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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328739/effects-of-a-brief-cognitive-behavioural-therapy-group-intervention-on-baseline-brain-perfusion-in-adolescents-with-major-depressive-disorder
#1
Zrinka Sosic-Vasic, Birgit Abler, Georg Grön, Paul Plener, Joana Straub
A number of neuroimaging studies have identified altered regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) related to major depressive disorder (MDD) in adult samples, particularly in the lateral prefrontal, cingular and temporal regions. In contrast, neuroimaging investigations in adolescents with MDD are rare, although investigating young patients during a significant period of brain maturation might offer valuable insights into the neural mechanisms of MDD. We acquired perfusion images obtained with continuous arterial spin labelling in 21 medication-naive adolescents with MDD before and after a five-session cognitive behavioural group therapy (group CBT)...
March 21, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326934/activations-of-muscarinic-m1-receptors-in-the-anterior-cingulate-cortex-contribute-to-the-antinociceptive-effect-via-gabaergic-transmission
#2
Kohei Koga, Yu Matsuzaki, Kenji Honda, Fumihiro Eto, Tomonori Furukawa, Keisuke Migita, Keiichi Irie, Kenichi Mishima, Shinya Ueno
Background Cholinergic systems regulate the synaptic transmission resulting in the contribution of the nociceptive behaviors. Anterior cingulate cortex is a key cortical area to play roles in nociception and chronic pain. However, the effect of the activation of cholinergic system for nociception is still unknown in the cortical area. Here, we tested whether the activation of cholinergic receptors can regulate nociceptive behaviors in adult rat anterior cingulate cortex by integrative methods including behavior, immunohistochemical, and electrophysiological methods...
January 2017: Molecular Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326037/differences-on-brain-connectivity-in-adulthood-are-present-in-subjects-with-iron-deficiency-anemia-in-infancy
#3
Cecilia Algarin, Keerthana Deepti Karunakaran, Sussanne Reyes, Cristian Morales, Betsy Lozoff, Patricio Peirano, Bharat Biswal
Iron deficiency continues to be the most prevalent micronutrient deficit worldwide. Since iron is involved in several processes including myelination, dopamine neurotransmission and neuronal metabolism, the presence of iron deficiency anemia (IDA) in infancy relates to long-lasting neurofunctional effects. There is scarce data regarding whether these effects would extend to former iron deficient anemic human adults. Resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is a novel technique to explore patterns of functional connectivity...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325027/identifying-the-effects-of-visceral-interoception-on-human-brain-connectome-a-multivariate-analysis-of-covariance-of-fmri-data
#4
Behnaz Jarrahi, Dante Mantini
Sources of variations in the neural circuitry of the human brain and interrelationship between intrinsic connectivity networks (ICNs) are still a matter of debate and ongoing research. Here, we applied a multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) based on high-dimensional independent component analysis (ICA) to identify the effects of interoception and related variables on human brain connectome. Fifteen healthy right-handed subjects (all females, age range 21 - 48 years; mean age = 30.3, SD = 8.7 years) underwent a blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) that included continuous intravesical saline infusion and drainage...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324779/frontocingulate-cerebral-blood-flow-and-cerebrovascular-reactivity-associated-with-antidepressant-response-in-late-life-depression
#5
Margarita Abi Zeid Daou, Brian D Boyd, Manus J Donahue, Kimberly Albert, Warren D Taylor
BACKGROUND: Vascular pathology is common in late-life depression (LLD) and may contribute to alterations in cerebral blood flow (CBF) and cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR). In turn, such hemodynamic deficits may adversely affect brain function and clinical course. The goal of this study was to examine whether altered cerebral hemodynamics in depressed elders predicted antidepressant response. METHODS: 21 depressed elders completed cranial 3T MRI, including a pseudo-continuous Arterial Spin Labeling (pcASL) acquisition on both room air and during a hypercapnia challenge...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322427/the-neuronal-correlates-of-mirror-illusion-in-children-with-spastic-hemiparesis-a-study-with-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#6
Christian Weisstanner, Stefanie Saxer, Roland Wiest, Alain Kaelin-Lang, Christopher J Newman, Maja Steinlin, Sebastian Grunt
AIM: To investigate the neuronal activation pattern underlying the effects of mirror illusion in children/adolescents with normal motor development and in children/adolescents with hemiparesis and preserved contralateral corticospinal organisation. METHOD: The type of cortical reorganisation was classified according to results of transcranial magnetic stimulation. Only subjects with congenital lesions and physiological contralateral cortical reorganisation were included...
