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Anterior cingulate

Zhi Dou, Xueyi Zhang, Liqiang Yang, Wanqian Wang, Na Li, Zhicheng Liu, Jiaxiang Ni
We used resting-state fMRI to investigate regional homogeneity (ReHo) changes in patients with TN before and after PRT procedure, and to speculate about its possible mechanisms.Thirty-one TN patients underwent the PRT procedure had MRI scans just before and 6 months after surgery. The anatomical and resting-state functional images were all acquired. Patients' visual analog scales (VAS) scores, facial numbness, and disease duration were also recorded. Voxel-wise ReHo analysis was performed to detect the altered regional clusters after surgery...
October 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Christoph Scherfler, Alois Josef Schiefecker, Margarete Delazer, Ronny Beer, Thomas Bodner, Georg Spinka, Mario Kofler, Bettina Pfausler, Christian Kremser, Michael Schocke, Thomas Benke, Elke R Gizewski, Erich Schmutzhard, Raimund Helbok
OBJECTIVE: MRI parameters of iron concentration (R2*, transverse relaxation rate), microstructural integrity (mean diffusivity and fractional anisotropy), as well as gray and white matter volumes were analyzed in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) and uncomplicated clinical course to detect the evolution of brain tissue changes 3 weeks and 12 months after ictus. METHODS: MRI scans of 14 SAH patients (aneurysm of the anterior communicating artery, n = 5; no aneurysm n = 9) were compared with 14 age-matched healthy control subjects...
October 2016: Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology
Xu Li, Zhi Li, Ke Li, Ya-Wei Zeng, Hai-Song Shi, Wen-Lan Xie, Zhuo-Ya Yang, Simon S Y Lui, Eric F C Cheung, Ada W S Leung, Raymond C K Chan
Anhedonia, the diminished ability to experience pleasure, is a challenging negative symptom in patients with schizophrenia and can be observed in at-risk individuals with schizotypy. Deficits in hedonic processing have been postulated to be related to decreased motivation to engage in potentially rewarding events. It remains unclear whether non-pharmacological interventions, such as cognitive training, could improve anhedonia. The present study aimed to examine the neural mechanism for alleviating hedonic deficits with working memory (WM) training in individuals with social anhedonia...
October 18, 2016: Scientific Reports
Siyu Zhang, Min Xu, Wei-Cheng Chang, Chenyan Ma, Johnny Phong Hoang Do, Daniel Jeong, Tiffany Lei, Jiang Lan Fan, Yang Dan
Long-range projections from the frontal cortex are known to modulate sensory processing in multiple modalities. Although the mouse has become an increasingly important animal model for studying the circuit basis of behavior, the functional organization of its frontal cortical long-range connectivity remains poorly characterized. Here we used virus-assisted circuit mapping to identify the brain networks for top-down modulation of visual, somatosensory and auditory processing. The visual cortex is reciprocally connected to the anterior cingulate area, whereas the somatosensory and auditory cortices are connected to the primary and secondary motor cortices...
October 17, 2016: Nature Neuroscience
D Lelic, I W D Fischer, A E Olesen, C D Mørch, F G Arguissain, J A B Manresa, A Dahan, A M Drewes
Severe pain is often treated with opioids. Antidepressants that inhibit serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake (SNRI) have also shown a pain relieving effect, but for both SNRI and opioids the specific mode of action in humans remains vague. This study investigated how oxycodone and venlafaxine affect spinal and supraspinal pain processing. Twenty volunteers were included in this randomized cross-over study comparing five-day treatment with venlafaxine, oxycodone and placebo. As a proxy of the spinal pain transmission, the nociceptive withdrawal reflex (NWR) to electrical stimulation on the sole of the foot was recorded at the tibialis anterior muscle before and after five days of treatment...
