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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230158/persistent-neuronal-activity-in-anterior-cingulate-cortex-correlates-with-sustained-attention-in-rats-regardless-of-sensory-modality
#1
Dingcheng Wu, Hanfei Deng, Xiong Xiao, Yanfang Zuo, Jingjing Sun, Zuoren Wang
The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) has long been thought to regulate conflict between an object of attention and distractors during goal-directed sustained attention. However, it is unclear whether ACC serves to sustained attention itself. Here, we developed a task in which the time course of sustained attention could be controlled in rats. Then, using pharmacological lesion experiments, we employed it to assess function of ACC in sustained attention. We then recorded neuronal activity in ACC using multichannel extracellular recording techniques and identified specific ACC neurons persistently activated during the period of attention...
February 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229235/modulation-of-apoe-and-sorl1-genes-on-hippocampal-functional-connectivity-in-healthy-young-adults
#2
Junlin Shen, Wen Qin, Qiang Xu, Lixue Xu, Jiayuan Xu, Peng Zhang, Huaigui Liu, Bing Liu, Tianzi Jiang, Chunshui Yu
Apolipoprotein E (APOE) and sortilin-related receptor (SORL1) genes act on the same metabolic pathway and have been associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD) characterized by hippocampal impairment. Although the effects of APOE on hippocampal resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) have been reported, the main effects of SORL1 and SORL1 × APOE interactions on hippocampal rsFC in healthy subjects remain largely unknown. Here, we systematically investigated the main effects of SORL1 rs2070045, and APOE, and their interaction effects on hippocampal rsFC in healthy young adults...
February 22, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228584/high-cardiorespiratory-fitness-in-early-to-late-middle-age-preserves-the-cortical-circuitry-associated-with-brain-heart-integration-during-volitional-exercise
#3
Katelyn N Wood, Torri A Luchyshyn, J Kevin Shoemaker
This study tested the hypothesis that high cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2max) preserves the cortical circuitry associated with cardiac arousal during exercise in middle to older-aged individuals. Observations of changes in heart rate (HR) and in cortical blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) images were made in 52 healthy, active individuals (45-73 years; 16 female) across a range of fitness (26-66mL/kg/min). Seven repeated bouts of isometric handgrip (IHG) at 40% MVC force were performed using functional magnetic resonance imaging at 3-Tesla, with each contraction lasting 20 sec and separated by 40 sec of rest...
February 22, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227769/identifying-the-effects-of-visceral-interoception-on-human-brain-connectome-a-multivariate-analysis-of-covariance-of-fmri-data
#4
Behnaz Jarrahi, Dante Mantini, Behnaz Jarrahi, Dante Mantini, Behnaz Jarrahi, Dante Mantini
Sources of variations in the neural circuitry of the human brain and interrelationship between intrinsic connectivity networks (ICNs) are still a matter of debate and ongoing research. Here, we applied a multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) based on high-dimensional independent component analysis (ICA) to identify the effects of interoception and related variables on human brain connectome. Fifteen healthy right-handed subjects (all females, age range 21 - 48 years; mean age = 30.3, SD = 8.7 years) underwent a blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) that included continuous intravesical saline infusion and drainage...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227043/study-of-functional-brain-homogeneity-in-female-patients-with-major-depressive-disorder
#5
X Zhang, Y Tang, Y Zhu, Y Li, S Tong, X Zhang, Y Tang, Y Zhu, Y Li, S Tong, Y Li, Y Zhu, S Tong, X Zhang, Y Tang
Women are at a twofold higher risk of developing major depressive disorder (MDD) than that of men. However, the investigation of female MDD patients functional brain activity is rare and the detailed mechanism remains unclear. The present work is to explore the altered spontaneous neural activity measured with regional homogeneity (ReHo) in female MDD patients using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) technique. Twelve MDD females and twelve matched healthy participants were included in the study...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226305/effect-of-maternal-rumination-and-disengagement-during-childhood-on-offspring-neural-response-to-reward-in-late-adolescence
#6
Judith K Morgan, Daniel S Shaw, Rachel H Jacobs, Sarah E Romens, Stephanie L Sitnick, Erika E Forbes
Maternal rumination is a cognitive-affective trait that could influence offspring's ability to respond flexibly to positive and negative events, depending on the quality of maternal problem-solving behaviors with which rumination co-occurs. As reward circuitry is sensitive to stressors and related to risk for depression, reward circuitry is an appropriate candidate mechanism for how maternal characteristics influence offspring. We evaluated the independent and combined effect of maternal rumination and disengagement on adolescent neural response to reward win and loss...