March 21, 2017: Swiss Medical Weekly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322275/oxidative-stress-driven-parvalbumin-interneuron-impairment-as-a-common-mechanism-in-models-of-schizophrenia
#7
P Steullet, J-H Cabungcal, J Coyle, M Didriksen, K Gill, A A Grace, T K Hensch, A-S LaMantia, L Lindemann, T M Maynard, U Meyer, H Morishita, P O'Donnell, M Puhl, M Cuenod, K Q Do
Parvalbumin inhibitory interneurons (PVIs) are crucial for maintaining proper excitatory/inhibitory balance and high-frequency neuronal synchronization. Their activity supports critical developmental trajectories, sensory and cognitive processing, and social behavior. Despite heterogeneity in the etiology across schizophrenia and autism spectrum disorder, PVI circuits are altered in these psychiatric disorders. Identifying mechanism(s) underlying PVI deficits is essential to establish treatments targeting in particular cognition...
March 21, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321973/cortical-and-subcortical-mechanisms-of-brain-machine-interfaces
#8
Silvia Marchesotti, Roberto Martuzzi, Aaron Schurger, Maria Laura Blefari, José R Del Millán, Hannes Bleuler, Olaf Blanke
Technical advances in the field of Brain-Machine Interfaces (BMIs) enable users to control a variety of external devices such as robotic arms, wheelchairs, virtual entities and communication systems through the decoding of brain signals in real time. Most BMI systems sample activity from restricted brain regions, typically the motor and premotor cortex, with limited spatial resolution. Despite the growing number of applications, the cortical and subcortical systems involved in BMI control are currently unknown at the whole-brain level...
March 21, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321945/quantitative-representations-of-an-exaggerated-anxiety-response-in-the-brain-of-female-spider-phobics-a-parametric-fmri-study
#9
Anna Zilverstand, Bettina Sorger, Anita Kaemingk, Rainer Goebel
We employed a novel parametric spider picture set in the context of a parametric fMRI anxiety provocation study, designed to tease apart brain regions involved in threat monitoring from regions representing an exaggerated anxiety response in spider phobics. For the stimulus set, we systematically manipulated perceived proximity of threat by varying a depicted spider's context, size, and posture. All stimuli were validated in a behavioral rating study (phobics n = 20; controls n = 20; all female). An independent group participated in a subsequent fMRI anxiety provocation study (phobics n = 7; controls n = 7; all female), in which we compared a whole-brain categorical to a whole-brain parametric analysis...
March 21, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321607/it-s-in-the-eye-of-the-beholder-selective-attention-to-drink-properties-during-tasting-influences-brain-activation-in-gustatory-and-reward-regions
#10
Inge van Rijn, Cees de Graaf, Paul A M Smeets
Statements regarding pleasantness, taste intensity or caloric content on a food label may influence the attention consumers pay to such characteristics during consumption. There is little research on the effects of selective attention on taste perception and associated brain activation in regular drinks. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of selective attention on hedonics, intensity and caloric content on brain responses during tasting drinks. Using functional MRI brain responses of 27 women were measured while they paid attention to the intensity, pleasantness or caloric content of fruit juice, tomato juice and water...
March 20, 2017: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320224/identification-of-common-neural-circuit-disruptions-in-cognitive-control-across-psychiatric-disorders
#11
Lisa M McTeague, Julia Huemer, David M Carreon, Ying Jiang, Simon B Eickhoff, Amit Etkin
OBJECTIVE: Cognitive deficits are a common feature of psychiatric disorders. The authors investigated the nature of disruptions in neural circuitry underlying cognitive control capacities across psychiatric disorders through a transdiagnostic neuroimaging meta-analysis. METHOD: A PubMed search was conducted for whole-brain functional neuroimaging articles published through June 2015 that compared activation in patients with axis I disorders and matched healthy control participants during cognitive control tasks...