October 17, 2016: European Journal of Neuroscience
Maria M Piñango, Emily Finn, Cheryl Lacadie, R Todd Constable
In the sentence "The captain who the sailor greeted is tall," the connection between the relative pronoun and the object position of greeted represents a long-distance dependency (LDD), necessary for the interpretation of "the captain" as the individual being greeted. Whereas the lesion-based record shows preferential involvement of only the left inferior frontal (LIF) cortex, associated with Broca's aphasia, during real-time comprehension of LDDs, the neuroimaging record shows additional involvement of the left posterior superior temporal (LPST) and lower parietal cortices, which are associated with Wernicke's aphasia...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Stefan Elmer
Until now, several branches of research have fundamentally contributed to a better understanding of the ramifications of bilingualism, multilingualism, and language expertise on psycholinguistic-, cognitive-, and neural implications. In this context, it is noteworthy to mention that from a cognitive perspective, there is a strong convergence of data pointing to an influence of multilingual speech competence on a variety of cognitive functions, including attention, short-term- and working memory, set shifting, switching, and inhibition...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Vani A Mathur, Massieh Moayedi, Michael L Keaser, Shariq A Khan, Catherine S Hubbard, Madhav Goyal, David A Seminowicz
Migraine is a pain disorder associated with abnormal brain structure and function, yet the effect of migraine on acute pain processing remains unclear. It also remains unclear whether altered pain-related brain responses and related structural changes are associated with clinical migraine characteristics. Using fMRI and three levels of thermal stimuli (non-painful, mildly painful, and moderately painful), we compared whole-brain activity between 14 migraine patients and 14 matched controls. Although, there were no significant differences in pain thresholds nor in pre-scan pain ratings to mildly painful thermal stimuli, patients did have aberrant suprathreshold nociceptive processing...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Rachel D Freed, Barbara J Coffey, Xiangling Mao, Nora Weiduschat, Guoxin Kang, Dikoma C Shungu, Vilma Gabbay
BACKGROUND: γ-Aminobutyric acid has been implicated in the pathophysiology of Tourette's disorder. The present study primarily sought to examine in vivo γ-aminobutyric acid levels in the anterior cingulate cortex in psychotropic medication-free adolescents and young adults. Secondarily, we sought to determine associations between γ-aminobutyric acid in the anterior cingulate cortex and measures of tic severity, tic-related impairment, and anxiety and depression symptoms. METHODS: γ-Aminobutyric acid levels were measured using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy...
September 12, 2016: Pediatric Neurology
Witold X Chmielewski, Christian Beste
In everyday life successful acting often requires to inhibit automatic responses that might not be appropriate in the current situation. These response inhibition processes have been shown to become aggravated with increasing automaticity of pre-potent response tendencies. Likewise, it has been shown that inhibitory processes are complicated by a concurrent engagement in additional cognitive control processes (e.g. conflicting monitoring). Therefore, opposing processes (i.e. automaticity and cognitive control) seem to strongly impact response inhibition...
October 11, 2016: NeuroImage
T Y Brumback, Matthew Worley, Tam T Nguyen-Louie, Lindsay M Squeglia, Joanna Jacobus, Susan F Tapert
Adolescence is a period marked by increases in risk taking, sensation seeking, and emotion dysregulation. Neurobiological models of adolescent development propose that lagging development in brain regions associated with affect and behavior control compared to regions associated with reward and emotion processing may underlie these behavioral manifestations. Cross-sectional studies have identified several functional brain networks that may contribute to risk for substance use and psychopathology in adolescents...
November 2016: Development and Psychopathology
Peng Liu, Yanfei Liu, Geliang Wang, Xuejuan Yang, Lingmin Jin, Jinbo Sun, Wei Qin
Primary dysmenorrhea (PDM), characterized by cramping pain in the lower abdomen, is a common gynecological disorder in women of child-bearing age. An increasing number of neuroimaging studies have emphasized that PDM is associated with functional and structural abnormalities in the regions related to the default mode network (DMN). Based on resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), the aim of this study was to use amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF) and functional connectivity (FC) to investigate changes of the intrinsic brain activity in the DMN in PDM...
October 13, 2016: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Dana van Son, Reinout W Wiers, Andrés Catena, Miguel Perez-Garcia, Antonio Verdejo-García
BACKGROUND: Cocaine dependence has been associated with alterations in the brain's white matter integrity, yet relevant questions remain about what alterations are linked to cocaine use and/or polysubstance use, and whether they are amenable to abstinence. METHODS: This study applied a single measurement session of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to examine white matter structure in male cocaine polysubstance users (n=37) versus male healthy controls (n=38), along with correlations between DTI measures and patterns of polysubstance use and duration of abstinence...
