial arts: An exploratory pilot. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2018-Mixed martial arts (MMA) fighters typically use rapid weight loss (RWL) as a strategy to make competition weight. The aim of the present study was to compare body weight and mood changes in professional male MMA athletes who used strategies to rapidly lose weight (n = 9) and with MMA athletes who did not (n = 3)...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Ricardo Schultz Martins, Patrick Girouard, Evan Elliott, Said Mekary
Martins, RS, Girouard, P, Elliott, E, and Mekary, S. Physiological responses of a jaw repositioning custom-made mouthguard on airway and their effects on athletic performance. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2018-Advanced dental techniques such as jaw-repositioning have shown to increase lower body muscular power such as vertical jump, but its effects on acceleration and speed have not been studied. Similarly, jaw repositioning is commonly used to increase airways volume and ventilation in a special population (i...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Brad J Schoenfeld, Brett S Nickerson, Colin D Wilborn, Stacie L Urbina, Sara B Hayward, James Krieger, Alan A Aragon, Grant M Tinsley
Schoenfeld, BJ, Nickerson, BS, Wilborn, CD, Urbina, SL, Hayward, SB, Krieger, J, Aragon, AA, and Tinsley, G. Comparison of multifrequency bioelectrical impedance vs. dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry for assessing body composition changes after participation in a 10-week resistance training program. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2018-The purpose of this study was to assess the ability of multifrequency bioelectrical impedance analysis (MF-BIA) to determine alterations in total and segmental body composition across a 10-week resistance training (RT) program in comparison with the criterion reference dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA)...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Santiago Sanz-Quinto, Raúl López-Grueso, Gabriel Brizuela, Andrew A Flatt, Manuel Moya-Ramón
Sanz-Quinto, S, López-Grueso, R, Brizuela, G, Flatt, AA, and Moya-Ramón, M. Influence of training models at 3,900-m altitude on the physiological response and performance of a professional wheelchair athlete: A case study. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2018-This case study compared the effects of two training camps using flexible planning (FP) vs. inflexible planning (IP) at 3,860-m altitude on physiological and performance responses of an elite marathon wheelchair athlete with Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT)...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Bryce Dyer
Dyer, B. Insight into the development and competitiveness of male UK-based stand-up paddleboard flatwater distance racing from 2013 to 2017. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2018-An analysis of 2 stand-up paddleboard "distance" events was undertaken to investigate any change in their participation, racing behavior, and whether such events should be approached differently by practitioners. The completion time paddler-to-paddler gap was investigated as a means of assessing the performances in 2 flatwater distance events from 2013 to 2017...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Sheena C Ranade, Christian A Refakis, Aristides I Cruz, Kelly L Leddy, Lawrence Wells, John Todd Lawrence, Theodore J Ganley
BACKGROUND: Greater frequency and intensity level of sports participation may be contributing to an increasing incidence of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tears in skeletally immature athletes. Prior studies have assessed the functional outcomes of physeal-respecting ACL reconstruction in this patient population based on adult functional outcomes scoring systems; however, there is only sparse literature evaluating functional outcomes of this specific patient population. This study aimed to retrospectively evaluate a cohort of pediatric patients who had undergone all-epiphyseal ACL reconstruction (AEACLR) with a set of clinically validated, pediatric-specific patient-reported functional outcomes scores (PRFOS)...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Orthopedics
Xu Yan, Noam Dvir, Macsue Jacques, Luiz Cavalcante, Ioannis D Papadimitriou, Fiona Munson, Jujiao Kuang, Andrew P Garnham, Shanie Landen, Jia Li, Lannie O'Keefe, Oren Tirosh, David John Bishop, Sarah Voisin, Nir Eynon
Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE) is expressed in human skeletal muscle. The ACE I/D polymorphism has been associated with athletic performance in some studies. Studies suggested that the ACE I/D gene variant is associated with ACE enzyme content in the serum, and there is an interaction between ACE and Uncoupling Proteins 2 and 3 (UCP2, and UCP3). However, no studies have explored the effect of ACE I/D on ACE, UCP2 and UCP3 protein content in human skeletal muscle. Utilising the Gene SMART cohort (n=81), we investigated whether the ACE I/D gene variant is associated with ACE enzyme content in blood, and ACE, UCP2, and UCP3 protein content in skeletal muscle at baseline, and following a session of High-Intensity Interval Exercise (HIIE)...
June 21, 2018: Journal of Applied Physiology
Elizabeth Wellsandt, Matthew J Failla, Michael J Axe, Lynn Snyder-Mackler
BACKGROUND: Current practice patterns for the management of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury favor surgical reconstruction. However, long-term outcomes may not differ between patients completing operative and nonoperative treatment of ACL injury. Differences in outcomes between operative and nonoperative treatment of patients in the United States is largely unknown, as are outcomes in long-term strength and performance measures. PURPOSE: To determine if differences exist in 5-year functional and radiographic outcomes between patients completing operative and nonoperative treatment of ACL injury when both groups complete a progressive criterion-based rehabilitation protocol...
June 1, 2018: American Journal of Sports Medicine
Daniel Niederer, Tobias Engeroff, Jan Wilke, Lutz Vogt, Winfried Banzer
OBJECTIVES: A media-based collection and further analysis of relative return to play (RTP) rates and the corresponding quality of play after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rupture in top level football was the aim of our study. METHODS: In the 5-year case-control study, male players from the first two leagues of the five European countries top leagues, who sustained a total ACL rupture during the season 2010/11 and/or 2011/12, were included. For them and a matched control sample (ratio 1:2), data were retrieved from the publicly available and validated media-based platforms (transfermarkt...
June 21, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
Cheng Li, Binay Kumar Adhikari, Lu Gao, Shuai Zhang, Quan Liu, Yonggang Wang, Jian Sun
A number of performance-enhancing drugs (PEDs) are used illicitly to improve muscle strength by the bodybuilders. The misuse of these drugs is associated with serious adverse effects to different organs. A previously healthy 22-year-old male bodybuilder after taking stanozolol, clenbuterol, and triiodothyronine for 10 days presented to the hospital with symptoms of icteric sclera, progressive dyspnea, intermittent cough, and bloody sputum. He was diagnosed with dilated cardiomyopathy and acute hepatic injury...
June 1, 2018: American Journal of Men's Health
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