March 21, 2017: American Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319879/how-can-we-explain-the-frontal-presentation-of-insular-lobe-epilepsy-the-impact-of-non-linear-analysis-of-insular-seizures
#12
Koichi Hagiwara, Julien Jung, Romain Bouet, Chifaou Abdallah, Marc Guénot, Luis Garcia-Larrea, François Mauguière, Sylvain Rheims, Jean Isnard
OBJECTIVE: For a decade it has been known that the insular lobe epilepsy can mimic frontal lobe epilepsy. We aimed to clarify the pattern of functional coupling occurring during the frontal presentation. METHODS: We analyzed five insular lobe epilepsy patients. Frontal semiology was predominant for three of them, whereas insular semiology was predominant for the two others. We applied the non-linear regression analysis to stereoelectroencephalography-recorded seizures...
February 13, 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318898/distribution-and-levels-of-5-ht1b-receptors-in-anterior-cingulate-cortex-of-patients-with-bipolar-disorder-major-depressive-disorder-and-schizophrenia-an-autoradiography-study
#13
Emma R Veldman, Marie M Svedberg, Per Svenningsson, Johan Lundberg
The serotonin 1B receptor has recently received more interest as a possible new target for pharmacological treatment of psychiatric disorders. However, the exact mechanisms of action remain unclear. This study aimed to examine the binding distribution and levels of the serotonin 1B receptor in-depth in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and provide more insight in its functional role in bipolar disorder (BD), major depressive disorder (MDD) and schizophrenia (SZ). Serotonin 1B receptor binding distribution was visualized with high resolution autoradiography (ARG), using the radioligand [(3)H]AZ10419369, in postmortem ACC tissue from patients diagnosed with BD (n=14), MDD (n=12), SZ (n=13) and healthy subjects (n=13)...
March 15, 2017: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318068/helicid-alleviates-pain-and-sleep-disturbances-in-a-neuropathic-pain-like-model-in-mice
#14
Meng-Qi Zhang, Tian-Xiao Wang, Rui Li, Zhi-Li Huang, Wu-Jian Han, Xiao-Chang Dai, Yi-Qun Wang
Natural helicid (4-formylphenyl-O-β-d-allopyranoside), a main active constituent from seeds of the Chinese herb Helicia nilagirica, has been reported to exert a sedative, analgesic and hypnotic effect, and is used clinically to treat neurasthenic syndrome, vascular headaches and trigeminal neuralgia. In the current study, mechanical allodynia tests, electroencephalograms, electromyogram recordings and c-Fos expression in neuropathic pain-like model mice of partial sciatic nerve ligation were used to investigate the effect of helicid on neuropathic pain and co-morbid insomnia...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Sleep Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316774/glutathione-metabolism-in-the-prefrontal-brain-of-adults-with-high-functioning-autism-spectrum-disorder-an-mrs-study
#15
Dominique Endres, Ludger Tebartz van Elst, Simon A Meyer, Bernd Feige, Kathrin Nickel, Anna Bubl, Andreas Riedel, Dieter Ebert, Thomas Lange, Volkmar Glauche, Monica Biscaldi, Alexandra Philipsen, Simon J Maier, Evgeniy Perlov
BACKGROUND: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disease characterized by difficulties in social communication, unusually restricted, repetitive behavior and interests, and specific abnormalities in language and perception. The precise etiology of ASD is still unknown and probably heterogeneous. In a subgroup of patients, toxic environmental exposure might lead to an imbalance between oxidative stress and anti-oxidant systems. Previous serum and postmortem studies measuring levels of glutathione (GSH), the main cellular free radical scavenger in the brain, have supported the hypothesis that this compound might play a role in the pathophysiology of autism...
