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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441408/short-term-internet-search-using-makes-people-rely-on-search-engines-when-facing-unknown-issues
#1
Yifan Wang, Lingdan Wu, Liang Luo, Yifen Zhang, Guangheng Dong
The Internet search engines, which have powerful search/sort functions and ease of use features, have become an indispensable tool for many individuals. The current study is to test whether the short-term Internet search training can make people more dependent on it. Thirty-one subjects out of forty subjects completed the search training study which included a pre-test, a six-day's training of Internet search, and a post-test. During the pre- and post- tests, subjects were asked to search online the answers to 40 unusual questions, remember the answers and recall them in the scanner...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439672/altered-intra-and-interregional-synchronization-in-the-absence-of-the-corpus-callosum-a-resting-state-fmri-study
#2
Long Zuo, Shuangkun Wang, Junliang Yuan, Hua Gu, Yang Zhou, Tao Jiang
Agenesis of the corpus callosum (AgCC) can result in subtle to severe cognitive deficits. Individuals with impaired cognition often show abnormalities on resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI). This study used rs-fMRI to investigate changes in regional homogeneity (ReHo) and functional connectivity (FC) among individuals with AgCC. AgCC individuals (n = 10) and age-, sex-, and education-matched healthy control subjects (n = 19) were included in this study. The ReHo values were calculated to represent spontaneous brain activity...
April 24, 2017: Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436342/comparison-of-neural-substrates-of-temporal-discounting-between-youth-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-and-with-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#3
C O Carlisi, L Norman, C M Murphy, A Christakou, K Chantiluke, V Giampietro, A Simmons, M Brammer, D G Murphy, D Mataix-Cols, K Rubia
BACKGROUND: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) share abnormalities in hot executive functions such as reward-based decision-making, as measured in the temporal discounting task (TD). No studies, however, have directly compared these disorders to investigate common/distinct neural profiles underlying such abnormalities. We wanted to test whether reward-based decision-making is a shared transdiagnostic feature of both disorders with similar neurofunctional substrates or whether it is a shared phenotype with disorder-differential neurofunctional underpinnings...
April 24, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435932/default-mode-network-subsystems-are-differentially-disrupted-in-posttraumatic-stress-disorder
#4
Danielle R Miller, Scott M Hayes, Jasmeet P Hayes, Jeffrey M Spielberg, Ginette Lafleche, Mieke Verfaellie
BACKGROUND: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a psychiatric disorder characterized by debilitating re-experiencing, avoidance, and hyperarousal symptoms following trauma exposure. Recent evidence suggests that individuals with PTSD show disrupted functional connectivity in the default mode network, an intrinsic network that consists of a midline core, a medial temporal lobe (MTL) subsystem, and a dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (dMPFC) subsystem. The present study examined whether functional connectivity in these subsystems is differentially disrupted in PTSD...
January 13, 2017: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435083/subchronic-glucocorticoids-glutathione-depletion-and-a-postpartum-model-elevate-monoamine-oxidase-a-activity-in-the-prefrontal-cortex-of-rats
#5
Sofia Raitsin, Junchao Tong, Stephen Kish, Xin Xu, Lilia Magomedova, Carolyn Cummins, Ana C Andreazza, Gustavo Scola, Glen Baker, Jeffrey H Meyer
Recent human brain imaging studies implicate dysregulation of monoamine oxidase-A (MAO-A), in particular in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), in the development of major depressive disorder (MDD). This study investigates the influence of four alterations underlying important pathologies of MDD, namely, chronic elevation of glucocorticoid levels, glutathione depletion, changes in female gonadal sex hormones and serotonin concentration fluctuation, on MAO-A and MAO-B activity in rats...
