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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145203/evaluation-of-mental-disorders-using-proton-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy-in-dialysis-and-predialysis-patients
#1
Chun-Yun Zhang, Ying Chen, Shan Chen, Xiang-Chuang Kong, Yuan Liu, Chao-Qun You, Cheng Wan, Philip A Bondzie, Hua Su, Chun Zhang, Fang-Fang He
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Psychological complications are prevalent in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). This study aimed to investigate mental disorders in stage 4-5 CKD patients, to detect metabolite concentrations in the brain by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) and to compare the effects of different dialysis therapies on mental disorders in end-stage renal disease (ESRD). METHODS: The sample population was made up of predialysis (13), hemodialysis (HD) (13), and peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients (12)...
November 21, 2017: Kidney & Blood Pressure Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143702/association-between-altered-neurochemical-metabolites-and-apathy-in-patients-with-alzheimer-s-disease
#2
Yi-Chun Yeh, Chun-Wei Li, Yu-Ting Kuo, Mei-Feng Huang, Tai-Ling Liu, Twei-Shiun Jaw, Yi-Hsin Yang, Kuang-Che Kuo, Cheng-Sheng Chen
BACKGROUND: Apathy is a condition characterized by a lack of motivation that manifests in emotional, behavioral, and cognitive domains. Although previous studies have indicated that apathy is associated with frontal lesions, few studies have focused on the different subdomains of apathy, and no in vivo human biochemical data have been obtained to examine the neurochemical changes related to apathy in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Thus, we investigated the frontal neurochemical alterations related to apathy among patients with AD using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H MRS)...
November 16, 2017: International Psychogeriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141002/correlates-of-decisional-dynamics-in-the-dorsal-anterior-cingulate-cortex
#3
Habiba Azab, Benjamin Y Hayden
We hypothesized that during binary economic choice, decision makers use the first option they attend as a default to which they compare the second. To test this idea, we recorded activity of neurons in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) of macaques choosing between gambles presented asynchronously. We find that ensemble encoding of the value of the first offer includes both choice-dependent and choice-independent aspects, as if reflecting a partial decision. That is, its responses are neither entirely pre- nor post-decisional...
November 15, 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137828/differentiating-between-clinical-and-behavioral-phenotypes-in-first-episode-psychosis-during-maintenance-of-visuospatial-working-memory
#4
Maria Jalbrzikowski, Vishnu P Murty, Patricia L Stan, Jusmita Saifullan, Daniel Simmonds, William Foran, Beatriz Luna
INTRODUCTION: We probed the neural basis of working memory in individuals with first episode of psychosis (FEP) and assessed how these neural abnormalities are associated with behavioral performance and/or core to psychosis pathophysiology. METHODS: FEP (N=35) and matched controls (N=25) performed a visuospatial working memory task during fMRI acquisition. We isolated neural activity during the maintenance period and examined neural activity within regions typically engaged during a working memory task...
November 11, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137445/altered-resting-state-functional-activity-in-isolated-pontine-infarction-patients-with-pathological-laughing-and-crying
#5
Tao Liu, Jianjun Li, Shixiong Huang, Changqinq Li, Zhongyan Zhao, Guoqiang Wen, Feng Chen
We used resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate the global spontaneous neural activity involved in pathological laughing and crying after stroke. Twelve pathological laughing and crying patients with isolated pontine infarction were included, along with 12 age- and gender-matched acute isolated pontine infarction patients without pathological laughing and crying, and 12 age- and gender-matched healthy controls. We examined both the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation and the regional homogeneity in order to comprehensively evaluate the intrinsic activity in patients with post-stroke pathological laughing and crying...
October 13, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136106/cell-type-specific-burst-firing-interacts-with-theta-and-beta-activity-in-prefrontal-cortex-during-attention-states
#6
B Voloh, T Womelsdorf
Population-level theta and beta band activity in anterior cingulate and prefrontal cortices (ACC/PFC) are prominent signatures of self-controlled, adaptive behaviors. But how these rhythmic activities are linked to cell-type specific activity has remained unclear. Here, we suggest such a cell-to-systems level linkage. We found that the rate of burst spiking events is enhanced particularly during attention states and that attention-specific burst spikes have a unique temporal relationship to local theta and beta band population-level activities...
November 9, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135806/fluid-intelligence-relates-to-the-resting-state-amplitude-of-low-frequency-fluctuation-and-functional-connectivity-a-multivariate-pattern-analysis
#7
Changjun Li, Guocheng Yang, Meiling Li, Bo Li
The goal of this study was to investigate the relationship between fluid intelligence (gF) and the pattern of the functional characteristics in the resting state in adults using multivariate pattern analysis. Resting-state functional images from 100 participants in the Human Connectome Project data set were analyzed. The amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF) was first calculated, and a support vector regression approach was used to identify the association with gF. To discover whether the connectivity of the gF-associated areas was also related to gF, we further checked the seed-based functional connectivity using the seeds from the ALFF...