October 6, 2016: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
O K Savushkina, E B Tereshkina, T A Prokhorova, E A Vorob'eva, I S Boksha, G Sh Burbaeva
AIM: To compare patterns of brain isoform creatine phosphokinase (CPK B) distributions in post-mortem brain from patients with schizophrenia (Sch) and patients with somatic diseases (controls). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Extracts of readily soluble and membrane-associated proteins were prepared from post-mortem samples of prefrontal cortex (Brodmann area 10), anterior (area 24) and posterior (area 23) cingulate cortex, hippocampus and cerebellum cortex from patients with Sch and control group (the samples were matched by age and postmortem interval)...
2016: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
Dong V Wang, Satoshi Ikemoto
: Hippocampal-cortical interaction during sleep promotes transformation of memory for long-term storage in the cortex. In particular, hippocampal sharp-wave ripple-associated neural activation is important for this transformation during slow-wave sleep. The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) has been shown to be crucial for expression and likely storage of long-term memory. However, little is known about how ACC activity is influenced by hippocampal ripple activity during sleep. We report here about coordinated interactions between hippocampal ripple activity and ACC neural firings...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Catherine Preston, H Henrik Ehrsson
In today's Western society, concerns regarding body size and negative feelings toward one's body are all too common. However, little is known about the neural mechanisms underlying negative feelings toward the body and how they relate to body perception and eating-disorder pathology. Here, we used multisensory illusions to elicit illusory ownership of obese and slim bodies during functional magnetic resonance imaging. The results implicate the anterior insula and the anterior cingulate cortex in the development of negative feelings toward the body through functional interactions with the posterior parietal cortex, which mediates perceived obesity...
October 12, 2016: Cerebral Cortex
Amir M Arain, Nabil J Azar, Andre H Lagrange, Michael McLean, Pradumna Singh, Hasan Sonmezturk, Peter Konrad, Joseph Neimat, Bassel Abou-Khalil
RATIONALE: Hypermotor seizures are most often reported from the frontal lobe but may also have temporal, parietal, or insular origin. We noted a higher proportion of patients with temporal lobe epilepsy in our surgical cohort who had hypermotor seizures. We evaluated the anatomic localization and surgical outcome in patient with refractory hypermotor seizures who had epilepsy surgery in our center. METHODS: We identified twenty three patients with refractory hypermotor seizures from our epilepsy surgery database...
October 9, 2016: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
Bing Cao, Jun Wang, Mahadi Shahed, Beth Jelfs, Rosa H M Chan, Ying Li
Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) can enhance memory and cognitive functions in both rats and humans. Studies have shown that VNS influenced decision-making in epileptic patients. However, the sites of action involved in the cognitive-enhancement are poorly understood. By employing a conscious rat model equipped with vagus nerve cuff electrode, we assess the role of chronic VNS on decision-making in rat gambling task (RGT). Simultaneous multichannel-recordings offer an ideal setup to test the hypothesis that VNS may induce alterations of in both spike-field-coherence and synchronization of theta oscillations across brain areas in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and basolateral amygdala (BLA)...
October 12, 2016: Scientific Reports
Daihong Liu, Shanshan Duan, Jiuquan Zhang, Chaoyang Zhou, Minglong Liang, Xuntao Yin, Ping Wei, Jian Wang
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has been associated with cognitive impairment. However, its neurological mechanism remains elusive. Combining regional homogeneity (ReHo) and functional connectivity (FC) analyses, the present study aimed to investigate brain functional alterations in middle-aged T2DM patients, which could provide complementary information for the neural substrates underlying T2DM-associated brain dysfunction. Twenty-five T2DM patients and 25 healthy controls were involved in neuropsychological testing and structural and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) data acquisition...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Sebastian Walther, Lea Schäppi, Andrea Federspiel, Stephan Bohlhalter, Roland Wiest, Werner Strik, Katharina Stegmayer
Catatonia is a psychomotor syndrome that not only frequently occurs in the context of schizophrenia but also in other conditions. The neural correlates of catatonia remain unclear due to small-sized studies. We therefore compared resting-state cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and gray matter (GM) density between schizophrenia patients with current catatonia and without catatonia and healthy controls. We included 42 schizophrenia patients and 41 controls. Catatonia was currently present in 15 patients (scoring >2 items on the Bush Francis Catatonia Rating Scale screening)...
October 11, 2016: Schizophrenia Bulletin
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