February 11, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224080/brain-activation-to-task-irrelevant-disorder-related-threat-in-social-anxiety-disorder-the-impact-of-symptom-severity
#7
Carina Yvonne Heitmann, Katharina Feldker, Paula Neumeister, Leonie Brinkmann, Elisabeth Schrammen, Pienie Zwitserlood, Thomas Straube
Unintentional and uncontrollable processing of threat has been suggested to contribute to the pathology of social anxiety disorder (SAD). The present study investigated the neural correlates of processing task-irrelevant, highly ecologically valid, disorder-related stimuli as a function of symptom severity in SAD. Twenty-four SAD patients and 24 healthy controls (HC) performed a feature-based comparison task during functional magnetic resonance imaging, while task-irrelevant, disorder-related or neutral scenes were presented simultaneously at a different spatial position...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223812/resting-state-functional-connectivity-changes-within-the-default-mode-network-and-the-salience-network-after-antipsychotic-treatment-in-early-phase-schizophrenia
#8
Yingchan Wang, Weijun Tang, Xiaoduo Fan, Jianye Zhang, Daoying Geng, Kaida Jiang, Dianming Zhu, Zhenhua Song, Zeping Xiao, Dengtang Liu
OBJECTIVE: Abnormal resting-state functional connectivity (FC), particularly in the default mode network (DMN) and the salience network (SN), has been reported in schizophrenia, but little is known about the effects of antipsychotics on these networks. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of atypical antipsychotics on DMN and SN and the relationship between these effects and symptom improvement in patients with schizophrenia. METHODS: This was a prospective study of 33 patients diagnosed with schizophrenia and treated with antipsychotics at Shanghai Mental Health Center...
2017: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223484/rhythmic-brain-stimulation-reduces-anxiety-related-behavior-in-a-mouse-model-based-on-meditation-training
#9
Aldis P Weible, Denise M Piscopo, Mary K Rothbart, Michael I Posner, Cristopher M Niell
Meditation training induces changes at both the behavioral and neural levels. A month of meditation training can reduce self-reported anxiety and other dimensions of negative affect. It also can change white matter as measured by diffusion tensor imaging and increase resting-state midline frontal theta activity. The current study tests the hypothesis that imposing rhythms in the mouse anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), by using optogenetics to induce oscillations in activity, can produce behavioral changes. Mice were randomly assigned to groups and were given twenty 30-min sessions of light pulses delivered at 1, 8, or 40 Hz over 4 wk or were assigned to a no-laser control condition...
February 21, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223239/anterior-insula-signals-inequalities-in-a-modified-ultimatum-game
#10
Xuemei Cheng, Li Zheng, Lin Li, Yijie Zheng, Xiuyan Guo, Guang Yang
Studies employing the Ultimatum Game (UG) which involves two parties (i.e., proposers and responders) splitting some money have suggested the role that anterior insula (AI) plays in detecting fairness norm violation, i.e., violation of the responder's expectation of receiving equal splits from the proposer. In this study, we explored how AI would respond when there existed simultaneously another expectation of being treated equivalently as others. Participants acted as responders and would be informed about both the offers they received and the average amount of money the same proposer offered to others...