April 20, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434708/dual-phase-18-f-florbetapir-positron-emission-tomography-in-patients-with-primary-progressive-aphasia-alzheimer-s-disease-and-healthy-controls-a-preliminary-study
#6
Hung-Chou Kuo, Ing-Tsung Hsiao, Chia-Ju Hsieh, Chu-Yun Huang, Kuo-Lun Huang, Yau-Yau Wai, Wen-Li Chuang, Mei-Ping Kung, Yi-Chuan Chu, Tzu-Chen Yen, Kun-Ju Lin, Chin-Chang Huang
BACKGROUND: To determine whether dual-phase (18)F-florbetapir positron emission tomography imaging with perfusion-like and amyloid deposition information can distinguish among primary progressive aphasia (PPA), Alzheimer's disease (AD), and healthy controls (HCs). METHODS: Patients diagnosed with PPA, including four semantic dementia (SD) and two progressive nonfluent aphasia (PNFA), as well as one logopenic variant (LV) of PPA, were studied. All PPA patients, and age-/sex-matched patients with probable AD (n=8) and HCs (n=8) were subjected to dual-phase (18)F-florbetapir imaging...
April 20, 2017: Journal of the Formosan Medical Association, Taiwan Yi Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434160/repeated-mild-traumatic-brain-injuries-is-not-associated-with-volumetric-differences-in-former-high-school-football-players
#7
Douglas P Terry, L Stephen Miller
We investigated potential brain volumetric differences in a sample of former high school football players many years after these injuries. Forty community-dwelling males ages 40-65 who played high school football, but not college or professional sports, were recruited. The experimental group (n = 20) endorsed experiencing two or more mTBIs on an empirically validated mTBI assessment tool (median = 3, range = 2-15). The control group (n = 20) denied ever experiencing an mTBI. Participants completed a self-report index of current mTBI symptomatology and underwent high-resolution T1-weighted MRI scanning, which were analyzed using the Freesurfer software package...
April 22, 2017: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433648/repeated-threat-without-direct-harm-alters-metabolic-capacity-in-select-regions-that-drive-defensive-behavior
#8
D J Kim, A S Lee, A A Yttredahl, R Gómez-Rodríguez, B J Anderson
To understand the behavioral consequences of intermittent anticipatory stress resulting from threats without accompanying physiological challenges, we developed a semi-naturalistic rodent housing and foraging environment that can include threats that are unpredictable in timing. Behavior is automatically recorded while rats forage for food or water. Over three weeks, the threats have been shown to elicit risk assessment behaviors, increase defensive burying and increase adrenal gland weight. To identify brain regions activated by this manipulation, we measured cytochrome c oxidase (COX), which is tightly coupled to neural activity...
April 19, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433446/functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-to-assess-the-neurobehavioral-impact-of-dysphotopsia-with-multifocal-intraocular-lenses
#9
Andreia M Rosa, Ângela C Miranda, Miguel Patrício, Colm McAlinden, Fátima L Silva, Joaquim N Murta, Miguel Castelo-Branco
PURPOSE: To investigate the association between dysphotopsia and neural responses in visual and higher-level cortical regions in patients who recently received multifocal intraocular lens (IOL) implants. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. PARTICIPANTS: Thirty patients 3 to 4 weeks after bilateral cataract surgery with diffractive IOL implantation and 15 age- and gender-matched control subjects. METHODS: Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was performed when participants viewed low-contrast grating stimuli...
April 19, 2017: Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429498/separate-neural-systems-for-behavioral-change-and-for-emotional-responses-to-failure-during-behavioral-inhibition
#10
Wanlu Deng, Edmund T Rolls, Xiaoxi Ji, Trevor W Robbins, Tobias Banaschewski, Arun L W Bokde, Uli Bromberg, Christian Buechel, Sylvane Desrivières, Patricia Conrod, Herta Flor, Vincent Frouin, Juergen Gallinat, Hugh Garavan, Penny Gowland, Andreas Heinz, Bernd Ittermann, Jean-Luc Martinot, Herve Lemaitre, Frauke Nees, Dimitri Papadopoulos Orfanos, Luise Poustka, Michael N Smolka, Henrik Walter, Robert Whelan, Gunter Schumann, Jianfeng Feng
To analyze the involvement of different brain regions in behavioral inhibition and impulsiveness, differences in activation were investigated in fMRI data from a response inhibition task, the stop-signal task, in 1709 participants. First, areas activated more in stop-success (SS) than stop-failure (SF) included the lateral orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) extending into the inferior frontal gyrus (ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, BA 47/12), and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). Second, the anterior cingulate and anterior insula (AI) were activated more on failure trials, specifically in SF versus SS...