November 13, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135273/-neuroscience-of-mental-flexibility
#8
Zoltán Janka
Mental flexibility enabling shifts from the usual prepotent behaviour to new strategies and solutions is a significant factor in the successful adaptation to the changing environment. Components of mental flexibility comprise attention, salience detection, inhibition, working memory and switch processes which can be measured by neurocognitive tests. Data derived from examinations by the methods of cognitive neuroscience can be compared to the features, observed under resting state and during task performance, of brain structures and functions...
November 2017: Orvosi Hetilap
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132089/neural-effects-of-environmental-advertising-an-fmri-analysis-of-voice-age-and-temporal-framing
#9
Luis-Alberto Casado-Aranda, Myriam Martínez-Fiestas, Juan Sánchez-Fernández
Ecological information offered to society through advertising enhances awareness of environmental issues, encourages development of sustainable attitudes and intentions, and can even alter behavior. This paper, by means of functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) and self-reports, explores the underlying mechanisms of processing ecological messages. The study specifically examines brain and behavioral responses to persuasive ecological messages that differ in temporal framing and in the age of the voice pronouncing them...
November 10, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131982/multimodal-mri-quantification-of-the-common-neurostructural-bases-within-the-ftd-als-continuum
#10
Chiara Crespi, Alessandra Dodich, Stefano F Cappa, Nicola Canessa, Sandro Iannaccone, Massimo Corbo, Christian Lunetta, Andrea Falini, Chiara Cerami
The continuum hypothesis linking the behavioral variant of frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is supported by clinical, pathological, genetic, and neuroimaging evidence. In the present multimodal magnetic resonance study, we characterized the site and extent of shared neurostructural changes in gray and white matter in 20 bvFTD and 19 ALS patients without dementia. We found an overlap of macrostructural and microstructural damage in both patient groups compared with healthy controls, involving the right orbital and the bilateral anterior cingulate cortices, the corticospinal tract and corpus callosum...
September 28, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131745/ventrolateral-prefrontal-cortex-updates-chosen-value-according-to-choice-set-size
#11
Juri Fujiwara, Nobuo Usui, Satoshi Eifuku, Toshio Iijima, Masato Taira, Ken-Ichiro Tsutsui, Philippe N Tobler
Having chosen an item typically increases the subjective value of the chosen item, and people generally enjoy making choices from larger choice sets. However, having too many items to choose from can reduce the value of chosen items, for example, because of conflict or choice difficulty. In this study, we investigated the effects of choice set size on behavioral and neural value updating (revaluation) of the chosen item. In the scanner, participants selected items from choice sets of various sizes (one, two, four, or eight items)...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131512/the-role-of-the-anterior-cingulate-cortex-in-prediction-error-and-signaling-surprise
#12
William H Alexander, Joshua W Brown
In the past two decades, reinforcement learning (RL) has become a popular framework for understanding brain function. A key component of RL models, prediction error, has been associated with neural signals throughout the brain, including subcortical nuclei, primary sensory cortices, and prefrontal cortex. Depending on the location in which activity is observed, the functional interpretation of prediction error may change: Prediction errors may reflect a discrepancy in the anticipated and actual value of reward, a signal indicating the salience or novelty of a stimulus, and many other interpretations...
November 13, 2017: Topics in Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130404/differences-in-neural-pathways-are-related-to-the-short-or-long-term-benefits-of-constraint-induced-movement-therapy-in-patients-with-chronic-stroke-and-hemiparesis-a-pilot-cohort-study
#13
Takashi Takebayashi, Kohei Marumoto, Kayoko Takahashi, Kazuhisa Domen
Background No previous studies have determined how the post-stroke integrity of non-corticospinal neural pathways relates to the efficacy of constraint-induced movement therapy (CIMT). Objectives We aimed to clarify the relationship between several non-corticospinal neural pathway integrities and the short- and long-term benefits of CIMT. Methods This was a pilot cohort study (UMIN registration number: R00027136UMIN000023566), for which we enrolled 13 patients with chronic stroke and hemiparesis who had undergone CIMT...
November 13, 2017: Topics in Stroke Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129925/the-neural-basis-of-homeostatic-and-anticipatory-thirst
#14
REVIEW
Claire Gizowski, Charles W Bourque
Water intake is one of the most basic physiological responses and is essential to sustain life. The perception of thirst has a critical role in controlling body fluid homeostasis and if neglected or dysregulated can lead to life-threatening pathologies. Clear evidence suggests that the perception of thirst occurs in higher-order centres, such as the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and insular cortex (IC), which receive information from midline thalamic relay nuclei. Multiple brain regions, notably circumventricular organs such as the organum vasculosum lamina terminalis (OVLT) and subfornical organ (SFO), monitor changes in blood osmolality, solute load and hormone circulation and are thought to orchestrate appropriate responses to maintain extracellular fluid near ideal set points by engaging the medial thalamic-ACC/IC network...