February 18, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222526/the-impact-of-alzheimer-s-disease-on-the-resting-state-functional-connectivity-of-brain-regions-modulating-pain-a-cross-sectional-study
#11
Todd B Monroe, Paul A Beach, Stephen P Bruehl, Mary S Dietrich, Baxter P Rogers, John C Gore, Sebastian W Atalla, Ronald L Cowan
BACKGROUND: It is currently unknown why people with Alzheimer's disease (AD) receive less pain medication and report pain less frequently. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of AD on thermal psychophysics and resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) among sensory, affective, descending modulatory, and default mode structures. METHODS: Controls (n = 23, 13 = female) and age-matched people with AD (n = 23, 13 = females) underwent psychophysical testing to rate perceptions of warmth, mild, and moderate pain and then completed resting-state fMRI...
February 7, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222355/neuroimaging-of-major-depression-in-parkinson-s-disease-cortical-thickness-cortical-and-subcortical-volume-and-spectroscopy-findings
#12
Marcos Hortes N Chagas, Vitor Tumas, Márcio A Pena-Pereira, João Paulo Machado-de-Sousa, Antonio Carlos Dos Santos, Rafael Faria Sanches, Jaime E C Hallak, José Alexandre S Crippa
Depression is the most common psychiatric disorder in Parkinson's disease (PD). The aim of this study was to compare PD patients with current Major Depressive Disorder (MDD), lifetime MDD, and no MDD using three neuroimaging techniques. A total of 43 PD patients were selected and divided into three groups: (i) current MDD (n = 15), (ii) previous MDD without current MDD (n = 10); and (iii) control group (no current or lifetime MDD; n = 18). All participants underwent magnetic resonance imaging to evaluate cortical thickness, cortical and subcortical volume, and spectroscopy in the bilateral putamen and cingulate cortex...
February 13, 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220867/other-regarding-attention-focus-modulates-third-party-altruistic-choice-an-fmri-study
#13
Bastian David, Yang Hu, Frank Krüger, Bernd Weber
Third-party altruistic decision-making has been shown to be modulated by other-regarding attention (e.g., focusing on the offender's crime or the victim's situation especially in judicial judgment). However, the neural mechanisms underlying this modulation remain poorly understood. In this fMRI study, participants voluntarily decided if they wanted to punish the first-party offender or help the second-party victim using their own monetary endowment in an unfair context. Particularly, before deciding they were asked to focus on the (un)fairness of the offender proposing the offer (offender-focused block, OB), the feeling of the victim receiving this offer (victim-focused block, VB), or without any specific focus (baseline block, BB)...
February 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220826/different-brain-structures-associated-with-artistic-and-scientific-creativity-a-voxel-based-morphometry-study
#14
Baoguo Shi, Xiaoqing Cao, Qunlin Chen, Kaixiang Zhuang, Jiang Qiu
Creativity is the ability to produce original and valuable ideas or behaviors. In real life, artistic and scientific creativity promoted the development of human civilization; however, to date, no studies have systematically investigated differences in the brain structures responsible for artistic and scientific creativity in a large sample. Using voxel-based morphometry (VBM), this study identified differences in regional gray matter volume (GMV) across the brain between artistic and scientific creativity (assessed by the Creative Achievement Questionnaire) in 356 young, healthy subjects...
February 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220797/elevated-choline-containing-compound-levels-in-rapid-cycling-bipolar-disorder
#15
Bo Cao, Jeffrey A Stanley, Ives Cavalcante Passos, Benson Mwangi, Sudhakar Selvaraj, Giovana B Zunta-Soares, Jair C Soares
Previous studies have found increased levels of choline-containing compounds [ie, glycerophosphocholine plus phosphocholine (GPC+PC)] in bipolar disorder using in vivo proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (¹H MRS), especially in bipolar I disorder (BD-I). Increased levels of GPC+PC suggest alterations in the membrane phospholipids metabolism in bipolar disorder. Rapid cycling (RC) bipolar disorder is considered as a severe course of bipolar disorder, but it is unclear whether rapid cycling bipolar disorder is linked to highly altered membrane phospholipid metabolism...