April 21, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429067/neuronal-oscillations-and-synchronicity-associated-with-gamma-hydroxybutyrate-during-resting-state-in-healthy-male-volunteers
#11
Robin von Rotz, Michael Kometer, Dario Dornbierer, Jürg Gertsch, M Salomé Gachet, Franz X Vollenweider, Erich Seifritz, Oliver G Bosch, Boris B Quednow
RATIONALE: Gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) is a putative neurotransmitter, a drug of abuse, an anesthetic agent, and a treatment for neuropsychiatric disorders. In previous electroencephalography (EEG) studies, GHB was shown to induce an electrophysiological pattern of "paradoxical EEG-behavioral dissociation" characterized by increased delta and theta oscillations usually associated with sleep during awake states. However, no detailed source localization of these alterations and no connectivity analyses have been performed yet...
April 20, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426945/testosterone-levels-in-healthy-men-correlate-negatively-with-serotonin-4-receptor-binding
#12
Erik Perfalk, Sofi da Cunha-Bang, Klaus K Holst, Sune Keller, Claus Svarer, Gitte M Knudsen, Vibe G Frokjaer
The serotonergic system integrates sex steroid information and plays a central role in mood and stress regulation, cognition, appetite and sleep. This interplay may be critical for likelihood of developing depressive episodes, at least in a subgroup of sensitive individuals. The serotonin 4 receptor (5-HT4R) indexes central serotonergic tonus, which may be related to endogenous sex-steroid levels in the mentally healthy state even though this remains elusive. Here we evaluate if peripheral levels of estradiol and testosterone are associated with 5-HT4R binding as imaged by [(11)C]SB207145 positron emission tomography in a group of 41 healthy men...
March 22, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425060/positron-emission-tomography-assessment-of-cerebral-glucose-metabolic-rates-in-autism-spectrum-disorder-and-schizophrenia
#13
Serge A Mitelman, Marie-Cecile Bralet, M Mehmet Haznedar, Eric Hollander, Lina Shihabuddin, Erin A Hazlett, Monte S Buchsbaum
Several models have been proposed to account for observed overlaps in clinical features and genetic predisposition between schizophrenia and autism spectrum disorder. This study assessed similarities and differences in topological patterns and vectors of glucose metabolism in both disorders in reference to these models. Co-registered (18)fluorodeoxyglucose PET and MRI scans were obtained in 41 schizophrenia, 25 ASD, and 55 healthy control subjects. AFNI was used to map cortical and subcortical regions of interest...
April 19, 2017: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424397/-spatial-cognition-and-episodic-memory-formation-in-the-limbic-cortex
#14
Yasushi Kobayashi
The limbic lobe defined by Broca is a cortical region with highly diverse structure and functions, and comprises the paleo-, archi-, and neocortices as well as their transitional zones. In the limbic lobe, Brodmann designated areas 27, 28, 34, 35, and 36 adjacent to the hippocampus, and areas 23, 24, 25, 26, 29, 30, 31, 32, and 33 around the corpus callosum. In the current literature, areas 27 and 28 correspond to the presubiculum and entorhinal cortex, respectively. Area 34 represents the cortico-medial part of the amygdaloid complex...
April 2017: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424396/-the-center-of-sadness-pain-and-recognition
#15
Richi Niida, Masaru Mimura
The posterior cingulate cortex (Brodmann area, BA 23) is the hub of the default mode network (DMN). Moreover, its network connectivity decreases early in Alzheimer disease. The anterior cingulate cortex (BA 24) is connected to networks such as the DMN, working memory network (WMN), and salience network (SN) and plays a role in network coordination. The subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (sgACC) on the rostral region of the anterior cingulated cortex is suggested to be associated with depression.