November 13, 2017: Nature Reviews. Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128522/biological-evidence-for-attention-bias-to-food-emotional-dysregulation-disinhibition-and-deficient-somatosensory-awareness-in-obesity-with-binge-eating-disorder
#15
Roni Aviram-Friedman, Nerys Astbury, Christopher N Ochner, Isobel Contento, Allan Geliebter
OBJECTIVES: To refine the biobehavioral markers of binge eating disorder (BED). METHODS: We conducted fMRI brain scans using images of high energy processed food (HEPF), low energy unprocessed food (LEUF), or non-foods (NF) in 42 adults (obese with BED [obese -BED; n=13] and obese with no BED [obese non-BED; n=29]) selected via ads. Two blood oxygenated level dependent (BOLD) signal contrast maps were examined: food versus nonfood, and HEPF versus LEUF. In addition, score differences on the disinhibition scale were correlated with BOLD signals...
November 8, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128142/longitudinal-effects-of-cognitive-behavioral-therapy-for-depression-on-the-neural-correlates-of-emotion-regulation
#16
Harry Rubin-Falcone, Jochen Weber, Ronit Kishon, Kevin Ochsner, Lauren Delaparte, Bruce Doré, Francesca Zanderigo, Maria A Oquendo, J John Mann, Jeffrey M Miller
Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is effective for a substantial minority of patients suffering from major depressive disorder (MDD), but its mechanism of action at the neural level is not known. As core techniques of CBT seek to enhance emotion regulation, we scanned 31 MDD participants prior to 14 sessions of CBT using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and a task in which participants engaged in a voluntary emotion regulation strategy while recalling negative autobiographical memories. Eighteen healthy controls were also scanned...
November 8, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127718/-frontal-eye-field-in-prosimian-galagos-intracortical-microstimulation-and-tracing-studies
#17
Iwona Stepniewska, Pierre Pouget, Jon H Kaas
The frontal eye field (FEF) in prosimian primates was identified as a small cortical region, above and anterior to the anterior frontal sulcus, from which saccadic eye movements were evoked with electrical stimulation. Tracer injections revealed FEF connections with cortical and subcortical structures participating in higher order visual processing. Ipsilateral cortical connections were the densest with adjoining parts of the dorsal premotor and prefrontal cortex (PFC). Label in a region corresponding to supplementary eye field (SEF) of other primates, suggests the existence of SEF in galagos...
November 11, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127026/resource-forecasting-differential-effects-of-glucose-taste-and-ingestion-on-delay-discounting-and-self-control
#18
X T Wang, Ryan N Reed, Lee A Baugh, Kelene A Fercho
We tested a novel hypothesis that glucose taste acts as a signal for resource acquisition, motivating preference for immediate rewards while actual glucose ingestion prompts resource conservation, promoting future-orientated self-regulation. In Study 1, participants were engaged in a delay-discounting task and a grip-control task before and after a beverage intervention (glucose drink, water drink, or glucose mouth-rinse). Glucose ingestion decreased delay discounting, making larger-and-later rewards more attractive...
November 7, 2017: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126813/automated-immunohistochemical-method-to-analyze-large-areas-of-the-human-cortex
#19
Mohamad Abbass, Kathleen Trought, David Long, Anton Semechko, Albert H C Wong
BACKGROUND: There have been inconsistencies in the histological abnormalities found in the cerebral cortex from patients with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and major depression. Discrepancies in previously published reports may arise from small sample sizes, inconsistent methodology and biased cell counting. New METHOD: We applied automated quantification of neuron density, neuron size and cortical layer thickness in vast regions of human cortex in psychiatric patients. This method accurately segments DAPI positive cells that are also stained with CUX2 and FEZF2...
November 7, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126210/the-functional-role-of-ventral-anterior-cingulate-cortex-in-social-evaluation-disentangling-valence-from-subjectively-rewarding-opportunities
#20
Anastasia E Rigney, Jessica E Koski, Jennifer S Beer
Despite robust associations between the ventral anterior cingulate cortex (vACC) and social evaluation, the role of vACC in social evaluation remains poorly understood. Two hypotheses have emerged from existing research: detection of positive valence and detection of opportunities for subjective reward. It has been difficult to understand whether one or both hypotheses are supported because previous research conflated positive valence with subjective reward. Therefore, the current fMRI study drew on a social evaluation paradigm that disentangled positive valence and subjective reward...
November 6, 2017: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
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