February 21, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220069/effects-of-selective-serotonin-reuptake-inhibitors-on-interregional-relation-of-serotonin-transporter-availability-in-major-depression
#16
Gregory M James, Pia Baldinger-Melich, Cecile Philippe, Georg S Kranz, Thomas Vanicek, Andreas Hahn, Gregor Gryglewski, Marius Hienert, Marie Spies, Tatjana Traub-Weidinger, Markus Mitterhauser, Wolfgang Wadsak, Marcus Hacker, Siegfried Kasper, Rupert Lanzenberger
Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) modulate serotonergic neurotransmission by blocking reuptake of serotonin from the extracellular space. Up to now, it remains unclear how SSRIs achieve their antidepressant effect. However, task-based and resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging studies, have demonstrated connectivity changes between brain regions. Here, we use positron emission tomography (PET) to quantify SSRI's main target, the serotonin transporter (SERT), and assess treatment-induced molecular changes in the interregional relation of SERT binding potential (BPND)...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215391/childhood-trauma-related-alterations-in-brain-function-during-a-theory-of-mind-task-in-schizophrenia
#17
Yann Quidé, Xin H Ong, Sebastian Mohnke, Knut Schnell, Henrik Walter, Vaughan J Carr, Melissa J Green
Childhood trauma is a risk factor for schizophrenia that affects brain functions associated with higher cognitive processes, including social cognition. Alterations in Theory-of-Mind (ToM), or mentalizing skills, are a hallmark feature of schizophrenia, and are also evident in individuals exposed to childhood trauma. However, the impact of childhood trauma exposure on brain function during social cognition in schizophrenia remains unclear. We thus examined the association between childhood trauma and brain function during the performance of a ToM task in 47 patients diagnosed with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder...
February 15, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213065/requiring-collaboration-hippocampal-prefrontal-networks-needed-in-spatial-working-memory-and-ageing-a-multivariate-analysis-approach
#18
C Zancada-Menendez, P Alvarez-Suarez, P Sampedro-Piquero, M Cuesta, A Begega
Ageing is characterized by a decline in the processes of retention and storage of spatial information. We have examined the behavioural performance of adult rats (3months old) and aged rats (18months old) in a spatial complex task (delayed match to sample). The spatial task was performed in the Morris water maze and consisted of three sessions per day over a period of three consecutive days. Each session consisted of two trials (one sample and retention) and inter-session intervals of 5min. Behavioural results showed that the spatial task was difficult for middle aged group...
February 14, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210783/a-neuroimaging-study-of-emotion-cognition-interaction-in-schizophrenia-the-effect-of-ziprasidone-treatment
#19
Emmanuel Stip, Adel Cherbal, David Luck, Simon Zhornitsky, Lahcen Ait Bentaleb, Ovidiu Lungu
Functional and structural brain changes associated with the cognitive processing of emotional visual stimuli were assessed in schizophrenic patients after 16 weeks of antipsychotic treatment with ziprasidone. Forty-five adults aged 18 to 40 were recruited: 15 schizophrenia patients (DSM-IV criteria) treated with ziprasidone (mean daily dose = 120 mg), 15 patients treated with other antipsychotics, and 15 healthy controls who did not receive any medication. Functional and structural neuroimaging data were acquired at baseline and 16 weeks after treatment initiation...
February 17, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207733/beyond-negative-valence-2-week-administration-of-a-serotonergic-antidepressant-enhances-both-reward-and-effort-learning-signals
#20
Jacqueline Scholl, Nils Kolling, Natalie Nelissen, Michael Browning, Matthew F S Rushworth, Catherine J Harmer
To make good decisions, humans need to learn about and integrate different sources of appetitive and aversive information. While serotonin has been linked to value-based decision-making, its role in learning is less clear, with acute manipulations often producing inconsistent results. Here, we show that when the effects of a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI, citalopram) are studied over longer timescales, learning is robustly improved. We measured brain activity with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in volunteers as they performed a concurrent appetitive (money) and aversive (effort) learning task...
February 2017: PLoS Biology
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