2017: Molecular Autism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316567/distinct-functional-connectivities-predict-clinical-response-with-emotion-regulation-therapy
#16
REVIEW
David M Fresco, Amy K Roy, Samantha Adelsberg, Saren Seeley, Emmanuel García-Lesy, Conor Liston, Douglas S Mennin
Despite the success of available medical and psychosocial treatments, a sizable subgroup of individuals with commonly co-occurring disorders, generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and major depressive disorder (MDD), fail to make sufficient treatment gains thereby prolonging their deficits in life functioning and satisfaction. Clinically, these patients often display temperamental features reflecting heightened sensitivity to underlying motivational systems related to threat/safety and reward/loss (e.g., somatic anxiety) as well as inordinate negative self-referential processing (e...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316564/functional-circuitry-effect-of-ventral-tegmental-area-deep-brain-stimulation-imaging-and-neurochemical-evidence-of-mesocortical-and-mesolimbic-pathway-modulation
#17
Megan L Settell, Paola Testini, Shinho Cho, Jannifer H Lee, Charles D Blaha, Hang J Jo, Kendall H Lee, Hoon-Ki Min
Background: The ventral tegmental area (VTA), containing mesolimbic and mesocortical dopaminergic neurons, is implicated in processes involving reward, addiction, reinforcement, and learning, which are associated with a variety of neuropsychiatric disorders. Electrical stimulation of the VTA or the medial forebrain bundle and its projection target the nucleus accumbens (NAc) is reported to improve depressive symptoms in patients affected by severe, treatment-resistant major depressive disorder (MDD) and depressive-like symptoms in animal models of depression...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316248/assessing-the-impact-of-post-traumatic-stress-symptoms-on-resting-state-function-networks-in-a-military-chronic-mild-traumatic-brain-injury-sample
#18
Dominic E Nathan, Julie F Bellgowan, Louis M French, Jonathan P Wolf, Terry Oakes, Jeannine B Mielke, Elyssa B Sham, Wei Liu, Gerard Riedy
The relationship between post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and chronic symptoms of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is difficult to discern and poorly understood. An accurate differential diagnosis, assessment and treatment of mTBI and PTSD is challenging due to significant symptom overlap and the absence of clearly established biomarkers. The objective of this work is to examine how post traumatic stress influences task-free brain networks in chronic mTBI subjects. Control subjects (N=44) were compared with chronic mTBI subjects with low (N=58, PCLC total<30), medium (N=124, PCLC total = 31-49) and high (N=105, PCLC total ≥ 60) post traumatic stress symptoms (PTSS)...
March 19, 2017: Brain Connectivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315577/altered-functional-connectivity-in-brain-networks-underlying-self-referential-processing-in-delusions-of-reference-in-schizophrenia
#19
Sara Larivière, Katie M Lavigne, Todd S Woodward, Philip Gerretsen, Ariel Graff-Guerrero, Mahesh Menon
Delusions of reference in schizophrenia are thought to result from misattributions of self-relevance to neutral events. Activation of regions within the cortical midline structures (CMS; e.g., medial prefrontal cortex, cingulate cortex, and precuneus) have been previously associated with self-referential processing in schizophrenia patients; however, the specificity of this pattern to individuals with current delusions of reference has yet to be determined. In the present study, we identified functional brain networks that underlie self-referential processing using task-based multivariate functional connectivity...
March 9, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315366/amygdala-functional-connectivity-is-associated-with-locus-of-control-in-the-context-of-cognitive-aging
#20
Ping Ren, Mia Anthony, Benjamin P Chapman, Kathi Heffner, Feng Lin
Locus of control (LOC) measures the extent to which individuals perceive control over their lives. Those with a more "internal" LOC feel self-sufficient and able to determine important aspects of their own future, while those with a more "external" LOC feel that their lives are governed by events beyond their control. Reduced internal LOC and increased external LOC have been found in cognitive disorders, but the neural substrates of these control perceptions are yet unknown. In the present study, we explored the relationship between amygdala functional connectivity and LOC in 18 amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and age-, sex-, and education-matched, 22 cognitively healthy controls (HC)...
March 14, 2017: Neuropsychologia
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