April 2017: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423021/trait-impulsivity-components-correlate-differently-with-proactive-and-reactive-control
#16
Shihua Huang, Zude Zhu, Wei Zhang, Yu Chen, Shuangju Zhen
The relationship between impulsivity and cognitive control is still unknown. We hypothesized that trait impulsivity would differentially correlate with specific cognitive control processes. Trait impulsivity was measured by the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale, which assesses motor, attention, and non-planning impulsiveness components. Cognitive control was measured by a hybrid-designed Stroop task, which distinguishes proactive and reactive control. Thirty-three participants performed the Stroop task while they were scanned by functional magnetic resonance imaging...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422818/inhibition-of-metabotropic-glutamate-receptor-subtype-1-alters-the-excitability-of-the-commissural-pyramidal-neuron-in-the-rat-anterior-cingulate-cortex-after-chronic-constriction-injury-to-the-sciatic-nerve
#17
Shi-Hao Gao, Lin-Lin Shen, Hui-Zhong Wen, Yan-Dong Zhao, Huai-Zhen Ruan
BACKGROUND: Inhibition of the metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 1 in the anterior cingulate cortex has an analgesic effect during sustained nociceptive hypersensitivity. However, the specific changes in different subtypes of anterior cingulate cortex layer 5 pyramidal neurons, as well as the distinct effect of metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 1 inhibition on different neuronal subtypes, have not been well studied. METHODS: Retrograde labeling combined with immunofluorescence, whole cell clamp recording, and behavioral tests combined with RNA interference were performed in a rat model of chronic constriction injury to the sciatic nerve...
April 19, 2017: Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420981/age-related-difference-in-functional-brain-connectivity-of-mastication
#18
Chia-Shu Lin, Ching-Yi Wu, Shih-Yun Wu, Hsiao-Han Lin, Dong-Hui Cheng, Wen-Liang Lo
The age-related decline in motor function is associated with changes in intrinsic brain signatures. Here, we investigated the functional connectivity (FC) associated with masticatory performance, a clinical index evaluating general masticatory function. Twenty-six older adults (OA) and 26 younger (YA) healthy adults were recruited and assessed using the masticatory performance index (MPI) and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI). We analyzed the rs-fMRI FC network related to mastication, which was constructed based on 12 bilateral mastication-related brain regions according to the literature...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420309/a-proton-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopic-study-in-autism-spectrum-disorder-using-a-3-tesla-clinical-magnetic-resonance-imaging-mri-system-the-anterior-cingulate-cortex-and-the-left-cerebellum
#19
Hiromichi Ito, Kenji Mori, Masafumi Harada, Sonoka Hisaoka, Yoshihiro Toda, Tatsuo Mori, Aya Goji, Yoko Abe, Masahito Miyazaki, Shoji Kagami
The pathophysiology of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is not fully understood. We used proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy to investigate metabolite concentration ratios in the anterior cingulate cortex and left cerebellum in ASD. In the ACC and left cerebellum studies, the ASD group and intelligence quotient- and age-matched control group consisted of 112 and 114 subjects and 65 and 45 subjects, respectively. In the ASD group, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)+/ creatine/phosphocreatine (Cr) was significantly decreased in the anterior cingulate cortex, and glutamate (Glu)/Cr was significantly increased and GABA+/Cr was significantly decreased in the left cerebellum compared to those in the control group...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Child Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419641/neural-correlates-of-experimental-trauma-memory-retrieval
#20
Geraldine A Gvozdanovic, Philipp Stämpfli, Erich Seifritz, Björn Rasch
OBJECTIVES: Traumatic memories such as intrusions and flashbacks play a major role in the development and maintenance of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). A thorough understanding of the neural mechanisms underlying traumatic memories is indispensable for precise diagnosis, for personalized treatment and prevention. In particular, the identification of early neural predictor variables for intrusion development shortly after trauma exposure requires detailed investigation. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Here, we examined the neural correlates of early experimental trauma memory retrieval in a traumatic film paradigm in 42 young healthy females, using both implicit and explicit retrieval tasks...
April 17, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
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